Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2021-12-31

How long do eriophyoid mites live?

Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 55139 Samsun, Turkey
The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St. Lucia: 4072 Brisbane, Australia
Acari Eriophyoidea life parameters development time adult longevity lifespan biological studies


The eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) are extremely small, highly specialized and obligately phytophagous, and ~ 80% of the ~ 5,000 known species are monophagous. They include pests of more than 50 important food and industrial crops and ornamental plants. Conversely, other species have been investigated for their potential role in the biological control of weeds. In this literature review, the data on the development time, adult longevity and lifespan of eriophyoid species generated in 74 studies from 1930 to 2021 was compiled. The eriophyoids were from three families, Eriophyidae, Diptilomiopidae and Phytoptidae, 24 genera and 47 species that included 43 eriophyids, two phytoptids and two diptilomiopids. The most studied genus was Aceria (13 species), followed by Aculus (4) and Calacarus (3). The host plants were in a range of vegetative forms, including grasses, a climber, shrubs and trees, in different families that included Poaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae. Almost all the investigations were carried out in laboratory settings under numerous combinations of species, gender, diet/host plant, temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod. These variables all affected the development time, adult longevity and lifespan of eriophyoid mites, with temperature consistently a major influence and relative humidity consistently important. Male life stages were always shorter than female life stages. Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) males had the shortest lifespan of 7.1 d at 32 °C on green orange fruit and Aculops lycopersici (Massee) females had the longest lifespan of 46.4 d at 11 °C on young tomato leaves. Biological studies on the duration of their life stages are required to develop models that predict the dynamics of eriophyoid populations in the field to support IPM programs and organic farming. Moreover, these studies are becoming increasingly valuable as globalization and climate change facilitate the spread of invasive eriophyoid mite species.


  1. Abou-Awad, B.A. (1979a) Uber die rotgelbe tomatenmilbe, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari, Eriophyidae), in Agypten. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 52, 153–156.

  2. Abou-Awad, B.A. (1979b) The biology and morphology of Eriophyes datura Soliman and Abou-Awad (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 21 (3–4), 392–395.

  3. Abou-Awad, B.A. (1981a) Ecological and biological studies on the mango bud mite, Eriophyes mangiferae (Sayed) with description of immature stages (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 22, 145–150.

  4. Abou-Awad, B.A. (1981b) Bionomics of the mango rust mite, Metaculus mangiferae (Attiah) with description of immature stages (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 22, 151–155.

  5. Abou-Awad, B.A., Afia, S.I. & Al-Azzazy, M.M. (2013) Bionomics of the pear bud mite Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Egypt. Acarines, 7, 31–36.

  6. Abou-Awad, B.A., Alazzazy, M.M. & Afia, S.I. (2016) Biology of Aculops guajavae, a new species (Acari: Eriophyidae) infesting guava trees. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 9 (12), 108–113.

  7. Abou-Awad, B.A., Al-Azzazy, M.M. & El-Sawi, S.A. (2010) The life-history of the peach silver mite, Aculus fockeui (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 43, 384–389.

  8. Abou-Awad, B.A., Metwally, A.M. & Al-Azzazy, M.M. (2005) Environmental management and biological aspects of two eriophyoid olive mites in Egypt: Aceria oleae and Tegolophus hassani. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 112, 287–303.

  9. Abou-Awad, B.A., Metwally A.M. & Al-Azzazy, M.M. (2009) Ecological, biological and control studies on the leaf coating and webbing mite, Cisaberoptus kenyae Keifer (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) in Egypt. Acarines, 3, 65–71.

  10. Abou-Awad, B.A., Metwally, A.S. & Al-Azzazy, M.M. (2011a) Environmental management and biological aspects of two eriophyid mango mites in Egypt: Aceria mangiferae and Metaculus mangiferae. Acarologia, 51, 481–497.

  11. Abou-Awad, B.A., Afia, S.I. & Al-Azzazy, M.M. (2011b) The life-history and bionomics of the apple rust mite Calepitrimerus baileyi (Acari: Eriophyidae). Acarines, 5, 57–63.

  12. Abou-Awad, B.A., El-Sawaf, B.M., Reda, A.S. & Abdel-Khalek, A.A. (2000) Environmental management and biological aspects of two eriophyoid fig mites in Egypt: Aceria ficus and Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae. Acarologia, 40 (4), 419–429.

  13. Alazzazy, M.M. (2010) Biological aspects of pear bud mite Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) (Acari: Eriophyidae) under different temperatures in Egypt. Journal of Plant Protection and Pathology, 1 (9), 675–680.

