Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2008-07-23

Alien True Bugs of Europe (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Lände 5, 1090 Wien, Austria
Hemiptera non-native non-indigenous exotic pathway impact

Abstract

This paper reviews the alien (non-native, non-indigenous, exotic) true bug (Heteroptera) species in Europe. Forty-two established alien Heteroptera are recognized, of which 12 species are alien to Europe (originating outside Europe: eight from North America, three from the Eastern Palaearctic, one from New Zealand), 24 species are alien within Europe (translocated within Europe), and six cryptogenic species are of unknown origin. Since 1990 an approximate arrival rate of 7 species per decade has been observed. A recent trend of increased introductions from North America to Europe is suggested. The most important pathway of alien Heteroptera is translocation as contaminants (49 %), usually with ornamental plants, followed by unintentional introduction through natural dispersal (unaided) across political borders within Europe (28 %), and translocation as stowaways within a transport vector (21 %). The taxonomic composition of the alien Heteroptera of Europe is dominated by Miridae (17 species, 40 %), Tingidae (8 species, 19 %), and Anthocoridae (5 species, 12 %), all of which are overrepresented compared to the native European Heteroptera fauna. More than half of the species are phytophagous (24 species, 57 %) and the advantage of trophic specialization in invasion success is discussed. Most species are currently known to occur in the Czech Republic (19 species) and Germany (17 species), followed by Western European countries (Belgium 15 sp., France and United Kingdom 14 sp. each, and Netherlands 13 sp.), resulting in an apparent (north)west–(south)east gradient probably reflecting horticultural tradition in Europe. No unambiguousevidence exists so far for negative ecological or economical impacts, but more research is needed to investigate possible effects. Introductions of alien Heteroptera to and within Europe will increase, and deserve further consideration.

References

  1. Adlbauer, K. (1992) Neue Wanzenarten für die Steiermark und für Österreich (Heteroptera). Mitteilungen naturwissenschaftlicher Verein Steiermark, 122, 173–176.

    Adlbauer, K. (1999) Neue Wanzenarten für Österreich, die Steiermark und das Burgenland (Heteroptera). Joannea – Zoologie, 1, 71–78.

    Adlbauer, K. & Frieß, T. (1996) Die Ritterwanze Arocatus longiceps – eine für Mitteleuropa neue Tierart (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae). Landesmuseum Joanneum Graz, Jahresbericht N.F., 25, 33–39.

    Adlbauer, K. & Rabitsch, W. (2000) Orsillus depressus (Mulsant & Rey, 1852) in Österreich und Liechtenstein (Het., Lygaeidae). Heteropteron, 8, 19–22.

    Aguilar, d' R., Pralavorio, R., Rabasse, J.M. & Mouton, R. (1977) Introduction en France du tigre du platane: Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Het., Tingidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 82, 2–5.

    Albrecht, A., Söderman, G., Rinne, V., Mattila, K., Mannerkoski, I., Karjalainen, S. & Ahlrith, P. (2003) New and interesting finds of Hemiptera in Finland. Sahlbergia, 8, 64–78.

    Albrecht, A., Söderman, G., Rinne, V., Mattila, K., Ahlroth, P., Karjalainen, S., Kirjavainen, J., Mannerkoski, I. & Rintala, T. (2006) New and interesting finds of Hemiptera in Finland II. Sahlbergia, 11, 1–17.

    Alomar, O., Goula, M. & Albajes, R. (2002) Colonisation of tomato fields by predatory mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Spain. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 89, 105–115.

    Andersen, N.M. (1995) Infraorder Gerromorpha Popov, 1971 – semiaquatic bugs. In: Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (Eds.), Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Vol. 1, Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, pp. 77–114.

    Andersen, N.M. & Gaun, S. (1974) Fortegnelse over Danmarks tøger (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 42, 113–134.

    Artsdatabanken (2007) Fremmede arter i Norge. Version 09.03.2007. http://www.artsdatabanken.no/1)_Liste_fremmede_arter_9._mars_2007_qJWwt.pdf.file

    Arzone, A. (1986) Spreading and importance of Corythucha ciliata (Say) in Italy twenty years later. Bulletin WPRS, Section Régionale Ouest Paléarctique, 9, 5–10.

    Aukema, B. (1988) Orsillus depressus nieuw voor Nederland en Belgie (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam, 48, 181–183.

    Aukema, B. (1989) Annotated checklist of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the Netherlands. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 132, 1–104.

    Aukema, B. (1990a) Additional data on the Heteroptera fauna of the Kiskunság National Park. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 51, 5–16.

    Aukema, B. (1990b) Drie miriden nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Heteroptera: Miridae). Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam, 50, 165–168.

    Aukema, B. (1996a) Stephanitis takeyai on Pieris japonica. Mededelingen van de Plantenziektenkundige Dienst, 179, 46–47.

    Aukema, B. (1996b) Stephanitis pyrioides on Azaleas from Japan. Mededelingen van de Plantenziektenkundige Dienst, 179, 46.

    Aukema, B. (1999) Heteroptera. In: Ackerman, R.A., van Halteren, P. & Jenniskens, M.J. (Eds.), Annual Report Diagnostic Centre 1998. Mededelingen van de Plantenziektenkundige Dienst, 200, 62–63.

    Aukema, B. (2003) Recent changes in the Dutch Heteroptera fauna (Insecta: Hemiptera). Proceedings of the 13th International Colloquium of the European Invertebrate Survey, 2001, 39–52.

    Aukema, B. (2007) Buchananiella continua (Anthocoridae) in south Devon (VC3). HetNews, 9, 12.

    Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (1995–2006) Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Vols 1–5. Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam. Vol. 1, 222 pp., Vol. 2, 361 pp., Vol. 3, 577 pp., Vol. 4, 346 pp., Vol. 5, 550 pp.

    Aukema, B. & Loomans, A. (2005) Orius laevigatus in the Netherlands (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae). Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen, 23, 125–127.

    Aukema, B. & Hermes, D.J. (2006) Verspreidingsatlas Nederlandse wantsen II. EIS-Nederland, Leiden, 136 pp.

    Aukema, B. & Libeer, R. (2007) Eerste waarneming van Leptoglossus occidentalis in België (Heteroptera: Coreidae). Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie, 143, 92–93.

    Aukema, B., Baugnée, J.-Y., Bosmans, R., Bruers, J., Chérot, F., Dethier, M., Viskens, G. & Alderweireldt, M. (2002) Aanvullende gegevens over Belgische miriden (Heteroptera: Miridae). Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie, 137 (2001), 69–90.

    Aukema, B., Bos, F., Hermes, D. & Zeinstra, P. (2005a) Nieuwe en interessante nederlandse wantsen II, met een geactualiseerde naamlijst (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen, 23, 37–76.

    Aukema, B., Bruers, J.M. & Viskens, G. (2005b) A New Zealand endemic Nysius established in the Netherlands and Belgium (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 7, 37–43.

    Aukema, B., Bruers, J.M. & Viskens, G.(2005c) Nieuwe en zeldzame Belgische wantsen (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie, 141, 33–37.

    Aukema, B., Bruers, J.M. & Viskens, G.M. (2007) Nieuwe en zeldzame Belgische wantsen II (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie, 143, 83–91.

    Babendreier, D. (2007) Pros and Cons of Biological Control. In: Nentwig, W. (Ed.), Biological Invasions. Ecological Studies, 193, Springer, Berlin, pp. 403–418.

    Bacchi, I. & Rizzotti Vlach, M. (2000) Amphiareus obscuriceps in Italia: note morfologiche, ecologiche e corologiche (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae). Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana, 132, 99–103.

    Bailey, N.S. (1950) An Asiatic tingid new to North America (Heteroptera). Psyche, 57, 143–145.

