Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2016-02-23

Larval morphology of the Western Balkans endemic caddisflies Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981, D. vernonensis Malicky 1989, and D. vespertinus
Marinković-Gospodnetić 1976 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae)

Department of Limnology and Bio-Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecology Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Max Emanuel-Strasse 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
Department of Limnology and Bio-Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, Babeş-Bolyai University, Clinicilor 5–7, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt a.M., Germany.
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt a.M., Germany.
Trichoptera 5th instar larva description identification distribution endemism

Abstract

Drusinae (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) are highland caddisflies inhabiting high-gradient, turbulent running water and spring habitats. They are disjunctly distributed over the Eurasian mountain ranges, and the majority of species are endemic to particular mountain areas. The most diverse of three main groups of the Drusinae, the grazer clade, consists of species in which larvae feed on epilithic biofilm and algae. In this paper we describe three previously unknown grazer-clade Drusinae larvae: Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981 (endemic to the Dinaric Western Balkans), D. vernonensis Malicky 1989 (endemic to the Hellenic Western Balkans), and D. vespertinus Marinković-Gospodnetić 1976 (endemic to the Dinaric Western Balkans). The larvae of these species have toothless mandibles typical of the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated using molecular genetic data, i.e., the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment (mtCOI3-P). Morphological characteristics of the larvae are described and the diagnostic features enabling species-level identification are illustrated. We further discuss the ecology and distribution of the three Western Balkan endemic species.

References

  1. AQEM Consortium (2002) Manual for the Application of the AQEM System. A Comprehensive Method to Assess European Streams Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates, Developed for the Purpose of the Water Framework Directive. [Version 1.0]

    Bálint, M., Domisch, S., Engelhardt, C.H.M., Haase, P., Lehrian, S., Sauer, J., Theissinger, K., Pauls, S.U. & Nowak, C. (2011) Cryptic biodiversity loss linked to global climate change. Nature Climate Change, 1, 313–318.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1191

    Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B.D. & Stribling, J.B. (1999) Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for use in Wadeable Streams and Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish. 2nd Edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., xii + 326 pp.

    Barbour, M.T. & Yoder, C.O. (2000) The multimetric approach to bioassessment, as used in the United States. In: Wright, J.F., Sutcliffe, D.W. & Furse, M.T. (Eds), Assessing the Biological Quality of Fresh Waters: RIVPACS and Other Techniques. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, pp. 281–292.

    Gashi, A., Ibrahimi, H., Grapci-Kotori, L., Sejdiu, N. & Bislimi, K. (2015) New Records of Drusus siveci Malicky, 1981 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Balkan Peninsula, with Ecological Notes. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 67, 259–264.

    Graf, W., Murphy, J., Dahl, J., Zamora-Muñoz, C. & López-Rodríguez, M.J. (2008) Volume 1—Trichoptera. In: Schmidt-Kloiber, A. & Hering, D. (Eds.), Distribution and Ecological Preferences of European Freshwater Organisms. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Moscow, 388 pp.

    Graf, W., Waringer, J. & Pauls, S.U. (2009) A new feeding group within larval Drusinae (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae): The Drusus alpinus Group sensu Schmid, 1956, including larval descriptions of Drusus franzi Schmid, 1956, and Drusus alpinus (Meyer-Dür, 1875). Zootaxa, 2031, 53–62.

    Illies, J. (1978) Limnofauna Europaea. A Checklist of the Animals Inhabiting European Inland Waters, with an Account of their Distribution and Ecology. 2nd Edition. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 552 pp.

    Kearse, M., Moir, R., Wilson, A., Stones-Havas, S., Cheung, M., Sturrock, S., Buxton, S., Cooper, A., Markowitz, S., Duran, C., Thierer, T., Ashton, B., Mentjies, P. & Drummond, A. (2012) Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics, 28, 1647–1649.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199

    Klapálek, F. (1899) Prilozi k poznavanju faune Trichoptera i Neuroptera Bosne I Hercegovine. Glasnik zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu, 11, 323–337.

    Kučinić, M., Previšić, A., Gottstein-Matočec, S., Hrašovec, B., Stanić-Koštroman, S., Pernek, M. & Delić, A. (2008) Description of the larvae of Drusus radovanovici septentrionis Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1976 and Drusus croaticus Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1971 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. Zootaxa, 1783, 1–17.

