Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Articles
Published: 2011-02-23

The spider genus Chrysometa (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) from the Pico da Neblina and Serra do Tapirapecó mountains (Amazonas, Brazil): new species, new records, diversity and distribution along two altitudinal gradients

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, INPA, Coordenação de Pesquisas em Ecologia - CPEC. Avenida André Araújo, 2936, Aleixo, CEP 69011-970, Cx. Postal 478, Manaus, AM, Brazil
Laboratório de Artrópodes, Instituto Butantan. Av. Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil Pós-graduação em Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, INPA, Coordenação de Pesquisas em Ecologia - CPEC. Avenida André Araújo, 2936, Aleixo, CEP 69011-970, Cx. Postal 478, Manaus, AM, Brazil
Laboratório de Artrópodes, Instituto Butantan. Av. Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Araneae spiders taxonomy biodiversity Araneoidea orbweavers Neotropical region

Abstract

Eight new species of the spider genus Chrysometa Simon, 1894 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) are described and illustrated. Chrysometa nubigena n. sp., C. waikoxi n. sp., C. petrasierwaldae n. sp., C. santosi n. sp., C. yanomami n. sp., C. candianii n. sp., C. lomanhungae n. sp., and C. saci n. sp. Those species were collected in a study on the diversity of spider communities along altitudinal gradients in Brazilian Amazonia. C. saci was captured at the Serra do Tapirapecó (Barcelos), while all the other species are from the Pico da Neblina (São Gabriel da Cachoeira), the highest mountain in Brazil. We provide new records for C. boraceia, C. flava, C. guttata, C. minuta and C. opulenta, and we describe the male of C. minuta for the first time. We also present the first results on the diversity and altitudinal distribution of the species of Chrysometa at the Pico da Neblina and Serra do Tapirapecó. We sampled the first locality at six different elevations, and obtained 336 specimens distributed in 12 species. Richness and abundance, as well as relative importance peaked at the highest sites sampled (2,000 and 2,400 m). The three most abundant species showed a segregated distribution, being dominant or exclusively distributed in different altitudes. At the Serra do Tapirapecó, sampling at four different elevations up to 1200 m, we only obtained 40 individuals divided in four species, and there was no clear relation to altitude. Most of the new species were found at mid and high altitude sites, while species from lower altitude sites represented widespread species. The comparison with other neotropical spiders inventories highlights the high diversity recorded at Pico da Neblina, which could be assigned to the large environmental variation covered in this work and to the sampling of high-altitude environments. Inventories in the Andean region and other information in the literature also seem to support the association of Chrysometa with high altitude environments.

References

  1. Almeida-Neto, A., Machado, G., Pinto-da-Rocha, R. & Giaretta, A.A. (2006) Harvestman (Arachnida:Opiliones) species distribution along three Neotropical elevational gradients: an alternative rescue effect to explain Rapoport’s rule? Journal of Biogeography, 33, 361–375.

    Alvarez-Padilla, F. (2007) Systematics of the spider genus Metabus O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 (Araneoidea: Tetragnathidae) with additions to the tetragnathid fauna of Chile and comments on the phylogeny of Tetragnathidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 151, 285–335.

    Álvarez-Padilla, F., Dimitrov, D., Giribet, G., Hormiga, G. (2009) Phylogenetic relationships of the spider family Tetragnathidae (Araneae, Araneoidea) based on morphological and DNA sequence data. Cladistics, 25, 109–146.

    Avalos, G., Damborsky, M.P., Bar, M.E., Oscherov E.B. & Porcel, E. (2009) Composición de la fauna de Araneae (Arachnida) de la Reserva provincial Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 57 (1–2), 339–351.

    Baldissera, R., Ganade, G. & Fontoura, S.B. (2004) Web spider community response along an edge between pastures and Araucaria forest. Biological Conservation, 118, 403–409.

    Bates, J.M. & Zink, R.M. (1994) Evolution into the Andes: molecular evidence for species relationships in the genus Leptopogon. Auk, 111, 507–515.

