Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2016-01-25

Systematics and diversity of deep-water Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic)

Department of Palaeontology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Geography and Astronomy, Geozentrum, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria. Departamento de Zooloxía e Antropoloxía Física, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Geowissenschaftliche Sammlungen, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseen, Welser Str. 20, 4060 Leonding, Austria
Department of Palaeontology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Geography and Astronomy, Geozentrum, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaja nab. 7/9, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia
Bryozoa biodiversity conservation endemism deep sea seamounts

Abstract

Galicia Bank is a large seamount situated c. 200 km off NW Iberia with a minimum depth of 600 m. It was recently included in Natura 2000, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. We here present the first taxonomic descriptions of cheilostome bryozoans from this bank. The specimens were collected through the Spanish project INDEMARES (during BANGAL 0811 cruise conducted in 2011) and during two previous campaigns, the French Seamount 1 in 1987 and the German Victor Hensen in 1997). Twenty-five species were found, including 12 that are new to science, while five species remain in open nomenclature. Three new cheilostome genera (Breoganipora, Galiciapora and Placidoporella) are described. A lectotype is designated for Setosella vulnerata (Busk), and Palmicellaria tenuis Calvet is transferred to the genus Porella [as Porella tenuis (Calvet) n. comb.]. Additionally, our study shows that 48–60% of the bryozoan species are endemic to Galicia Bank. The degree of endemism of the Cheilostomata is thus the highest among all orders present on this seamount.

 

References

  1. Alder, J. (1864) Descriptions of new British Polyzoa, with remarks on some imperfectly known species. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, n.s., 4, 95–109, pls 2–5.

    Altuna, A. (2012a) Sideractis glacialis Danielssen, 1890 (Anthozoa, Corallimorpharia), una especie nueva para la fauna iberica procedente del banco de Galicia y del canon de La Gaviera (Golfo de Vizcaya) (Espana, Atlantico NE). Boletin de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natrual Sección Biologica, 106, 151–161.

    Altuna, A. (2012b) New records of bathyal Leptolida (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Leptothecata) from the Bay of Biscay and the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (northeastern Atlantic). Zootaxa, 3565, 1–17

    Altuna, A. (2013) Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from ECOMARG 2003, 2008 and 2009 expeditions to bathyal waters off north and northwest Spain (northeast Atlantic). Zootaxa, 3641 (2), 101–128.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3641.2.1

    Álvarez, J.A. (1992) Briozoos de la campana Fauna I. Parte primera: Ctenostomida y Cheilostomida Anascina. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 33, 273–297.

    Appeltans, W., Ahyong, S.T., Anderson, G., Angel, M.V., Artois, T., Bailly, N., Bamber, R., Barber, A., Bartsch, I., Berta, A., Błażewicz- Paszkowycz, M., Bock, P., Boxshall, G., Boyko, C.B., Brandão, S.N., Bray, R.A., Bruce, N.L., Cairns, S.D., Chan, T.Y., Chan, L., Collins, A.G., Cribb, T., Curini-Galletti, M., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Davie, P.J.F., Dawson, M.N., De Clerck, O., Decock, W., De Grave, S., de Voogd, N.J., Domning, D.P., Emig, C.C., Erséus, C., Eschmeyer, W., Fauchald, K., Fautin, D.G., Feist, S.W., Fransen, C.H.J.M., Furuya, H., Garcia-Alvarez, O., Gerken, S., Gibson, D., Gittenberger, A., Gofas, S., Gómez-Daglio, L., Gordon, D.P., Guiry, M.D., Hernandez, F., Hoeksema, B.W., Hopcroft, R., Jaume, D., Kirk, P., Koedam, N., Koenemann, S., Kolb, J.B., Kristensen, R.M., Kroh, A., Lambert, G., Lazarus, D.B., Lemaitre, R., Longshaw, M., Lowry, J., Macpherson, E., Madin, L.P., Mah, C., Mapstone, G., McLaughlin, P., Mees, J., Meland, K.L., Messing, C.G., Mills, C.E., Molodtsova, T.N., Mooi, R., Neuhaus, B., Ng, P.K.L., Nielsen, C., Norenburg, J., Opresko, D.M., Osawa, M., Paulay, G., Perrin, W., Pilger, J.F., Poore, G.C.B., Pugh, P., Read, G.B., Reimer, J.D., Rius, M., Rocha, R.M., Rosenberg, G., Saiz-Salinas, J.I.; Scarabino, V., Schierwater, B., Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., Schnabel, K.E., Schotte, M., Schuchert, P., Schwabe, E., Segers, H., Self-Sullivan, C., Shenkar, N., Siegel, V., Sterrer, W., Stöhr, S., Swalla, B., Tasker, M.L., Thuesen, E.V., Timm, T., Todaro, A., Turon, X., Tyler, S., Uetz, P., van der Land, J., Vanhoorne, B., van Ofwegen, L.P., van Soest, R.W.M., Vanaverbeke, J., Walker-Smith, G., Walter, T.C., Warren, A., Williams, G., Wilson, S.P. & Costello, M.J. (2012) The magnitude of global marine species diversity. Current Biology, 22, 1–14.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036