    Kučinić, M., Previšić, A., Stanić-Koštroman, S., Franjević, M., Šerić Jelaska, L., Delić, A. & Posilović, H. (2010) Description of the larvae of Drusus ramae Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1971 and Drusus medianus Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1976 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) with some genetic data, distribution, ecological, faunal and conservation notes. Zootaxa, 2484, 1–24.

    Kučinić, M., Previšić, A., Graf, W., Šerić Jelaska, L., Stanić-Koštroman, S. & Waringer, J. (2011a) Larval description, genetic and ecological features of Drusus radovanovici radovanovici Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1971 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) with some phylogenetic and taxonomic data on the bosnicus group in the Balkan Peninsula. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 58, 136–153.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.201100010

    Kučinić, M., Previšić, A., Stanić-Koštroman, S., Graf, W., Franjević, M., Posilović, H. & Waringer, J. (2011b) Morphological and ecological features of Drusus larvae from the bosnicus group on the Balkan Peninsula with description of the larva of Drusus klapaleki Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1976. Zoosymposia, 5, 244–254.

    Kučinić, M., Delić, A., Ćuk, R., Previšić, A., Mihoci, I., Žganec, K., Cerjanec, D. & Vučković, I. (2014) The first finding of Drusus bosnicus Group (Insecta, Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) in Croatia with some notes on diversity, distribution and ecology of genus Drusus in Croatia and in Dinaric karst of the Balkan Peninsula. Natura Croatia, 23, 265–377.

    Kučinić, M., Previšić, A., Graf, W., Mihoci, I., Šoufek, M., Stanić-Koštroman, S., Suvad, L., Vitecek, S. & Waringer, J. (2015) Larval description of Drusus bosnicus Klapálek 1899 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), with distributional, molecular and ecological features. Zootaxa, 3957 (1), 85–97.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3957.1.7

    Kumanski, K. (1973) Die Unterfamilie Drusinae (Trichoptera) in Bulgarien. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 116, 107–121.

    Malicky, H. (1981) Weiteres Neues über Köcherfliegen aus dem Mediterrangebiet (Trichoptera). Entomofauna, 2, 335–355.

    Malicky, H. (1989) Ein neuer Drusus aus Nord-Griechenland (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Entomologische Zeitung, 99, 303–304.

    Malicky, H. (2004) Atlas of European Trichoptera, 2nd Edition. Springer, Dordrecht, 359 pp.

    Malicky, H. (2005a) Ein kommentiertes Verzeichnis der Köcherfliegen (Trichoptera) Europasund des Mediterrangebietes. Linzer biologische Beiträge, 37, 533–596.

    Malicky, H. (2005b) Die Köcherfliegen Griechenlands. Denisia, 17, 1–240.

    Marinković-Gospodnetić, M. (1971a) The species of the genus Drusus in Yugoslavia. Godišnjak biološkog Instituta Univerziteta u Sarajevu, 24, 105–109.

    Marinković-Gospodnetić, M. (1971b) New species of Trichoptera from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bulletin Scientifique (Sectiona A), 15 (5–6), 144–145.

    Marinković-Gospodnetić, M. (1976) The differentiation of Drusus species of the group bosnicus. In: Malicky, H. (Ed.), Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 77–85.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1579-0_13

    Morse, J.C. (Ed.) (2015) Trichoptera World Checklist. Available from: http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm (accessed 21 December 2015)

    Oláh, J. (2010) New species and new records of Palaearctic Trichoptera in the material of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 102, 65–117.

    Oláh, J. (2011) New species and records of Balkan Trichoptera. Folia Historico-Naturalia Musei Matraensis, 35, 111–121.

    Oláh, J., Chvojka, P., Coppa, G., Godunko, J.R., Lodovici, O., Majecka, K., Majecki, J., Szczęsny, B., Urbanič, G. & Valle, M. (2015) Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Opuscula Zoologica Budapest, 46, 3–117.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.18348/opzool.2015.1.3

    Pauls, S.U., Lumbsch, H.T. & Haase, P. (2006) Phylogeography of the montane caddisfly Drusus discolor: Evidence for multiple refugia and periglacial survival. Molecular Ecology, 15, 2153–2169.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02916.x

