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Type: Articles
Published: 2012-04-25
Page range: 1–45
Abstract views: 138
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The Frog-Biting Midges of Borneo—From Two to Eleven Species (Corethrellidae: Diptera)

Research Associate, Royal British Columbia Museum, American Museum of Natural History and Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, 691-8th Ave. SE, Salmon Arm, British Columbia, V1E 2C2, Canada
Department of Biology, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Tungku Link, Gadong BE 1410, Brunei Darussalam
Diptera Brunei Malaysia Corethrella frog Anura biodiversity aquatic

Abstract

The Corethrella Coquillett of Borneo are described and interpreted, based primarily on material from Brunei Darussalamand a few locations in the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah. The eleven species include three previously named(one newly discovered in Borneo) and eight newly named species. The following new species are attributed to Borkent& Grafe: C. lutea, C. tigrina, C. gilva, C. nanoantennalis, C. mitra and C. bipigmenta. Two new species, C. bicincta andC. unizona are attributed to Borkent, Grafe & Miyagi.Of the eleven Bornean species, 10 are recorded from Brunei Darussalam and eight of these are also known from atleast Sarawak. This distribution of species as well as comparison of species collected directly from calling frogs withthose collected with frog-call traps (some with modified sound) indicate that diversity is not as high as in CentralAmerica (the only other tropical area intensely sampled). Surveys of aquatic habitats show that Corethrella are absentfrom phytotelmata (water bodies held by plants) in Borneo, other than C. calathicola Edwards which is present in somespecies of Nepenthes and a species most closely related to a relatively derived group of Neotropical species occupyingtreeholes (C. calathicola likely dispersed from the Neotropical Region). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, other thanC. calathicola, species are members of an early lineage called the drakensbergensis species group (n = 6), is the sistergroup of a large assemblage of Old and New World species (n = 1) or cannot be placed phylogenetically (probably because of lack of immatures and males) (n = 3).Corethrella Coquillett dari Borneo dideskripsikan dan ditafsirkan berdasarkan sampel-sampel yang diperolehi dariBrunei Darussalam dan beberapa lokasi di Malaysia iaitu Sarawak dan Sabah. Sebelas spesies termasuk tiga spesies yangtelah dinamakan sebelumnya (satu spesies baru saja ditemui di Borneo) dan lapan spesies yang baru dinamakan. Spesiesbaru berikut merujuk kepada Borkent & Grafe: C. lutea, C. tigrina, C. gilva, C. nanoantennalis, C. mitra dan C.bipigmenta. Sementara itu terdapat dua agi spesies baru iaitu C. bicincta dan C. unizona yang merujuk kepada Borkent,Grafe & Miyagi.Daripada sebelas spesies Corethrella yang didokumenkan di Borneo, 10 daripadanya direkodkan dari BruneiDarussalam dan lapan daripada spesies ini juga diketahui kewujudannya sekurang-kurangnya di Sarawak. Taburanspesies ini serta perbandingan di antara spesies yang dikumpulkan secara langsung dari katak-katak yang berbunyidengan sampel-sampel yang dikumpulkan melalui perangkap yang telah dipasang dengan bunyi katak (beberapa denganbeberapa bunyi yang telah diubah suai) menunjukkan bahawa kepelbagaian spesies tidak setinggi yang terdapat diAmerika Tengah (iaitu satu-satunya kawasan tropika terperinci yang telah disampel secara mendalam). Penyiasatan keatas habitat-habitat akuatik menunjukkan bahawa spesies Corethrella tidak wujud di dalam ‘phytotelmata’ (badan airyang dipegang oleh tumbuh-tumbuhan) di Borneo, kecuali C. calathicola Edwards yang telah didapati di dalam beberapaspesies Nepenthes dan juga satu spesies Corethrella yang berkait rapat dengan kumpulan yang berasal dari spesiesNeotropika yang terdapat di dalam lubang di bahagian batang pokok (C. calathicola berkemungkinan berasal dariWilayah Neotropika). Analisis filogenetik menunjukkan bahawa, selain daripada C. calathicola, spesies Corethrella iniadalah ahli dari keturunan awal yang dikenali sebagai kumpulan spesies drakensbergensis (n = 6), adalah himpunankelompok spesies yang terbesar di Dunia Lama dan Baru (n = 1) atau tidak dapat diletakkan secara filogenetik (berkemungkinan disebabkan oleh kekurangan sampel yang tidak matang dan sampel jantan) (n = 3).

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