    Bakonyi, G. & Vásárhelyi, T. (1987) The Heteroptera fauna of the Kiskunság National Park. In: Mahunka, S. (Ed.), The Fauna of the Kiskunság National Park. II. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 85–106.

    Balachowsky, A.S. & Mesnil, L. (1936) Les Insectes nuisibles aux plantes cultivées, leurs moers et leur destruction. Vol. 2. Paris, pp. 1138–1921.

    Barclay, M. (2004) The Green Vegetable Bug Nezara viridula (L., 1758) (Hem.: Pentatomidae), new to Britain. Entomologist's Record, 116, 55–58.

    Barclay, M. (2007) Some observations and thoughts on the Platanus feeding Arocatus ‘roeselii’ (Lygaeidae) established in London. HetNews, 10, 8–9.

    Barclay, M. & Nau, B.S. (2003) A second species of Tamarisk bug in Britain, Tuponia brevirostris Reuter, and the current status of T. mixticolor (A. Costa) (Hem., Miridae). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 139, 176–177.

    Baufeld, P. (2002) Die Andromedanetzwanze (Stephanitis takeyai) – ein neuer Schädling an Ziergehölzen. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 54, 318–319.

    Baugnée, J.-Y. & Chérot, F. (2004) L’hétéroptère Miridae Tuponia hippophaes (Fieber, 1861) nouveau pour la faune de Belgique: une espèce en expansion ? Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie, 140, 27–30.

    Benedek, P. & Jászai, V.E. (1968) On some species of the genus Tuponia Reuter, 1875 (Heteroptera: Miridae, Phylinae). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 14, 7–13.

    Beránek, J. (2007) First records of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Heteroptera: Pentatomorpha: Coreidae) in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science, 43, 165–168.

    Bernardinelli, I. (2000) Distribution of the oak lace bug Corythucha arcuata (Say) in northern Italy (Heteroptera, Tingidae). Redia, 83, 157–162.

    Bernardinelli, I. & Zandigiacomo, P. (2000) Prima segnalazione di Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Heteroptera, Tingidae) in Europa. Informatore Fitopatologico, 50, 47–49.

    Bernardinelli, I. & Zandigiacomo, P. (2001a) GIS representation of Corythucha arcuata (Say) distribution in northern Italy. Journal of Forestry Science, 47, 54–55.

    Bernardinelli, I. & Zandigiacomo, P. (2001b) Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae): a conifer seed bug recently found in northern Italy. Journal of Forestry Science, 47, 56–58.

    Bianchi, Z. & Stehlík, J.L. (1999) Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) in Slovakia (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae, 84, 203–204.

    Billen, W. (2004) Kurzbericht über das Auftreten einer neuen Wanze in Deutschland. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 56, 309–310.

    Borges, P.A.V., Cunha, R., Gabriel, R., Martins, A.F., Silva, L. & Vieira, V. (2005) A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores. Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo, 318 pp.

    Borges, P.A.V., Lobo, J.M., de Azevedo, E.B., Gaspar, C.S., Melo, C. & Nunes, L.V. (2006) Invasibility and species richness of island endemic arthropods: a general model of endemic vs. exotic species. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 169–187.

    Bruers, J. & Viskens, G. (1999) Stephanitis oberti (Kolenati, 1856) Belg. n. sp. Entomo-Info, 10, 11.

    Bryja, J. & Kment, P. (2002) New and interesting records of plant bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) from the Czech and Slovak Republics. Klapalekiana, 38, 1–10.

    Calvo, J. & Urbaneja, A. (2003) Nesidiocoris tenuis Reu. (Het., Miridae) en tomate: ¿Amigo o Enemigo? Almeria Verde, 4, 21–23.

    Carapezza, A. (1980) Saldula sardoa Fil., specie propria e Pentacora sphacelata (Uhler) in Sardegna. Bollettino della Societá Sarda di Scienze Naturali, 20, 49–54.

    Carapezza, A. (1984) Eterotteri nuovi o poco noti per la fauna sada. Bollettino della Societá Sarda di Scienze Naturali, 23, 155–159.

    Carillo, J.L. (1967) A mechanism for egg dispersal in Nysius tenellus Barber (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 43, 80.

    Carpinera, J.L. (2002) North American vegetable pests: the pattern of invasion. American Entomologist, 48, 20–39.

    Carvalho, J.C.M. (1951) Neotropical Miridae, XLI: Tenthecoris orchidearum (Reuter, 1902) in Britain, and a key to the species of the genus (Hemiptera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (12)4, 294–304.

    Carvalho, J.C.M. & Leston, D. (1952) The classification of the British Miridae (Hem.) with keys to the genera. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 88, 231-251.

    Castañé, C., Alomar, O., Goula, M. & Gabarra, R. (2004) Colonization of tomato greenhouses by the predatory mirid bugs Macrolophus caliginosus and Dicyphus tamaninii. Biological Control, 30, 591–597.

    Caton, B.P., Dobbs, T.T. & Brodel, C.F. (2006) Arrivals of hitchhiking insect pests on international cargo aircraft at Miami International Airport. Biological Invasions, 8, 765–785.

    Chapin, E. & Chauvel, G. (2007) Nouveaux bio-agresseurs des végétaux d’ornement. Situation de quelques organismes émergents et d’importance pour les jardins et les espaces verts. Phytoma, 605, 18–21.

    Chérot, F. (1998) Au sujet de Deraeocoris (s.str.) flavilinea (Costa, 1862) et de Deraeocoris (s.str.) ruber (L., 1758). Lambilionea, 98, 523–529.

    Chung, Y.L., Kwon, T.S., Yeo, W.H., Byun, B.K. & Park, C.H. (1996) Occurrence of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 35, 137–139.

    Cobben, R.H. & Arnoud, B. (1969) Anthocoridae van Viscum, Buxus en Pinus in Nederland (Heteroptera). Publicaties van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg, 19, 5–16.

    Colombi, L. & Brunetti, R. (2002) Rapporto del Servizio Fitosanitario del Cantone Ticino. Servizio Fitosanitario, Bellinzona, 36 pp.

    Colombo, M. & Limonta, L. (2001) Presenza di Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa (Heteroptera, Tingidae) su Pieris japonica (Thumb.) D. Don introdotta in Italia. Bollettino di Zoologia agraria e Bachicoltura, 33, 139–142.

    De Clercq, P. (2000) Predaceous Stinkbugs (Pentatomidae: Asopinae). In: Schaefer, C. & Panizzi, A. (Eds.), Heteroptera of Economic Importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 737–789.

    Deckert, J. (2004) Zum Vorkommen von Oxycareninae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae) in Berlin und Brandenburg. Insecta, 9, 67–75.

    Del Bene, G. & Pluot-Sigwalt, D. (2005) Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott) (Heteroptera Tingidae): a lace bug new to Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia agraria e Bachicoltura, 37, 71–76.

    Denosmaison, J.C. (2001) Heteropteres nouveaux pour la region parisienne. Entomologiste (Paris), 57, 84.

    Dethier, M. (1989) Les Pentatomoidea de la collection Kappeller. Archives des Sciences Genéve, 42, 553–568.

    Didham, R.K., Tylianakis, J.M., Gemmell, N.J., Rand, T.A. & Ewers, R.M. (2007) Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 489–496.

    Dietze, R., Münch, M. & Vogel, D. (2006) Bemerkenswerte Funde von Wanzen in Sachsen (Heteroptera). Sächsische Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1, 2–32.

    Dioli, P. (1975) La presenza in Valtellina di alcune cimici dannose alle piante. Rassegna Economica Provincia di Sondrio, 4, 43–46.