  14. Al-Azzazy, M.M. (2015) Ecological, biological and control studies on apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Egypt. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 53 (2), 287–293.

  15. Al-Azzazy, M.M. & Alhewairini, S.S. (2018) Relationship between temperature and developmental rate of tomato russet mite Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on tomato. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 16 (3&4), 18–23.

  16. Al-Azzazy, M.M., Abdallah, A.A. & El-Kawas, H.M.G. (2013) Studies on the wheat curl mite, Aceria tulipae Keifer (Eriophyidae), in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46 (10), 1150–1158.

  17. Alinejad, M., Kheradmand, K. & Fathipour, Y. (2014) Sublethal effects of fenazaquin on life table parameters of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 64 (3), 361–373.

  18. Allen, J.C., Yang, Y. & Knapp, J.L. (1995) Temperature effects on development and fecundity of the citrus rust mite (Acari: Eriophyidae). Environmental Entomology, 24, 996–1004.

  19. Amaral, I., Matta, L.G. & Andrade, D.J. (2020) Population dynamics of Aceria litchii (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae) reveals differential responses of lychee varieties. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 25 (2), 214-224.

  20. Ansaloni, T. & Perring, T.M. (2004) Biology of Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) on queen palm, Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae). International Journal of Acarology, 30, 63–70.

  21. Bahirai, F., Jafari, S., Lotfollahi, P. & Shakarami, J. (2019) Effect of temperature on life table parameters of Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae Keifer (Trombidiformes; Diptilomiopidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 24 (8), 1394–1405.

  22. Bahiraei, F., Jafari, S., Lotfollahi, P. & Shakarami, J. (2020) Temperature dependent development and temperature thresholds of Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae Keifer (Diptilomiopidae). Journal of Asia-Pasific Entomology, 23, 186–195.

  23. Bailey, S.F. & Keifer, H.H. (1943) The tomato russet mite, Phyllocoptes destructor Keifer: its present status. Journal of Economic Entomology, 36, 706–712.

  24. Baker, J.R. & Neunzig, H.H. (1970) Biology of the blueberry bud mite. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63, 74–79.

  25. Bergh, J.C. (1994) Pear rust mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) fecundity and development at constant temperature. Environmental Entomology, 23 (2), 420–424.

  26. Bergh, J.C. & Weiss, C.R. (1993) Pear rust mite, Epitrimerus pyri (Acari: Eriophyidae) oviposition and nymphal development on Pyrus and non-Pyrus hosts. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 17, 215–224.

  27. Boczek, J. & Chyczewski, J. (1975) Beobachtungen zur Biologie einiger Gallmilbenarten (Eriophyoidea) der Graser. Tagungsberichte / Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Berlin, 134, 83–90.

  28. Boczek, J., Zawadzki, W. & Davis, R. (1984) Some morphological and biological differences in Aculus fockeui (Nalepa and Trouessart) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on various host plants. International Journal of Acarology, 10, 81–87.

  29. Bolton, S.J., Chetverikov, P.E. & Klompen, H. (2017) Morphological support for a clade comprising two vermiform mite lineages: Eriophyoidea (Acariformes) and Nematalycidae (Acariformes). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 22 (8), 1096–1131.

  30. Boyce, A.M. & Korsmeier, R.B. (1941) The citrus bud mite, Eriophyes sheldoni Ewing. Journal of Economic Entomology, 34, 745–756.

  31. Bozhgani, N.S.S., Kheradmand, K. & Talebi, A. A. (2019) The effects of Spiromesifen on life history traits and demographic parameters of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and its prey Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 24 (8), 1512–1525.

  32. Britto, E.P.J., Gondim M.G.C.Jr., Navia, D. & Flechtmann, C.H.W. (2008) A new deuterogynous eriophyid mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) with dimorphic males from Caesalpinia echinata (Caesalpiniaceae) from Brazil: description and biological observations. International Journal of Acarology, 34 (3), 307–316.

  33. Carrillo, D., Cruz, L.F., Revynthi, A.M., Duncan, R.E., Bauchan, G.R., Ochoa, R., Kendra, P.E. & Bolton, S.J. (2020) Detection of the Lychee Erinose Mite, Aceria litchi (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Florida, USA: A comparison with other alien populations. Insects, 11 (4), 235.

  34. Chandrapatya, A. & Baker, G.T. (1986) Biological aspects of the geranium mites, Coptophylla caroliniani and Aceria mississippiensis (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 2 (3), 201–216.