    Arístegui, J. (1986) Una nueva especie de Briozoo en los fondos detríticos de Canarias: Escharella hexaespinosa sp. nov. Vieraea, 16, 183–187.

    Baba, K. & Macpherson, E. (2012) A new squat lobster (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from off NW Spain. Zootaxa, 3224, 49–56.

    Bañon, R., Arronte, J.C., Serrano, A. & Sanchez, F. (2011) First records of Purplemouthed conger Pseudophichthys splendens (Anguilliformes: Congridae) from the Galicia Bank (NW Spain). A northward range extension of their distribution in the eastern Atlantic. Cybium, 35, 262–264.

    Bañon, R., Arronte, J.C., Barros-García, D., Vázquez-Dorado, S. & De Carlos, A. (2013) Taxonomic study of Bathygadidae fishes (Gadiformes) from Atlantic Spanish waters combining morphological and molecular approaches. Zootaxa, 2746, 552–566.

    Barnes, D.K. & Griffiths, H.J.W. (2008) Biodiversity and biogeography of southern temperate and polar bryozoans. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 84–99.

    Barroso, M.G. (1920) Notas sobre briozoos espanoles. VIII. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural, 20, 353–362.

    Berning, B. (2008) Evidence for sublethal predation and regeneration among living and fossil ascophoran bryozoans. In: Hageman, S.J, Key, M.M. Jr. & Winston, J.E. (Eds), Bryozoan Studies 2007. Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication, 15, 1–7.

    Berning, B., Tilbrook, K.J. & Ostrovsky, A.N. (2014) What, if anything, is a lyrula? Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali, 94, 21–28.

    Bishop, J.D.D. (1986) Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata): proposed designation of a replacement neotype. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 43, 288–296.

    Bishop, J.D.D. (1994) The genera Cribrilina and Collarina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomatida) in the British Isles and North Sea Basin, Pliocene to present day. Zoologica Scripta, 23, 225–249.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.1994.tb00387.x

    Bishop, J.D.D. & Hayward, P.J. (1989) SEM atlas of type and figured material from Robert Lagaaij's 'The Pliocene Bryozoa of the Low Countries' (1952). Mededelingen van Rijks Geologischen Dienst, 43, 1–64.

    Bock, P. (2014) Bryozoa. World Register of Marine Species. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=146142 (accessed 2014–05-06).

    Bock, P.E. & Gordon, D.P. (2013) Phylum Bryozoa Ehrenberg, 1831. Zootaxa, 3703 (1), 67–74.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.14

    BOE (2014) Orden AAA/1299/2014. Boletin Oficial del Estado, 21 July 2014.

    Busk, G. (1854) Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa in the Collection of the British Museum, II. Cheilostomata (part). Trustees of the British Museum, London, viii + 55–120, pls 16–124.

    Busk, G. (1859) A Monograph of the Fossil Polyzoa of the Crag. Palaeontographical Society, London. xiii + 136 pp., 22 pls.

    Busk, G. (1860) Zoophytology. Descriptions of new species of Polyzoa. Collected by George Barlee, Esq., in Shetland. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 8, 123–125, 143–145, 213–214, pls 24–28.