    Dobšik, B. (1972) Neue Wanzenarten für die Fauna CSSR und Bemerkungen zu den Standorten der Wanzen in Nordmähren (Heteroptera, Pentatomorpha). Acta Musei Silesiae, 21, 117–120.

    Dolling, W.R. (1972) A new species of Dicyphus Fieber (Hem., Miridae) from southern England. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 107, 244–245.

    Dolling, W.R. (1988) Odontoscelis and Dichrooscytus: two cases of mistaken identity. Newsletter Heteroptera Study Group, 8, 1–2.

    Dusoulier, F., Lupoli, R., Aberlenc, H.-P. & Streito, J.-C. (2007) L’invasion orientale de Leptoglossus occidentalis en France: bilan de son extension biogéographique en 2007 (Hemiptera Coreidae). L’Entomologiste, 63, 303–308.

    Ehanno, B. (1987) Les hétéroptères mirides de France. Tome II-B. Inventaire biogéographique et atlas. Inventaires de Faune et de Flore, 42, 649–1075.

    Ehanno, B. (1989) Complements à la fauna de France des hétéroptères Miridae Hahn, 1831. Deraeocoris (D.) flavilinea (Costa), 1860 et Deraeocoris (D.) annulipes (Herrich-Schaeffer), 1845. Bulletin de la Société Scientifique de Bretagne, 60, 125–148.

    EPPO (2002) List of biological control agents widely used in the EPPO region. EPPO Bulletin, 32, 447–461.

    Essl, F. (2007) From ornamental to detrimental? The incipient invasion of Central Europe by Paulownia tomentosa. Preslia, 79, 377–389.

    Essl, F. & Rabitsch, W. (2002) Neobiota in Österreich. Umweltbundesamt, Wien, 432 pp.

    Fent, M. & Aktaç, N. (2007) Die Verbreitung des Perillus bioculatus (Fab.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae) im türkischen Teil Thrakiens. Heteropteron, 25, 7–10.

    Fieber, F.X. (1858) Criterien zur generischen Theilung der Phytocoriden (Capsini aut.). Wiener Entomologische Monatsschrift, 2, 289–327, 329–347, 388.

    Fokker, A.J.F. (1905) Twee voor onze fauna nieuwe Hemiptera-Heteroptera (Stephanitis pyrioides en S. rhododendri). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 48, 148–149.

    Forster, B., Giacalone, I., Moretti, M., Dioli, P. & Wermelinger, B. (2005) Die amerikanische Eichennetzwanze Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Heteroptera, Tingidae) hat die Südschweiz erreicht. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 78, 317–323.

    Frieß, T. (2000) Libellen (Odonata) und Wanzen (Heteroptera) aus dem Naturschutzgebiet "Gut Walterskirchen" am Wörthersee. Carinthia II, 190./110., 517–530.

    Froeschner, R.C. (1988a) Family Pentatomidae Leach, 1815. In: Henry, T.J. & Froeschner, R.C. (Eds.), Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp. 544–597.

    Froeschner, R.C. (1988b) Family Tingidae Laporte, 1807. In: Henry, T.J. & Froeschner, R.C. (Eds.), Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp. 708–733.

    Fron, M.G. (1918) Note sur le “Tip du Rhododendron”. Journal de la Societe Imperiale et Centrale d’Horticulture de France, 19, 91-93.

    Gabarra, R., Alomar, O., Castañé, C., Goula, M. & Albajes, R. (2004) Movement of greenhouse whitefly and its predators between in- and outside of Mediterranean greenhouses. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 102, 341–348.

    Geiter, O. & Kinzelbach, R. (2002) Bestandsaufnahme und Bewertung von Neozoen in Deutschland. Umweltbundesamt-Texte, 25, 1–173.

    Gillerfors, G. & Coulianos, C.-C. (2005) Fynd av för Sverige nya och sällsynta skinnbaggar (Hemiptera Heteroptera). Entomologisk Tidskrift, 126, 215–224.

    Gillespie, D.R. & Quiring, D.M.J. (2006) Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in the lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 138, 590–593.

    Gogala, A. (2003) A leaf-footed conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis) in Slovenia already (Heteroptera: Coreidae). Acta entomologica Slovenica, 11, 189–190.

    Gogala, A. (2006) Heteroptera of Slovenia, III: Miridae. Annales Ser. Hist. Nat. 16, 77-112.

    Gogala, A. & Gogala, M. (1986) Check list of bug species recorded in Slovenia (Insecta: Heteroptera). Biologiski Vestnik, 34, 21-52.

    Göllner-Scheiding, U. (1991) Neufunde von Heteropteren für den östlichen Teil Deutschlands (Insecta, Heteroptera: Miridae et Microphysidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde Dresden, 18, 91–92.

    Gorczyca, J. (2006) The catalogue of the subfamily Cylapinae Kirkaldy, 1903 of the world Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae). Monographs of the Upper Silesian Museum, 5, 1–100.

    Grosso-Silva, J.M. & Aguiar, A. (2007) Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera, Tingidae), the nearctic Sycamore lace bug, found in Portugal. Boletin Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 40, 366.

    Gulde, J. (1938) Die Wanzen Mitteleuropas. Hemiptera Heteroptera Mitteleuropas, 6, Frankfurt am Main, 377 pp.

    Günther, H. (2000) Contribution to the fauna of plant bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Slovakia. Entomological Problems, 31, 59–60.

    Günther, H. (2002) Ergänzungen zur Wanzenfauna (Insecta: Heteroptera) von Rheinland-Pfalz. Mainzer Naturwissenschaftliches Archiv, 40, 197–204.

    Günther, H. (2004) Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis (Fieber), eine nearktische Ruderwanze in Europa (Heteroptera: Corixidae). Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Verein, Frankfurt a.M., 29, 45–49.

    Halstead, A.J. & Malumphy, C.P. (2003) Outbreak in Britain of Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Mao <sic!> (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a pest of Pieris japonica. The British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 16, 3–6.

    Hamilton, G.C. (2003) Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – A new exotic insect in New Jersey. Rutgers Cooperative Research & Extension, Fact Sheet, 2 pp., Available from http://www.usapple.org/industry/treetac/stinkbug_factsheet121903.pdf (accessed 25 February 2008)

    Harmat, B., Kondorosy, E. & Rédei, D. (2006) First occurrence of the western conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann) in Hungary (Heteroptera: Coreidae). Növenyvédelem, 42, 491–494.

    Hart, A., Tullett, A.G., Bale, J.S. & Walters, K.F.A. (2002) Effects of temperature on the establishment potential in the U.K. of the non-native glasshouse biocontrol agent Macrolophus caliginosus. Physiological Entomology, 27, 112–123.

    Hatherly, I.S., Hart, A.J., Tulkett, A.G. & Bale, J.S. (2005) Use of thermal data as a screen for the establishment potential of non-native biological control agents in the UK. Biocontrol, 50, 687–698.

    Hawkins, R.D. (1989) Orsillus depressus Dallas (Hem., Lygaeidae) an arboreal groundbug new to Britain. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 125, 241–242.

    Heckmann, R. & Rieger, C. (2001) Wanzen aus Baden-Württemberg – Ein Beitrag zur Faunistik und Ökologie der Wanzen in Baden-Württemberg (Insecta, Heteroptera). Carolinea, 59, 81–98.

    Heiss, E. (1977) Zur Heteropterenfauna Nordtirols (Insecta: Heteroptera) V: Ceratocombidae, Nabidae, Anthocoridae, Cimicidae, Microphysidae. Veröffentlichungen des Museums Ferdinandeum Innsbruck, 57, 35–51.

    Hill, M., Baker, R., Broad, G., Chandler, P.J., Copp, G.H., Ellis, J., Jones, D., Hoyland, C., Laing, I., Longshaw, M., Moore, N., Parrott, D., Pearman, D., Preston, C., Smith, R.M. & Waters, R. (2005) Audit of non-native species in England. English Nature Research Reports, 662, 1–82.