    Berry, P.E., Huber, O. & Holst, B.K. (1995) Introduction. In: Berry, P. E., Holst, B. K. & Yatskievych, K. (Eds.) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, 1, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, 161–191.

    Blanco-Vargas, E., Amat-Garcia, G.D. & Florez-Dáza, E. (2003) Araneofauna orbitelar (Araneae: Orbiculariae) de los Andes de Colombia: comunidades en habitats bajo regeneración. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 7, 189–203.

    Bonaldo, A.B., Carvalho, L.S., Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Tourinho, A.L., Miglio, L.T., Candiani, D.F., Lo Man Hung, N.F., Abrahim, N., Rodrigues, B.V.B., Brescovit, A.D., Saturnino, R., Bastos, N.C., Dias, S.C., Silva, B.J.F., Pereira-Filho, J.M.B., Rheims, C.A., Lucas, S.M., Polotow, D., Ruiz, G.R.S. & Indicatti, R.P. (2009) Inventário e História Natural dos Aracnídeos da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil. In: Lisboa, P.L.B. (Org.) Caxiuanã: desafios para a conservação de uma Floresta Nacinal da Amazônia, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, 545–588.

    Borges, S.H. & Brescovit, A.D. (1996) Inventário preliminar da aracnofauna (ARANEAE) de duas localidades na amazônia ocidental. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, série Zoologia, 12(1), 9–21.

    Brescovit, A.D., Bertani, R., Pinto-da-Rocha, R. & Rheims, C.A. (2004) Aracnídeos da Estação Ecológica Juréia–Itatins: inventário preliminar e história natural. In: Marques, O.A.V. & Duleba, W. (Eds.) Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins: Ambiente físico, flora e fauna. Holos, Ribeirão Preto, 198–221.

    Brown, J. (2001) Mammals on mountainsides: elevational patterns of diversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10, 101–109.

    Cook, J. (2002) A revision of the neotropical genus Cryptocanthon Balthasar (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). The Coleopterist Society Monographs, Patricia Vaurie Series 56, 1–96.

    Dias, S.C., Brescovit, A.D., Couto E.C.G. & Martins C.F. (2006) Species richness and seasonality of spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil. Urban Ecosystems, 9, 323–335.

    Escobar, F., Lobo, J.M. & Halffter, G. (2006) Assessing the origin of Neotropical mountains dung beetle assemblages (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): the comparative influence of vertical and horizontal colonization. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1793–1803.

    Fjeldsa, J. & Rahbek, C. (2006) Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, from lowlands to montane regions of South America. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 46 (1), 72–81.

    Ferreira-Ojeda, l. & Florez-Daza, E. (2007) Arañas orbitelares (Araneae: Orbiculariae) em tres formaciones vegetales de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Magdalena, Colombia). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 16, 3–16.

    Ferreira-Ojeda, L., Florez-Daza, E. & Sabogal-Gonzalez, A. (2009) Bosque húmedo subtropical de La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Magdalena, Colombia). Caldasia, 31(2), 381–391.

    Hall, J.P.W. (2005) Montane speciation patterns in Ithomiola butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): are they consistently moving up in the world? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 2457–2466.

    Höfer, H. & Brescovit, A.D. (2001) Species and guild structure of a Neotropical spider assemblage (Araneae) from Reserva Ducke, Amazonas, Brazil. Andrias, 15, 99–119.

    Huber, O. (1995a) Geographical and physical features. In: Berry, P. E., Holst, B. K. & Yatskievych, K. (Eds.) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, I. Introduction. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, 1–61.

    Huber, O. (1995b) Vegetation. In: Berry, P.E., Holst, B.K. & Yatskievych, K. (Eds) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, I. Introduction. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp. 67─160.

    Keyserling, E. (1863) Beschreibungen neuer Spinnen. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 13, 369–382.

    Levi, H.W. (1986) The Neotropical orb-weaver genera Chrysometa and Homalometa (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 151, 91–215.

    Lobo, J.M. & Halffter, G. (2000) Biogeographical and ecological factors affecting the altitudinal variation of mountainous communities of coprophagous beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea): a comparative study. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93, 115–126.