    Busk, G. (1884) Report on the Polyzoa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Part I. – The Cheilostomata. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–76, Zoology, 10 (30), xxiv, 1–216, pls 1–36.

    Calvet, L. (1906) Note préliminaire sur les bryozoaires recueillis par les expéditions du Travailleur (1881–1882) et du Talisman (1883). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 12, 154–166.

    Calvet, L. (1907) Bryozoaires. Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman" pendant les années 1880–1883, 8, 355–495.

    Calvet, L. (1931) Bryozoaires provenant des campagnes scientifiques du Prince Albert Ier de Monaco. Resultats des Campagnes Scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert Ier, prince souverain de Monaco, 83, 1–152, pls 1–2.

    Canu, F. & Bassler, R.S. (1917) A synopsis of American Early Tertiary cheilostome Bryozoa. United States National Museum Bulletin, 96, 1–87, pls 1–6.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.03629236.96.1

    Cartes, J.E., Papiol, V., Frutos, I., Macpherson, E., González-Pola, C., Punzón, A., Valeiraas, X. & Serrano, A. (2014) Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses. Deep-Sea Research II, 106, 165–178.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.09.034

    Cheetham, A.H. (1972) Cheilostomate Bryozoa of Late Eocene age from Eua, Tonga. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers, 640–E, E1–26.

    Clarke, K.R. & Gorley, R.N. (2006) PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.

    Cook, P.L. (1985) Bryozoa from Ghana. A preliminary survey. Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika (Tervuren, België), Zoologische Wetenschappen Annalen, 238, 1–315.

    Cossmann, M. (1906) Rectifications de nomenclature. Revue Critique de Paléozoologies, 10, 196.

    Davis, A.G. (1934) English Lutetian Polyzoa. Proceedings of the Geological Association of London, 45, 205–245, pls 13–15.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0016-7878(34)80006-5

    De Blauwe, H. (2009) Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke bocht van de Noordzee: Determinatiewerk voor Belgi en Nederland. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee (VLIZ), Oostende, 445 pp.

    Dijkstra, H.H. & Gofas, S. (2004) Pectinoidea (Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae and Pectinidae) from some northeastern Atlantic seamounts. Sarsia 89 (1), 33–78.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00364820410003469

    Epp, D. & Smoot, N.C. (1989) Distribution of seamounts in the North Atlantic. Nature, 337, 254–257.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/337254a0

    Fleming, J. (1828) A History of British Animals, exhibiting their descriptive characters and systematic arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, Mollusca, and Radiata of the United Kingdom. Bell & Bradfute, Edinburgh, xxiii + 565 pp.

    Gabb, W.M. & Horn, G.H. (1862) Monograph of the fossil Polyzoa of the Secondary and Tertiary formations of North America. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 5, 111–179, pls 19–21.

    Gautier, Y.V. (1962) Recherches écologiques sur les Bryozoaires chilostomes en Mediterranée occidentale. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, 38 (24), 1–434.

    Gordon, D.P. (1984) The marine fauna of New Zealand: Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata from the Kermadec Ridge. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 91, 1–198.

    Gordon, D.P. (2014) Apprehending novel biodiversity—fifteen new genera of Zealandian Bryozoa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of United Kingdom, 94, 1597–1628.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315414000599

    Gordon, D.P. & Taylor, P.D. (2010) New seamount- and ridge- associated cyclostomes from New Zealand. Zootaxa, 2533, 43–68.

    Gordon, D.P. & Voigt, E. (1996) The kenozooidal origin of the ascophorine hypostegal coelom and associated frontal shield. In: Gordon, D.P., Smith, A.M. & Grant-Mackie, J.A. (Eds), Bryozoans in Space and Time. NIWA, Wellington, pp. 89–107.

    Gray, J.E. (1848) List of the Specimens of British Animals in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Centroniae or Radiated Animals. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London, xiii + 173 pp.

    Harmelin, J.-G. (1977) Bryozoaires du banc de la Conception (nord des Canaries). Campagne Cineca I de 'Jean Charcot'. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 492, 1057–1075.

    Harmelin, J.-G. (1978) Sur quelques Cribrimorphes (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) de l'Atlantique Oriental. Tethys, 8, 173–192.