    Hoebeke, E.R. & Carter, M.E. (2003): Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): a polyphagous plant pest from Asia newly detected in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 105, 225–237.

    Hoffmann, H.-J. (1992) Zur Wanzenfauna (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) von Köln. Decheniana, Beiheft, 31, 115–164.

    Hoffmann, H.-J. (1996) Die Platanen-Gitterwanze Corythucha ciliata (Say) weiter auf dem Vormarsch (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Tingidae). Heteropteron, 2, 19–21.

    Hoffmann, H.-J. (2003a) Die Gitterwanze Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa, 1995 neu für Deutschland (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Tingidae). Heteropteron, 16, 20–23.

    Hoffmann, H.-J. (2003b) Neozoen bei Wanzen. Heteropteron, 16, 25–28.

    Hoffmann, H.-J. & Melber, A. (2003) Verzeichnis der Wanzen (Heteroptera) Deutschlands. Entomofauna Germanica, 6, 209–272.

    Hollier, J. & Matocq, A. (2004) Dicyphus escalerae Lindberg, 1934 (Hemiptera: Miridae), a plant-bug species new for Switzerland. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 77, 333–335.

    Hommes, M., Westhoff, J. & Melber, A. (2003) Andromeda-Netzwanze, Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa (Heteroptera, Tingidae) erstmals für Deutschland nachgewiesen. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 55, 174–177.

    Hopp, I. (1984) Die Platanen-Netzwanze Corythucha ciliata (Say) nun auch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Entomologische Zeitschrift, Stuttgart, 94, 60–63.

    Horton, D.R., Lewis, T.M. & Broers, D.A. (2004) Ecological and geographic range expansion of the introduced predator Anthocoris nemoralis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). American Entomologist, 50, 18–30.

    Horváth, G. (1898) Ordo Hemiptera. Fauna Regni Hungariae. Budapest, 64 pp.

    Horváth, G. (1905) Tingitidae novae vel minus cognitae e regione palaearctica. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 3, 556–572.

    Horváth, G. (1906) Synopsis Tingitidarum regionis palaearcticae. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 4, 1–118.

    Hradil, K., Kapitola, P., Jindra, Z. & Kment, P. (2002) Faunistic records from the Czech Republic – 146. Klapalekiana, 38, 113–114.

    Hradil, K., Kment, P. & Roháčová, M. (2007) New records of Liorhyssus hyalinus (Heteroptera: Rhopalidae) in the Czech Republic, with a review of its worldwide distribution and biology. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae, 92, 53–107.

    Hulme, P.E., Bacher, S., Kenis, M., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Minchin, D., Nentwig, W., Olenin, S., Panov, V., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Roques, A., Sol, D., Solarz, W. & Vilá, M. (2008) Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 403–414.

    Jasinka, J. & Bozsits, G. (1977) A platán csipkés poloska (Corythucha ciliata) fellépse magyarországon. Növenyvédelem, 13, 42–46.

    Jindra, Z. & Kabiček, J. (2001) Faunistic records from the Czech Republic – 130. Klapalekiana, 37, 124.

    Jindra, Z. & Kment, P. (2006) Faunistic records from the Czech Republic – 212. Klapalekiana, 42, 333–334.

    Jones, R.A. (1993) The rhododendron lacebug, Stephanitis rhododendri Horváth, rediscovered in south-east London. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 6, 139–140.

    Josifov, M. (1981) Der verkannte Dichrooscytus valesianus Fieber, 1861 und der übersehene Dichrooscytus gustavi sp.n. aus Mitteleuropa (Heteroptera, Miridae). Reichenbachia, 19, 43–45.

    Josifov, M. (1990) Varchu pojavata na nearkticnija vid Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832) (Het., Tingidae) v Balgarija. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 39, 53–55.

    Judd, S. (1986): Anthocoris nemoralis butleri Le Quesne (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) new to Ireland. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 22, 79.

    Judd, S. & Hodkinson, I. (1998) The biogeography and regional biodiversity of the British seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Journal of Biogeography, 25, 227–249.

    Jurc, D. & Jurc, M. (2004) Leaf footed conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis, Hemiptera: Coreidae) is quickly spreading across Slovenia. Slovenian Professional Journal of Forestry, 63, 59–67.

    Kalushkov, P. (2000) Observations on the biology of Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), a new Mediterranean species in the Bulgarian fauna. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 52, 13–15.

    Kelts, L.J. (1979) Ecologyof a tidal marsh corixid, Trichocorixa verticalis (Insecta, Hemiptera). Hydrobiologia, 64, 37–57.

    Kemper, H. (1936) Die Bettwanze und ihre Bekämpfung. Zeitschrift für Kleintierkunde und Pelztierkunde, 12, 1–107.

    Kenis, M. (2005) Insects-Insecta. In: Wittenberg, R. (Ed.), An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. CABI Bioscience Switzerland, Delémont, pp. 131–212.

    Kenis, M., Rabitsch, W., Auger-Rozenberg, M.-A. & Roques, A. (2007) How can alien species inventories and interception data help us prevent insect invasions? Bulletin of Entomological Research, 97, 489–502.

    Kenis, M., Auger-Rozenberg, M.-A., Roques, A., Timms, L., Péré, C., Cock, M.J.W., Settele, J., Augustin, S. & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. (2008) Ecological effects of invasive alien insects. Biological Invasions, in press.

    Kerzhner, I.M. (1979). New Heteroptera from the Far East of the USSR. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 81, 14–65.

    Kerzhner, I.M. (1983) Airborne Nabis capsiformis (Heteroptera: Nabidae) from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. International Journal of Entomology, 25(4), 273–275.

    Kerzhner, I.M. & Josifov, M. (1999) Miridae Hahn, 1831. In: Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (Eds.), Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Vol. 3. Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, 577 pp.

    Kirby, P. (1992) A review of the scarce and threatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. UK Nature Series, 2, 1–267.

    Kirby, P. (1999) Buchananiella continua (B. White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) established in Britain. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 12, 221–223.

    Kirby, P., Stewart, A. & Wilson, M. (2001) True bugs, leaf- and planthoppers, and their allies. In: Hawksworth, D.L. (Ed.), The changing wildlife of Great Britain and Ireland. Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 262–299.

    Kivan, M. (2004) Some observations on Perillus bioculatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) a new record for the entomofauna of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Entomology, 28, 95–98.

    Kment, P. (2004a) First records of two species of the genus Tuponia Reuter, 1875 (Heteroptera, Miridae) in Slovakia. Biologia, Bratislava, 59, 164.

    Kment, P. (2004b) New species of true bugs (Heteroptera) for the Czech Republic from the collection of Otokar Kubík. Práce Muzea v Kolínì, 6, 81–87.

    Kment, P. (2006a) A contribution to the faunistics of aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) in Portugal, with the review of biology of the Nearctic corixid Trichocorixa verticalis (Fieber, 1851). Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 38, 359–361.

    Kment, P. (2006b) Heteroptera – Plostice. In: Mlíkovský, J. & Stýblo, P. (Eds.), Nepuvodní druhy fauny a flory Ceske Republiky, Èeský svaz ochráncù pøírody, Praha, pp. 255–266.

    Kment, P. (2007) First record of the alien lace bug Stephanitis pyrioides in Greece and note on Corythucha ciliata from Portugal (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge, 39, 421–429.

    Kment, P.& Bryja, J. (2001) New and interesting records of true bugs (Heteroptera) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Klapalekiana, 37, 231–248.

    Kment, P., Bryja, J., Jindra, Z., Hradil, K. & Baňař, P. (2003) New and interesting records of true bugs (Heteroptera) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia II. Klapalekiana, 39, 257–306.