    Pauls, S.U., Graf, W., Haase, P., Lumbsch, H.T. & Waringer, J. (2008) Grazers, shredders and filtering carnivores —The evolution of feeding ecology in Drusinae (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae): Insights from a molecular phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46, 776–791.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.003

    Previšić, A., Walton, C., Kučinić, M., Mitrikeski, P.T. & Kerovec, M. (2009) Pleistocene divergence of Dinaric Drusus endemics (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) in multiple microrefu-gia within the Balkan Peninsula. Molecular Ecology, 18, 634–647.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04046.x

    Previšić, A., Graf, W., Vitecek, S., Kučinić M., Bálint, M., Keresztes, L., Pauls, S.U. & Waringer, J. (2014a) Cryptic diversity of caddisflies in the Balkans: The curious case of Ecclisopteryx species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny, 72, 309–329.

    Previšić, A., Schnitzler, J., Kučinić, M., Graf, W., Ibrahimi, H., Kerovec, M. & Pauls, S.U. (2014b) Microscale vicariance and diversification of western Balkan caddisflies linked to karstification. Freshwater Science, 33, 250–262.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/674430

    Radovanovi, M. (1942) Über zwei neue Trichopteren-Arten aus Mazedonien. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 140, 183–190.

    Schmid, F. (1956) La sous-famille des Drusinae (Trichoptera, Limnophilidae). Mémoires de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Series 2, 55, 1–92.

    Simon, C., Frati, F. & Beckenbach, A. (1994) Evolution, weighting and phylogenetic utility of mito-chondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87, 651–701.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/87.6.651

    Sipahiler, F. (2002) Hadimina torosensis, new genus and new species of Drusinae from southern Turkey (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). In: Mey, W. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Trichoptera, Potsdam, Germany July 30–August 5, 2000, Goecke & Evers, Keltern, Germany, Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Nova Supplementa Entomologica, 15, pp. 239–248.

    Stephens, J. F. (1836–1837) Illustrations of British Entomology; or, a Synopsis of Indigenous Insects: Containing Their Generic and Specific Distinctions; with an Account of Their Metamorphoses, Times of Appearance, Localities, Food, and Economy, as far as Practicable. Vol. VI. Mandibulata. Baldwin & Cradock, London, 240 pp.

    Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 2725–2729.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197

    Vitecek, S., Previšić, A., Kučinić, M., Bálint, M., Keresztes, L., Waringer, J., Pauls, S.U., Malicky, H. & Graf, W. (2015a) Description of a unique Wormaldia from Sardinia and a new Drusus from the Western Balkans (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae; Limnephilidae). ZooKeys, 496, 85–103.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.496.9169

    Vitecek, S., Graf, W., Previšić, A., Kučinić, M., Oláh, J., Bálint, M., Keresztes, L., Pauls, S.U. & Waringer, J. (2015b) A hairy case: The evolution of filtering carnivorous Drusinae (Limnephilidae, Trichoptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 93, 249–260.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.019

    Waringer, J., Graf, W., Pauls, S.U., Previšić, A. & Kučinić, M. (2010) A larval key to the Drusinae species of Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the dinaric western Balkan. Denisia, 29, 383–406.

    Waringer, J. & Graf, W. (2011) Atlas of Central European Trichoptera Larvae. Erik Mauch Verlag, Dinkelscherben, 468 pp.

    Waringer, J., Graf, W., Balint, M., Kučinić, M., Pauls, S. U., Previšić, A., Keresztes, L., Ibrahimi, H., Živić, I., Bjelanović, K., Krpač, V. & Vitecek, S. (2015) Larval morphology and phylogenetic position of Drusus balcanicus, D. botosaneanui, D. serbicus and D. tenellus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae). European Journal of Entomology, 112, 344–361.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/eje.2015.037

    Wiggins, G.B. (1998) Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera).2nd Edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 457 pp.

How to Cite

WARINGER, J., PREVIŠIĆ, A., KUĆINIĆ, M., GRAF, W., VITECEK, S., KERESZTES, L., BÁLINT, M., & PAULS, S. U. (2016). Larval morphology of the Western Balkans endemic caddisflies <em>Drusus</em> <em>krusniki</em> Malicky 1981, <em>D. vernonensis</em> Malicky 1989, and <em>D. vespertinus</em> Marinković-Gospodnetić 1976 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae). Zootaxa, 4083(4), 483–500. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4083.4.2