    Harmelin, J.-G. (1979) On some stomatoporiform species (Bryozoa Cyclostomata) from the bathyal zone of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. In: Larwood, G.P. & M.B. Abbott (Eds), Advances in Bryozoology. Academic Press, London, pp. 403–421.

    Harmelin, J.-G. & Hondt, J.-L. d’ (1992) Bryozoaires des parages de Gibraltar (campagne océanographique BALGIM, 1984). 1 – Cheilostomes. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, sér. 4, 14, 23–67.

    Harmelin, J.-G., Boronat, J., Moissette, P. & Rosso, A. (1989) Distansescharella seguenzai Cipolla, 1921 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata), nouvelles données morphologiques et écologiques tirées de spécimens fossiles (Miocène, Pliocène) et actuels de Méditerranée. Geobios, 22, 485–501.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(89)80100-7

    Harmer, S.F. (1923) On cellularine and other Polyzoa. Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology), 35, 293–361, pls 16–19.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1923.tb01731.x

    Harmer, S.F. (1926) The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition, Part II. Cheilostomata, Anasca. Siboga Expeditie 28b, viii, 181–501, pls 13–34.

    Hayward, P.J. (1978) Bryozoa from the west European continental slope. Journal of Zoology, 184, 207–224.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1978.tb03276.x

    Hayward, P.J. (1979) Deep water Bryozoa from the coasts of Spain and Portugal. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 20, 59–75.

    Hayward, P.J. (1981) The Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) of the deep sea. Galathea Reports, 15, 21–68, pl. 5.

    Hayward, P.J. & Cook, P.L. (1979) The South African Museum's Meiring Naude cruises. Part 9. Bryozoa. Annals of the South African Museum, 79, 43–130.

    Hayward, P.J. & McKinney, F.K. (2002) Northern Adriatic Bryozoa from the vicinity of Rovinj, Croatia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 270, 1–139.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2002)270<0001:NABFTV>2.0.CO;2

    Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (1978) Bryozoa from the Bay of Biscay and Western Approaches. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 58, 143–159.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400024462

    Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (1998) Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 1. Aeteoidea–Cribrilinoidea. Synopses of the British Fauna, n.s., 10, 1–366.

    Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (1999) Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 2. Hippothooidea–Celleporoidea. Synopses of the British Fauna, n.s., 14, 1–416.

    Hincks, T. (1877) On British Polyzoa. Part II. Classification. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 4, 20, 520–532.

    Hincks, T. (1879) On the classification of the British Polyzoa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 5, 3, 153–164.

    Hincks, T. (1880) A History of the British Marine Polyzoa. Van Voorst, London, cxli + 601 pp., 83 pls.

    Hondt, J.-L. d' (1973) Bryozoaires de la campagne de la "Thalassa" (3–12 août 1967). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, sér. 3, 120, 365–386.

    Hondt, J.-L. d' (1974) Bryozoaires récoltés par la "Thalassa" dans le Golfe de Gascogne (campagnes de 1968 à 1972). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 15, 27–50.

    Hondt, J.-L. d' (1975) Bryozoaires cténostomes bathyaux et abyssaux de l'Atlantique Nord. In: Pouyet, S. (Ed.), Bryozoa 1974. Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon, h.s. 3, 311–333.

    IEO (2014) Informe final del proyecto LIFE+ INDEMARES (LIFE07/NAT/E/000732), subproyecto LIC “Caracterización ecológica del banco de Galicia”. Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Santander, 237 pp.

    Johnston, G. (1838) A History of the British Zoophytes. W.H. Lizars, Edinburgh, xii + 341 pp., 44 pls.

    Jullien, J. (1882) Dragages du « Travailleur ». Bryozoaires. Espèces draguées dans l'Océan Atlantique en 1881. Espèces nouvelles ou incomplètement décrites. Extrait du Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 7, 1–33.

    Jullien, J. (1883) Dragages du « Travailleur ». Bryozoaires. Espèces draguées dans l'Océan Atlantique en 1881. [Séance du 26 décembre 1882]. Espèces nouvelles ou incomplètement décrites. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 7, 497–529, pls 13–17.