    Kment, P., Bryja, J., Hradil, K. & Jindra, Z. (2005) New and interesting records of true bugs (Heteroptera) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia III. Klapalekiana, 41, 157–213.

    Kment, P., Vahala, O. & Hradil, K. (2006) First records of Oxycarenus lavaterae (Heteroptera: Oxycarenidae) from the Czech Republic, with review of its distribution and biology. Klapalekiana, 42, 97–127.

    Kment, P., Beránek, J. & Baňař, P. (2008) Faunistic records from the Czech Republic. IXX. Heteroptera: Coreidae. Klapalekiana, 44, in press.

    Kolar, C.S. & Lodge, D.M. (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16, 199–204.

    Kondorosy, E. (1995) Oxycarenus lavaterae, a new lygaeid species in the Hungarian bug fauna (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 56, 237–238.

    Kondorosy, E. (1997) Other species of Heteroptera, new for fauna of Hungary. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 58, 249–251.

    Kondorosy, E. (2005) New true bug species in the Hungarian fauna. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 66, 17–22.

    Kontkanen, P. (1956) Kokousselostuksia – Sitzungsberichte 29.XI.1956. Annales Entomologici Fennici, 22, 185, 188.

    Lammes, T. (1981) Brief reports. Heteroptera. Löytöjä kahdesta importtiludelajista Oulun tienoilta (TEKS 1981-03-18). Notulae Entomologicae, 61, 221.

    Lattin, J.D. (1999) Bionomics of the Anthocoridae. Annual Review of Entomology, 44, 207–231.

    Lattin, J.D. (2007) The Lasiochilidae, Lyctocoridae, and Anthocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of the Hawaiian Islands: Native or introduced? Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 109, 75–80.

    Lattin, J.D. & Lewis, T. (2001) Amphiareus constrictus (Stål) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from California: Clarification of previous record and citation. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 103, 334–336.

    Lattin, J.D. & Wetherill, K. (2002) Metopoplax ditomoides (Costa), a species of Oxycarenidae new to North America (Lygaeoidea: Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 78, 63–64.

    Lawton, J.H. & Brown, K.C. (1986) The population and community ecology of invading insects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Series B, 314, 607–617.

    Lederer, G. (1950) Auftreten von Cimex hemipterus Fabricius, 1803 = C. rotundatus Sign. sowie anderer Cimexarten in Hessen (Heteropt., Cimicidae). Journal of Pest Sciences, 23, 44–46.

    Levine, J.M. & D’Antonio, C.M. (2003) Forecasting biological invasions with increasing international trade. Conservation Biology, 17, 322–326.

    Lindberg, H. (1962) Zur Kenntnis der Heteropteranfauna <sic> von Portugal. Notulae Entomologicae, 42, 20–23.

    Lindroth, C.H. (1957) The Faunal Connections between Europe and North America. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 344 pp.

    Linnavuori, R. (1974) Studies on African Miridae (Heteroptera). Occasional Publications of the Entomological Society Nigeria, 12, 1–67.

    Lipa, J.J. (1985) Progress in biological control of the Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) in Eastern Europe. EPPO Bulletin, 15, 207–211.

    Lis, B. (1996) Tingidae of Poland – a faunistic review (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum, 6/7, 253–298.

    Lis, J.A. & Webb, M. (2007) Redescription of the burrower bug Adrisa sepulchralis (Erichson, 1842) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cydnidae), based on the only known male (recently introduced to the UK from Australia), and the lectotype from Tasmania. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 143, 59–65.

    Lis, J.A., Lis, B. & Gubernator, J. (2008) Will the invasive western conifer seed bug Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) seize all of Europe? Zootaxa, 1740, 66–68.

    Lucas, E. & Alomar, O. (2002) Impact of the presence of Dicyphus tamaninii Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) predation by Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Biological Control, 25, 123–128.

    Maceljski, M. & Balarin, I. (1972a) Preliminary note on the appearance of a new species of insect pest in Yugoslavia. The bug Corythucha ciliata (Say). Acta entomologica Yugoslavica, 8, 105–106.

    Maceljski, M. & Balarin, I. (1972b) Ein neues Mitglied der schädlichen Entomofauna in Yugoslavien C. ciliata. Plant Protection, 23, 193–206.

    Majzlan, O. & Roháčová, M. (2007) Faunistické správy zo Slovenska. Naturae Tutela, 11, 199–200.

    Malausa, J.-C. (1989) Lutte intégrée sous serre: Les punaises prédatrices Mirides dans les cultures de Solanacées du sud-est de la France. Revue Horticole, 298, 39–43.

    Malausa, J.-C. & Ehanno, B. (1988) Premières observations en France de Cyrtopeltis (Nesidiocoris) tenuis Reuter, 1985 (Het., Miridae). Nouvelle Revue Entomologique (N.S.), 5, 180.

    Malumphy, C. & Reid, S. (2006) First British record of Corythucha ciliata (Say), Tingidae. HetNews, 8, 8.

    Malumphy, C. & Reid, S. (2007) Non-native Heteroptera associated with imported plant material in England during 2006 & 2007. HetNews, 10, 2–3.

    Malumphy, C., MacLeod, A., Bartlett, P. & Head, J. (1998) Andromeda lacebug (Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa). Plant Pest Notice, 24, 1–4.

    Mattson, W., Vanhanen, H., Veteli, T., Sivonen, S. & Niemelä, P. (2007) Few immigrant phytophagous insects on woody plants in Europe: legacy of the European crucible? Biological Invasions, 9, 957–974.

    McCullough, D.G., Work, T.T., Marshall, D., Cavey, J.F. & Liebhold, A. (2006) Interceptions of non-indigenous plant pests at US ports of entry and border crossings over a 17-year period. Biological Invasions, 8, 611–630.

    McKinlay, R.G. (1976) Spilostethus pandurus (Scop.) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Scotland. Plant Pathology, 25, 61.

    McPherson, J.E., Packauskas, R.J., Taylor, J. & O´Brien, M.F. (1990) Eastern range extension of Leptoglossus occidentalis with a key to Leptoglossus species of America North of Mexico (Heteroptera: Coreidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist, 23(2), 99–104.

    Meier, F., Engesser, R., Forster, B. & Odermatt, O. (2004) Forstschutz-Überblick 2003. Report Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, Birmensdorf, 22 pp.

    Melber, A. (1998) Bemerkenswerte Vorkommen von Wanzen (Insecta, Heteroptera) in Niedersachsen. Drosera, 98, 19–29.

    Mildner, P. (1983) Neues zur Kärntner Arthropodenfauna. Carinthia II, 173./93., 137–141.

    Millán, A., Hernando, C., Aguileira, P., Castro, A. & Ribera, I. (2005) Los coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos de Donana: Reconocimiento de su biodiversidad y prioridades de conservación. Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 36, 157–164.

    Miller, D.J.P. (2001) Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa) (Hemiptera: Miridae), new to Britain. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 14, 133–136.

    Mitchell, P.L. (2000) Leaf-Footed Bugs (Coreidae). In: Schaefer, C.W. & Panizzi, A.R. (Eds.), Heteroptera of Economic Importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 337–403.

    Montandon, A. (1886) Hémiptères-Hétéroptères des environs de Gorice (Illyrie) et description d’une espèce nouvelle. Revue d’Entomologie, 5, 105–111.

    Moulet, P. (1995) Hémiptères Coreoidea (Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Alydidae), Pyrrhocoridae, Stenocephalidae euro-méditerranéens. Faune de France 81, Paris, 336 pp.

    Moulet, P. (2006) Un nouveau Coreidae en France: Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Heteroptera Coreidae). L'Entomologiste, 62 (5-6), 183–184.