    Lomolino, M.K. (2001) Elevation gradients of species-density: historical and prospective views. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10, 3–13.

    Moritz, C., Patton, J.L., Schneider, C.J. & Smith, T.B. (2000) Diversification of rainforest faunas: an integrated molecular approach. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 533–563.

    Nogueira, A.A., Pinto-da-Rocha, R. & Brescovit, A.D. (2006) Comunidade de aranhas orbitelas (Arachnida-Araneae) na região da Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, Cotia, São Paulo, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 6(2), 1–24.

    Peres, M.C.L., Silva, J.M.C. & Brescovit, A.D. (2007) The influence of treefall gaps on the distribution of web-building and ground hunter spiders in an Atlantic Forest remnant, northeastern Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 42(1), 49–60.

    Platnick, N.I. (2010) The world spider catalog, version 10.5. American Museum of Natural History. Available from: http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html

    Podgaiski, L.R., Ott, R., Rodriguez, E.N.L., Buckup, E.H. & Marquez, M.A.L. (2007) Araneofauna (Arachnida: Araneae) do Parque Estadual do Turvo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 7(2).

    RADAM (1978) Folha NA19. Pico da Neblina. Ministério das Minas e Energia. Rio de Janeiro.

    Raizer, J., Japyassu, H.F., Indicatti, R.P. & Brescovit, A.D. (2005) Comunidade de aranhas (Arachnida, Aranea) do Pantanal do Norte (Mato Grosso, Brasil) e sua similaridade com a araneofauna amazônica. Biota Neotropica, 5(1a).

    Rego, F.N.A.A., Venticinque, E.M., Brescovit, A.D., Rheims, C.A. & Albernaz, A.L.K.M. (2009) A contribution to the knowledge of the spider fauna (Arachnida: Araneae) of the floodplain forests of the main Amazon River channel. Revista Ibérica de Aracnologia, 97, 85–96.

    Ribas, C.C., Moyle, R.G. , Miyaki, C.Y. & Cracaft, J. (2007) The assembly of montane biotas: linking Andean tectonics and climatic oscillations to independent regimes of diversification in Pionus parrots. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 2399–2408.

    Ricetti, J. & Bonaldo, A.B. (2008) Diversidade e estimativas de riqueza de aranhas em quatro fitofisionomias na Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brasil. Iheringia, v. 98(1), 88–99.

    Romo, M.I. & Florez-Daza, E. (2009) Comunidad de arañas orbitelares (Araneae: Orbiculariae) asociada al bosque altoandino Del santuário Flora y Fauna Galeras, Nariño, Colombia. Boletín Científico Museo de Historia Natural, 13 (1), 114–126.

    Silva, D. & Coddington, J.A. (1996) Spiders of Pakitza (Madre de Dios, Perú): species richness and notes on community structure. In: Wilson, D. E. & Sandoval, A. (Eds.) Manu-The biodiversity of Southeastern Perú. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 253–311.

    Simkova, A., Gelnar, M. & Sasal, P. (2001) Aggregation of congeneric parasites (Monogenea: Dactylogyrus). Parasitology, 123, 599–607.

    Simon, E. (1895) Histoire naturelle des araignées. Paris, 1: 761–1084.

    Valencia, J.C. & Florez-Daza, E. (2007) Arañas tejedoras: uso de difeentes microhábitats em um bosque andino de Colombia. Revista Ibérica de Aracnologia, 14, 39–48.

    Veetas, O.R. & Grytnes, J.A. (2002) Distribution of vascular plants species richness and endemic richness along the Himalayan elevation gradient in Nepal. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11, 291–301.

How to Cite

NOGUEIRA, A. A., PENA-BARBOSA, J. P. P., VENTICINQUE, E. M., & BRESCOVIT, A. D. (2011). The spider genus <em>Chrysometa </em>(Araneae, Tetragnathidae) from the Pico da Neblina and Serra do Tapirapecó mountains (Amazonas, Brazil): new species, new records, diversity and distribution along two altitudinal gradients. Zootaxa, 2772(1), 33–51. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2772.1.2