    Jullien, J. (1888) Bryozoaires. Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn 1882–1883 6 (Zoologie 3), 1–92, pls 1–15.

    Jullien, J. & Calvet, L. (1903) Bryozoaires provenant des campagnes de l'Hirondelle (1886–1888). Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques accompli par le Prince Albert I, 23, 1–188, pls 1–18.

    Kluge, G.A. (1975) Bryozoa of the Northern Seas of the USSR. Amerind Publishing Co., New Delhi, xxiv + 711 pp.

    Kluge, H. [G.A.] (1907) Kritische Erörterungen zu den Bryozoologischen Arbeiten von K. Chworostansky. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 73, 181–204.

    Lamarck, J. B. P. A. de 1816. Les Polypes. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres, 2, 1–586.

    Lamouroux, J. (1821) Exposition méthodique des Genres de l’Ordre des Polypiers, avec leur description et celles des principales espèces figurées dans 84 planches; les 63 premières apartenant l’Histoire naturelles des Zoophytes d’Ellis et Solander. V. Agasse, Paris. viii + 115 p., 84 pls.

    Levinsen, G.M.R. (1909) Morphological and Systematic Studies on the Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Nationale Forfatteres Forlag, Copenhagen, vii + 431 pp., 24 pls.

    López de la Cuadra, C.M. & García-Gómez, J.C. (1993) Little-known Atlantic cheilostome bryozoans at the entrance to the Mediterranean. Journal of Natural History, 27, 457–469.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222939300770221

    López-Fé, C.M. (2006) Some bathyal cheilostome Bryozoa (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the Canary Islands (Spain, Eastern Atlantic), with descriptions of three new species, a new genus, and a new family. Journal of Natural History, 40, 1801–1812.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930601043763

    López Gappa, J. & Liuzzi, M.G. (2013) Two new species and a new genus of Calloporidae (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from the Southwest Atlantic. Zootaxa, 3641 (5), 595–600.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3641.5.8

    MacGillivray, J. (1842) Catalogue of the marine zoophytes of the neighbourhood of Aberdeen. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 1, 9, 462–469.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03745484209445365

    MacGillivray, P.H. (1895) A monograph of the Tertiary Polyzoa of Victoria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria, n.s., 4, 1–166, pls 1–22.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6076

    Manzoni, A. (1870) Bryozoi fossili Italiani. Terza Contribuzione. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Abt. 1, 60, 930–944, pls 1–4.

    McKinney, F.K., Taylor, P.D. & Lidgard, S. (2003) Predation on bryozoans and its reflection in the fossil record. In: Kelley, P.H., Kowalewski, M. & Hansen, T.A. (Eds), Predator-Prey Interactions in the Fossil Record. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 239–261.

    Norman, A.M. (1867) Report of the committee appointed for the purpose of exploring the coasts of the Hebrides by means of the dredge. Part 2. On the Crustacea, Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Actinozoa and Hydrozoa. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science London 1866, 193–206.

    Norman, A.M. (1869) Last report on dredging among the Shetland Islands. Polyzoa. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science London, 1868, 303–312.

    Norman, A.M. (1903) Notes on the natural history of East Finmark, Polyzoa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 7, 12, 87–128, pls 8–9.

    Oken, L. (1815) Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte. Vol. III, Zoologie Abteilung 1, Fleischlose Thiere, Leipzig, xxviii + 842 pp., xviii + ivp., 40 pls.

    Orbigny, A.D. d' (1851–1854) Bryozoaires. Paléontologie française. Description des Mollusques et Rayonnés fossiles. Terrains crétacés, 5, 1–1192, pls 600–800.

    Osburn, R.C. (1952) Bryozoa of the Pacific Coast of America. Part 2, Cheilostomata Ascophora. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 14, 271–611.

    Ostrovsky, A.N. (2008) Brood chambers in cheilostome Bryozoa: diversity and revised terminology. In: Hageman, S.J., Key, M.M. & Winston, J.E. (Eds), Bryozoan Studies 2007. Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication, 15, 195–204.