    Mutun, S. (2003) First report of the oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) from Bolu, Turkey. Israel Journal of Zoology, 49(4), 323–324.

    Nau, B.S. (1980) Tuponia carayoni Wagner (Hem., Miridae) new to Britain. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 116, 83–84.

    Nau, B.S. (2007) „Unknown“ orthotyline on Wellingtonia in Oxford. HetNews, 9, 9.

    Neal, J.W. Jr. & Schaefer, C.W. (2000) Lace Bugs (Tingidae). In: Schaefer, C.W. & Panizzi, A.R. (Eds.), Heteroptera of Economic Importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 85–137.

    Nentwig, W. (2007) Pathways in Animal Invasions. In: Nentwig, W. (Ed.), Biological Invasions. Ecological Studies, 193, Springer, Berlin, pp. 11–27.

    Niemelä, P. & Mattson, W.J. (1996) Invasion of North American forests by European phytophagous insects: legacy of the European crucible? BioScience, 46, 741–753.

    Olivieri, N. (2004) Segnalazioni Faunistiche Italiane. 426 – Leptoglossus occidentalis, Heidemann, 1910 (Heteroptera, Coreidae). Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana, 136, 75–78.

    Ossiannilsson, F. (1946) Orkidéstinkflyet – en icke önskvärd utlänning. Växtskyddsnotiser, Uppsala, 4, 2 pp.

    Ossiannilsson, F. (1967) Anmarkningar och tillagg till Sveriges heteropterfauna (Hem.). Entomologisk Tidskrift, 88, 83–86.

    Parker, I.M., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Goodell, K., Wonham, M., Kareiva, P.M., Williamson, M.H., Von Holle, B., Moyle, P.B., Byers, J.E. & Goldwasser, L. (1999) Impact: toward a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders. Biological Invasions, 1, 3–19.

    Pérez Vera, F. & Hoffmann, H.-J. (2007) Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) nun auch in Köln/Deutschland. Heteropteron, 25, 17–18.

    Péricart, J. (1965) Contribution à la faunistique de la Corse: hétéroptères Miridae et Anthocoridae. Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, 34, 377–384.

    Péricart, J. (1972) Hémiptères Anthocoridae, Cimicidae, Microphysidae de l'Ouest Paléarctique. Faune de l'Europe et du bassin méditerranéen 7, Paris, 403 pp.

    Péricart, J. (1990) Hemiptères Saldidae et Leptopodidae d’Europe occidentale et du Maghreb. Faune de France 77, Paris, 238 pp.

    Péricart, J. (1996) Anthocoridae Fieber, 1836. In: Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (Eds.), Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Vol. 2. Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, pp. 108–140.

    Péricart, J. (1999) Hémiptères Lygaeidae euro-méditerranéens. Faune de France 84A, 84B, 84C, Paris, 468 pp., 453 pp., 487 pp.

    Péricart, J. (2001) Lygaeidae Schilling, 1829. In: Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (Eds.), Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Vol. 4. Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, pp. 35–220.

    Péricart, J. & Golub, V. (1996) Tingidae Laporte, 1832. In: Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (Eds.), Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Vol. 2. Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, pp. 3–78.

    Péricart, J. & Stehlík, J.L. (1998) Amphiareus obscuriceps (Popp.) in the Czech Republic and in the Balkan Peninsula (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae, 83, 217–218.

    Polhemus, J.T. (1968) A report on the Saldidae collected by the Galapagos International Scientific Project 1964. Proceedings of the Entomological Society Washington, 70, 21–24.

    Polhemus, J.T. (1985) Shorebugs (Heteroptera: Hemiptera: Saldidae). A world overview and taxonomy of Middle American forms. Englewood, CO, 252 pp.

    Polhemus, J.T., Froeschner, R.C. & Polhemus, D.A. (1988) Family Corixidae Leach, 1815. The water boatmen. In: Henry, T.J. & Froeschner, R.C. (Eds.), Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp. 93–118.

    Prado, C.E. (1990) Presencia en Chile de Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae). Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 18, 53–55.

    Protić, L. (1998) Catalogue of the Heteroptera fauna of Yugoslav countries. Part One. Natural History Museum Belgrade, Special Issue, 38, 1–215.

    Protić, L. & Stojanovic, A. (2001) Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) another new species in the entomofauna of Serbia. Protection of Nature (Beograd), 52, 61–63.

    Putshkov, P.V. & Putshkov, V.G. (1996) Reduviidae Latreille, 1807. In: Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (Eds.), Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Vol. 2. Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, pp. 148–266.

    Putshkov, P.V., Ribes, J. & Moulet, P. (1999) Révision des Empicoris Wolff d’Europe (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (Nouvelle série), 35, 31–70.

    Rabitsch, W. (1999) Neue und seltene Wanzen (Insecta, Heteroptera) aus Wien und Niederösterreich. Linzer biologische Beiträge, 31, 993–1008.

    Rabitsch, W. (2001) Neue und seltene Wanzen (Insecta, Heteroptera) aus Niederösterreich und Wien. Teil 2. Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 33, 1057–1075.

    Rabitsch, W. (2002a) Die Arten der Gattung Tuponia (Heteroptera: Miridae) im östlichen Österreich. Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik, 3, 97–102.

    Rabitsch, W. (2002b) Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862) erstmals in Österreich festgestellt (Heteroptera: Miridae). Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik, 3, 181–183.

    Rabitsch, W. (2004a) Annotations to a check-list of the Heteroptera (Insecta) of Austria. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, 105, 453–492.

    Rabitsch, W. (2004b) Wanzen (Insecta, Heteroptera) im Botanischen Garten der Universität Wien. In: Pernstich, A. & Krenn, H.W. (Eds.), Die Tierwelt des Botanischen Gartens der Universität Wien. Ifabu-Eigenverlag, Wien, pp. 83–108.

    Rabitsch, W. (2005) Heteroptera (Insecta). Checklisten der Fauna Österreichs, 2, 1–64.

    Rabitsch, W. (2008) The Times They Are A-Changin’: Driving forces of recent additions to the Heteroptera fauna of Austria. In: Grozeva, S. & Simov, N. (Eds.), Advances in Heteroptera Research. Festschrift in Honor of the 80th Anniversary of Michail Josifov. Pensoft Series Faunistica, 82, in press.

    Rabitsch, W. & Adlbauer, K. (2001) Erstnachweis und bekannte Verbreitung von Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) in Österreich (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 2, 49–54.

    Rabitsch, W. & Heiss, E. (2005) Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910, eine amerikanische Adventivart auch in Österreich aufgefunden (Heteroptera: Coreidae). Berichte des naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischen Vereins Innsbruck, 92, 131–135.

    Reclaire, A. (1932) Naamlist der in Nederland en het omliggend gebied waargenomen wantsen (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 75, 59–258.

    Rédei, D. & Torma, A. (2003) Occurrence of the Southern Green Stink Bug, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 38, 365–367.

    Reichling, L. (1985) Hétéroptères du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. 2. Quelques espèces peu connues, rares ou inattendues. Travaux Scientifiques du Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Luxembourg, 4, 1–45.

    Reichling, L. (1994) Notes hétéroptèrologiques II. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeoise, 95, 253–272.

    Reichling, L. & Gerend, R. (1994) Liste des Hétéroptères du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeoise, 95, 273–286.

    Reid, S. (2005) Heteroptera recently intercepted in England & Wales on foreign plant material. HetNews, 6, 11.

    Reynaud, P. (2000) La punaise Oxycarenus lavaterae. Elle est responsable de pullulations spectaculaires à Paris. Phytoma, 528, 30–33.

    Ressl, F. (1983) Naturkunde des Bezirkes Scheibbs, Tierwelt (2). Radinger, Scheibbs, 584 pp.