    Ostrovsky, A.N. (2013) Evolution of Sexual Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates: Example of gymnolaemate Bryozoa. Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, 356 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7146-8

    Ostrovsky, A.N., Nielsen, C., Vávra, N. & Yagunova, E.B. (2009) Diversity of the brooding structures in calloporid bryozoans (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata): comparative anatomy and evolutionary trends. Zoomorphology, 128, 13–35.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00435-008-0070-8

    Prenant, M. & Bobin, G. (1966) Bryozoaires. Deuxieme partie. Chilostomes Anasca. Faune de France, 68, 1–647.

    Probert, P.K. (1999) Seamounts, sanctuaries and sustainability: moving towards deep-sea conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 9, 601–605.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0755(199911/12)9:6<601::AID-AQC365>3.3.CO;2-F

    Reverter-Gil, O. & Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. (1999a) Some records of Bryozoans from NW Spain. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 40, 35–45.

    Reverter-Gil, O. & Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. (1999b) Some little-known species of Bryozoa described by J. Jullien. Journal of Natural History, 33, 1403–1418.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002229399299941

    Reverter-Gil, O. & Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. (2001) Inventario y cartografía de los Briozoos marinos de Galicia (N.O. de España). Monografías de Nova Acta Científica Compostelana, Serie Bioloxía, 1, 1–243.

    Reverter-Gil, O., Berning, B. & Souto, J. (2015) Diversity and systematics of Schizomavella Species (Bryozoa: Bitectiporidae) from the bathyal NE Atlantic. PLoS ONE, 10 (10), e0139084.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139084

    Reverter-Gil, O., Souto J. & Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. (2011) Revision of the genus Crepis Jullien (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) with description of a new genus anf family and notes on Chlidoniidae. Zootaxa, 2993, 1–22.

    Reverter-Gil, O., Souto J. & Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. (2012) New and little known species of Bryozoa from Iberian Atlantic waters. Zoosystema, 34, 157–170.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5252/z2012n1a7

    Reverter-Gil, O., Souto, J. & Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. (2014) Annotated checklist of Recent marine Bryozoa from continental Portugal. Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 21, 1–55.

    Richer de Forges, B.R., Koslow, J.A. & Poore G.C.B. (2000) Diversity and endemism of the benthic seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific. Nature, 405, 944–947.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35016066

    Rolán Mosquera, E. & Pedrosa, G.P.G. (1981) Molluscs collected at the Galicia Bank (Spain). La Conchiglia, 13 (150–151), 6–7, 10, 15.

    Ryland, J.S. (1969) A nomenclatural index to 'A history of the British Marine Polyzoa' by T. Hincks (1880). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 17, 207–260.

    Ryland, J.S. & Gordon, D.P. (1977) Some New Zealand and British species of Hippothoa (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata). Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 7, 17–49.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03036758.1977.10419334

    Salvini-Plawen, L. von (2006) Five new Iberian Neomeniamorpha (Mollusca, Solenogastres). Iberus, 24 (2), 1–26.

    Schneider, C.A., Rasband, W.S. & Eliceiri, K.W. (2012) NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Methods, 9, 671–675.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2089

    Silén, L. (1942) Cheilostomata Anasca (Bryozoa) collected by Prof. Dr. Sixten Bock's expedition to Japan and the Bonin Islands 1914. Arkiv för Zoologi, 33A (12), 1–130, pls 1–9.

    Smitt, F.A. (1868) bryozoa marina in regionibus arcticis et borealibus viventia recensuit. Ofversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 24, 443–487, pls 16–20.

    Smitt, F.A. (1873) Floridan Bryozoa, collected by Count L.F. de Pourtalès, Part II. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 11 (4), 1–83, pls 1–13.

    Soto-García, E., Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. & Ramil-Blanco, F. (2002) Briozoos infralitorales de la Ría de Vigo (España). Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Biología), 97, 85–96.

    Soule, D.F. & Soule, J.D. (1972) Ancestrulae and body wall morphogenesis of some Hawaiian and eastern Pacific Smittinidae (Bryozoa). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 91, 251–260.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3224873

    Soule, D.F. & Soule, J.D. (1973) Morphology and speciation of Hawaiian and eastern Pacific Smittinidae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 152, 365–440.

    Souto, J., Reverter-Gil, O. & Fernández-Pulpeiro, E. (2011) Redescription of some bryozoan species originally described by J. Jullien from Iberian waters. Zootaxa, 2827, 31–53.