    Ressl, F. (1995) Naturkunde des Bezirkes Scheibbs, Tierwelt (3). Botanische Arbeitsgemeinschaft am Biologiezentrum / OÖ Landesmuseum, Linz, 443 pp.

    Ressl, F. & Wagner, E. (1960) Die Tingidae und Aradidae (Heteroptera) des politischen Bezirkes Scheibbs, Niederösterreich. Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft österreichischer Entomolgen, 12, 1–18.

    Reuter, O.M. (1875) Genera Cimicidarum Europae disposuit. Bihang till Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 3, 1–66.

    Reuter, O. (1907) Eine neotropische Capside als Orchideenschädling in europäischen Warmhäusern. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie, 3, 251–254.

    Ribes, J. (1980) Un insecte nord-americà que ataca els plàtans. Revista de Girona, 93, 299–301.

    Ribes, J. & Escolá, O. (2005) Leptglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910, hemípter neàrtic trobat a Catalunya (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae). Sessió Conjunta d’Entomologia ICHN-SCL, 13, 47–50.

    Ribes, J., Serra, A. & Goula, M. (2004) Catàleg dels heteròpters de Catalunya (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera). Institució Catalana d’Història Natural – Secció de Ciències Biològiques. Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Barcelona, 1–128.

    Rieger, C. (1997) Ergänzungen zur Faunistik und Systematik einiger Wanzen in Baden-Württemberg (Insecta, Heteroptera) II. Carolinea, 55, 43–48.

    Rietschel, S. (1998) Arocatus longiceps Stål, 1873 <sic!> (Lygaeidae) ein Platanen-Neubürger in Mitteleuropa. Heteropteron, 4, 11–12.

    Rietschel, S. (2003) Zur Ausbreitung von Arocatus longiceps Stål, 1872 (Lygaeidae) in Mitteleuropa – neue Nachweise am Ober- und Hochrhein. Heteropteron, 17, 12–16.

    Rosenzweig, V.E. (1995) Addition to the fauna of the Heteroptera of Belarus. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Belorusskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, 1, 267–271.

    Roubal, J. (1953) Nové Öeské Heteroptery a příspevek ke studiu příslušné faunistické literatury. Časopis Slezského Musea Opava, 3, 17–27.

    Roubal, J. (1956) Tretí faunisticky príspevek o ceskych Heteropterách. Ñasopis Slezského Musea, 5, 31–32.

    Roubal, J. (1957) Studie o plošticích ze severozápadních Ñech s kritickými poznámkami. RoÖenka Ñeskoslovenské SpoleÖnosti Entomologické, 53, 63–109.

    Roques, A. & Auger-Rozenberg, M.-A. (2006) Tentative analysis of the interceptions of non-indigenous organisms in Europe during 1995–2004. EPPO Bulletin, 36, 490–496.

    Roques, A., Auger-Rozenberg, M.-A. & Boivin, S. (2006) A lack of native congeners may limit colonization of introduced conifers by indigenous insects in Europe. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36, 299–313.

    Roques, A., Rabitsch, W. Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Nentwig, W. & Kenis, M. (2008) Alien terrestrial invertebrates of Europe. In: Hulme, P., Nentwig, W., Pysek, P. & Vila, M. (Eds.), The Handbook of Alien Species in Europe. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, in press.

    Rouault, G., Cantini, R., Battisti, A. & Roques, A. (2005) Geographic distribution and ecology of two species of Orsillus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) associated with cones of native and introduced Cupressaceae in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. The Canadian Entomologist, 137, 450–470.

    Rus, I. (2004) Catalogue of the Heteroptera collection of Otokar Kubík deposited in the Regional Museum Kolín – Part I. Práce Muzea v Kolíné, 6, 15–80.

    Russo, A., Cocuzza, G.E. & Vasta, M.C. (2004) Life tables of Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) feeding on Tribolium castaneum (Coeloptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 40, 103–112.

    Sala, J. & Boix, D. (2005) Presence of the nearctic water boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis (Fieber, 1851) (Heteroptera: Corixidae) in the Algarve region (S Portugal). Graellsia, 61, 31–36.

    Schaefer, C.W. & Panizzi, A.R. (2000) Heteroptera of Economic Importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 828 pp.

    Schembri, S. (1993) An annotated catalogue of the heteropteran bugs of the Maltese Islands (Heteroptera). Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana, 71, 467–503.

    Schmitz, G. (1988) Captures "insolites" d'hétéroptères. Bulletin and Annales de la Société royale belge d'Entomologie, 122, 33–38.

    Schrameyer, K. (2004) Funde und Foto Tupiocoris rhododendri (Dolling, 1972). Nachrichten aus der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie, 18, 82.

    Schuh, R.T. & Slater, J.A. (1995) True bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Cornell Univ. Press, 336 pp.

    Scudder, G.G.E. (1960) Dictyonota fuliginosa Costa (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in the Nearctic. Proceedings of the Entomological Society British Columbia, 57, 22.

    Scudder, G.G.E. (2004) Heteroptera (Hemiptera: Prosorrhyncha) new to Canada. Part 2. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 101, 125–129.

    Scudder, G.G.E. & Foottit, R.G. (2006) Alien true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Canada: composition and adaptations. The Canadian Entomologist, 138, 24–51.

    Šefrová, H. & Laštùvka, Z. (2005) Catalogue of alien animal species in the Czech Republic. – Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 53: 151–170.

    Selin, A. (2004) Uusi lutikalisi (Heteroptera) eesti faunas. Lepinfo, 15, 57–58.

    Servadei, A. (1966) Un Tingide nearctico comparso in Italia (Corythucha ciliata Say). Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana, 96, 94–96.

    Shardlow, M. & Taylor, R. (2004) The Southern Green Shield Bug Nezara viridula (L., 1758) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) – another species colonising Britain due to climate change? British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 17, 143–146.

    Simon, H. (1995) Nachweis von Dicyphus escalerai <sic> Lindberg, 1934 (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Mitteleuropa. Fauna und Flora Rheinland-Pfalz, 8, 53–63.

    Simon, H. (2002) Erstes vorläufiges Verzeichnis der Wanzen (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Rheinland-Pfalz. Fauna und Flora Rheinland-Pfalz, 9, 1379–1420.

    Simon, H. (2007) 1. Nachtrag zum Verzeichnis der Wanzen in Rheinland-Pfalz (Insecta: Heteroptera). Fauna und Flora Rheinland-Pfalz, 11, 109–135.

    Simov, N. & Pencheva, A. (2007) Stephanitis rhododendri Horváth, 1905 (Heteroptera: Tingidae) – a new American pest on rhododendrons in Bulgaria. Plant Science, Sofia, 43, 483–485.

    Sklyar, V.E. (1971) True bugs (Hemiptera) from nests of rodents in Donetsk Province. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 50(1), 63–65.

    Smit, J.T., Reemer, M. & Aukema, B. (2007) Een invasie van de nieuw-zeelandse tarwewants Nysius huttoni in Nederland (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen, 27, 51–70.

    Snyder, W.E. & Evans, E.W. (2006) Ecological effects of invasive arthropod generalist predators. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 37, 95–122.

    Soika, G. & Labanowski, G. (1999) The andromeda lace bug – a new pest in Poland. Onchrony Roslin, 43, 14–15.

    Sotres Gil, M.C. & Vazquez Mansilla J.L. (1981) Description de una nueva plaga del Platanus spp. en Espana. Communications Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Proteccion Vegetales, 15, 1–11.

    Southwood, T.R.E. (1957) The Zoogeography of the British Hemiptera Heteroptera. Proceedings and Transactions of the South London Entomological and Natural History Society, 1956, 111–136.

    Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D. (1959) Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles. F. Warne, London, 436 pp.