    Souto, J., Reverter Gil, O., De Blauwe, H. & Fernández Pulpeiro, E. (2014) New records of bryozoans from Portugal. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 55, 129–150.

    Sowerby, J. (1805) The British Miscellany: or coloured figures of new, rare, or little known animal subjects; many not before ascertained to be inhabitants of the British Isles; and chiefly in the possession of the author, James Sowerby, F.L.S. Private publication, London, 131 pp.

    Spalding, M.D., Fox, H.E., Allen, G.R., Davidson, N., Ferdaña, Z.A., Finlayson, M., Halpern, B.S., Jorge, M.A., Lombana, A., Lourie, S.A., Martin, K.D., McManus, E., Molnar, J., Recchia, C.A. & Robertson, J. (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience, 57, 573–583.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/B570707

    Stach, L.W. (1937) [Reports of the McCoy Society for Field Investigation and Research. Lady Julia Percy Island.] 13. Bryozoa. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, n.s., 49, 374–384, pl. 22.

    Stocks, K.I. (2004) SeamountsOnline: an online resource for data on the biodiversity of seamounts. In: Morato, T. & Pauly, D. (Eds), Seamounts: Biodiversity and Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 12 (5), 13–16.

    Taylor, P.D. (1986) The ancestrula and early growth pattern in two primitive cheilostome bryozoans: Pyripora catenularia (Fleming) and Pyriporopsis portlandensis Pohowsky. Journal of Natural History, 20, 101–110.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222938600770091

    Tilbrook, K.J. (2006) Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from the Solomon Islands.
    Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Monographs 4 (Studies in Biodiversity Number 3), 1–386.

    Tricart, S. & Hondt, J.-L. d’ (2009) Catalogue des spécimens-types de Bryozoaires, Brachiopodes, Ptérobranches et Entéropneustes du Département "Milieux et Peuplements Aquatiques" (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris). Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 11, 1–144.

    Vigneaux, M. (1949) Révision des Bryozoaires néogènes du bassin d'Aquitaine et essai de classification. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, n.s., 28, 1–155, pls 1–11.

    Warén, A. & Bouchet, P. (1990) Laevipilina rolani, a new monoplacophoran from off southwestern Europe. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 56, 449–453.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mollus/56.3.449

    Waters, A.W. (1879) On the Bryozoa (Polyzoa) of the Bay of Naples. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 5, 3, 28–43, 114–126, 192–202, 267–281, pls 8–15, 23–24.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222937908682473

    Wilson, R.R. Jr. & Kaufmann, R.S. (1987) Seamount biota and biogeography. In: Keating, B.H., Fryer, P., Batiza, R. & Boehlert, G.W. (Eds), Seamounts, Islands, and Atolls. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 355–377.

    Winston, J.E. (2005) Re-description and revision of Smitt's "Floridan Bryozoa" in the collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir, 7, 1–147.

    Winston, J.E. & Vieira, L.M. (2013) Systematics of interstitial encrusting bryozoans from southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 3710 (2), 101–146.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3710.2.1

    Wisshak, M., Berning, B., Jakobsen, J. & Freiwald, A. (2015) Temperate carbonate production: biodiversity of calcareous epiliths from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores). Marine Biodiversity, 45, 87–112.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12526-014-0231-6

    Xavier, J. & van Soest, R. (2007) Demosponge fauna of Ormonde and Gettysburg Seamounts (Gorringe Bank, north-east Atlantic): diversity and zoogeographical affinities. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87, 1643–1653.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315407058584

    Zabala, M. & Maluquer, P. (1988) Illustrated keys for the classification of Mediterranean Bryozoa. Treballs del Museu de Zoologia, 4, 1–294.

    Zabala, M., Maluquer, P. & Harmelin, J.-G. (1993) Epibiotic bryozoans on deep-water scleractinian corals from the Catalonia slope (western Mediterranean, Spain, France). Scientia Marina, 57, 65–78.

How to Cite

SoutO, J., Berning, B., & Ostrovsky, A. N. (2016). Systematics and diversity of deep-water Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic). Zootaxa, 4067(4), 401–459. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4067.4.1