    Spitzner, W. (1892) Beitrag zur Hemipteren-Fauna Mährens. Verhandlungen des Naturforschenden Vereins in Brünn, 30, 3–34.

    Stehlík, J.L. (1962) Zajímavé nálezy Heteropter na Moravé a na Slovensku IV. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales, 47, 125–134.

    Stehlík, J.L. (1971) Contribution to the knowledge of Heteroptera of Moravia and Slovakia. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales, 65, 209–232.

    Stehlík, J.L. (1997) Corythucha ciliata (Say), a pest of plane trees, now also in the Czech Republic (Tingidae, Het.). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales, 81, 299–306.

    Stehlík, J.L. (1998) The Heteropteran fauna of introduced Cupressaceae in the southern part of Moravia (Czech Republic). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales, 82, 127–155.

    Stehlík, J.L. & Hradil, K. (2000) Arocatus longiceps Stål in the Czech Republic too (Lygaeidae, Heteroptera). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae, 85, 351–353.

    Stehlík, J.L. & Vavrínová, I. (1996) Results of the investigations on Heteroptera in Slovakia made by the Moravian museum (Lygaeidae I). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales 80, 163–233.

    Streito, J.C. (2006) Note sur quelques espèces envahissantes de Tingidae : Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1932), Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott, 1874) et Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa, 1955 (Hemiptera Tingidae). L'Entomologiste, 62(1-2), 31–36.

    Sweet, M.H. (2000) Seed and Chinch Bugs (Lygaeoidea). In: Schaefer, C.W. & Panizzi, A.R. (Eds.), Heteroptera of Economic Importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 143–264.

    Steyer (1915) Stephanitis rhododendri Horváth (Hemipt.) in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie, 2, 434–435.

    Štusák, J.M. (1981) Stephanitis rhododendri, a new pest in the Czechoslovak fauna. Sborník Vysoké Školy Zemçdçlské v Praze – Fakulta Agronomická, Ãada B 33, 49–58.

    Štys, P. (1976) Faunistic records from Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 73, 348.

    Taylor, S.J., Tescari, G. & Villa, M. (2001) A Nearctic pest of Pinaceae accidentally introduced into Europe: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in northern Italy. Entomological News, 112, 101–103.

    Tescari, G. (2001) Leptoglossus occidentalis, coreide neartico rinvenuto in Italia (Heteroptera, Coreidae). Lavori della Società Veneziana di Scienze Naturali, 26, 3–5.

    Tescari, G. (2003) Nota sulla diffusione di Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) nel territorio vicentino. Studi e Ricerche – Associazione Amici del Museo – Museo Civico “ G. Zannato” Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 35–36.

    Tescari, G. (2004) First record of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Croatia. Entomologica Croatica, 8, 73–75.

    Thomas, M.B. & Reid, A.M. (2007) Are exotic natural enemies an effective way of controlling invasive plants? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 447–453.

    Todd, J.W. (1989) Ecology and behaviour of Nezara viridula. Annual Review of Entomology, 34, 273–292.

    Tokihiro, G., Tanaka, K. & Kondo, K. (2003) Occurrence of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) in Japan. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, 39, 85–87.

    TomiÉ, D. & MihajloviÉ, L. (1974) American netlike bug (Corythucha ciliata Say – Heteroptera, Tingidae) new serious enemy of plane trees in Belgrade. Sumarstvo, 7-9, 51–54.

    Tzanakakis, M.E. (1988) First records of the Sycamore Lace Bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) in Greece. Entomologica Hellenica, 6, 55–57.

    Usinger, R.L. (1966) Monograph of Cimicidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Thomas Say Foundation, 7, Entomological Society of America, Baltimore, MD, 585 pp.

    Van den Bruel, W.E. (1947) A propos du comportement en Belgique de Stephanitis rhododendri Horváth (Tingididae). Bulletin and Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique, 83, 191–197.

    Van Lenteren, J.C., Bale, J., Bigler, F., Hokkanen, H.M.T., Loomans, A.J.M. (2006) Assessing risks of releasing exotic biological control agents of arthropod pests. Annual Review of Entomology, 51, 609–634.

    Velimirovic, V., Durovic, Z. & Raicevic, M. (1992) Bug Oxycarenus lavaterae Fabricius (Lygaeidae, Heteroptera) new pest on lindens in southern part of Montenegro. Zastita Bilja, 43, 69–72.

    Villa, M., Tescari, G. & Taylor, S.J. (2001) Nuovi dati sulla presenza in Italia di Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae). Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana , 133, 101–112.

    Voigt, K. (1977) Bemerkenswerte Wanzenfunde aus Baden-Württemberg, mit einem Erstnachweis für Deutschland. Beiträge zur naturkundlichen Forschung in Südwestdeutschland, 36, 153–158.

    Voigt, K. (2001) The first russian record of Corythucha ciliata (Say) from Krasnodar (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 10, 76.

    VyslouÒil, L. (1986) Faunistic records from Czechoslovakia. Heteroptera, Anthocoridae: Xylocoris flavipes. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 83, 154.

    Wagner, E. (1953) Pentacora iberica n.sp., eine neue Spanische Saldidenart (Hemipt. Heteropt.). EOS, 29, 281–282.

    Wagner, E. (1955) Eine neue Orthotylus-Art von der Insel Sardinien. Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana, 135, 92–93.

    Wagner, E. (1957) Beitrag zur Systematik der Gattung Anthocoris Fallén (Hem Het. Anthocoridae). Nachrichtenblatt der Bayerischen Entomologen, 6, 101–104, 109–112.

    Waloff, N. (1966) Scotch broom (Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Wimmer) and its insect fauna introduced into the Pacific Northwest of America. Journal of Applied Ecology, 3, 293–311.

    Wermelinger, B., Wyniger, D. & Forster, B. (2005) Massenauftreten und erster Nachweis von Oxycarenus lavaterae (F.) (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae) auf der Schweizer Alpennordseite. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 78, 311–316.

    Wermelinger, B., Wyniger, D. & Forster, B. (2008) First records of an invasive bug in Europe: Halyomorpha halys Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a new pest on woody ornamentals and fruit trees? Mitteilungen der Schweizer Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 81, in press.

    Werner, D.J. (2004) Verbreitung, Wirtspflanzenwechsel und Naturschutzaspekte bei Wanzen (Heteroptera) an Zypressengewächsen (Cupressaceae) in Deutschland. Entomologie heute, 16, 117–140.

    Werner, D.J. (2005) Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758) in Köln und in Deutschland (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Heteropteron, 21, 29–31.

    Werner, D.J. (2006) Leptoglossus occidentalis nun auch in Deutschland. Heteropteron, 23, 38.

    Wheeler, A.G. Jr. (1977) Spicebush and sassafras as new North American hosts of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis takeyai (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 79, 168–171.

    Wheeler, A.G. Jr. (1992) Leptoglossus occidentalis. A new conifer pest and household nuisance in Pennsylvania. Regulatory Horticulture, 18, 29–30.

    Wheeler, A.G. Jr. & Henry, T.J. (1992) A synthesis of the Holarctic Miridae (Heteroptera): Distribution, Biology and Origin, with emphasis on North America. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Lanham, MD, 282 pp.

    Wheeler, A.G. Jr., Henry, T. & Hoebeke, E.R. (2006) Palearctic plant bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae) in Newfoundland, Canada: First North American records for Phytocoris longipennis Flor and Pilophorus cinnamopterus (Kirschbaum), new records of eight other species, and review of previously reported species. In: Rabitsch, W. (Ed.), Hug the bug – For love of true bugs. Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Ernst Heiss. Denisia, 19, 997–1014.

    White, F.B. (1880) Descriptions of new Anthocoridae. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 16, 142–148.

    Whitehead, P. (1989) The most northe