  35. Chetverikov, P.E., Klimov, P., Letukhova, V.Y., Ripka, G., & Zukoff, S. (2019) Two new phyllocoptine species and new records of eriophyoid mites (Eriophyidae, Phyllocoptinae) from Crimea, with evaluation of the phylogenetic position of the new taxa using GenBank data. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 24 (5), 904-882.

  36. Chetverikov, P.E., Amrine, J., Bauchan, G., Ochoa, R., Sukhareva, S.I. & Vishnyakov, A.E. (2017) Supplementary description of Novophytoptus stipae Keifer 1962 (Acariformes, Eriophyoidea) with LT-SEM observation on mites from putatively conspecific populations: cryptic speciation or polyphagy of novophytoptines on phylogenetically remote hosts? Systematic and Applied Acarology, 22, 253–270.

  37. Courtin, O., Fauvel, G. & Leclant, F. (2000) Temperature and relative humidity effects on egg and nymphal development of Aceria tulipae (K.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on garlic leaves (Allium sativum L.). Annals of Applied Biology, 137 (3), 207–211.

  38. Craemer, C., Sobhian, R., McClay, A.S. & Amrine , J.W.Jr. (1999) A new species of Cecidophyes (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Galium aparine (Rubiaceae) with notes on its biology and potential as a biological control agent for Galium spurium. International Journal of Acarology, 25 (4), 255–263.

  39. Cvrković, T., Chetverikov, P., Vidović, B. & Petanović, R. (2016) Cryptic speciation within Phytoptus avellanae s.l. (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) revealed by molecular data and observations on molting Tegonotus-like nymphs. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 68 (1), 83–96.

  40. Damasceno, M.R.A. & Navia, D. (2009) A new cassava eriophyid mite from Brazil. International Journal of Acarology, 35 (5), 371–376,

  41. Das, G.M. & Sengupta, N. (1958) Observations on the pink mite Acaphylla theae (Watt) Keifer, of tea in North-west India. Journal of the Zoological Society of India, 10 (1), 39–48.

  42. Das, G.M. & Sengupta, N. (1962) Biology and control of the purple mite, Calacarus carinatus (Green), a pest of tea in north-east India. Journal of the Zoological Society of India, 14 (1), 64–72.

  43. David, A. S. & Lake, E.C. (2020) Eriophyid mite Floracarus perrepae reduces climbing ability of the invasive vine Lygodium microphyllum. Biological Control, 146, 104271.

  44. Davis, R. (1964) Autecological studies on Rhynacus breitlowi Davis (Acarina: Eriophyidae). The Florida Entomologist, 47, 113–121.

  45. de Lillo, E. (1991) Preliminary observations of ovoviviparity in the gall-forming mite, Aceria caulobius (Nal.) (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). In: Schuster, R. & Murphy, P.W. (Eds.), The Acari – Reproduction, Development and Life-history Strategies. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 223–229.

  46. de Lillo, E. & Skoracka, A. (2010) What’s ‘‘cool’’ on eriophyoid mites? Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 3–30.

  47. de Lillo, E., Pozzebon, A., Valenzano, D. & Duso, C. (2018) An intimate relationship between eriophyoid mites and their host plants—a review. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 1786.

  48. del Rosario, M.S.E. & Sill, W.H.Jr. (1964) Additional biological and ecological characteristics of Aceria tulipae (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 57 (6), 893–896.

  49. Druciarek, T., Lewandowski, M. & Kozak, M. (2014) Demographic parameter of Phyllocoptes adalius (Acari: Eriophyoidea) and influence of insemination on female fecundity and longevity. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 63, 349–360.

  50. Duarte, M.E., Silva, E.S. & Navia, D. (2017) Eriophyidae mites from Cupania trees (Sapindaceae) from the Atlantic Forest in Brazil: three new genera and five new species. Systematic and Appied Acarology, 22, 341–372.

  51. Duso, C., Castagnoli, M., Simoni, S. & Angeli, G. (2010) The impact of eriophyoids on crops: recent issues on Aculus schlechtendali, Calepitrimerus vitis and Aculops lycopersici. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51 (1&3), 151–168.

  52. Easterbrook, M.A. (1978) The life history and bionomics of Epitrimerus pyri (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Annals of Applied Biology, 88, 13–22.

  53. Easterbrook, M.A. (1979) The life-history of the eriophyid mite Aculus schlechtendali on apple in South-East England. Annals of Applied Biology, 91, 287–296.

  54. Ebrahim, H.M. (2000) Influence of temperature and relative humidity on the biology and life table parameters of Phyllocoptruta oleivora and Aculops pelekassi (Acari: Eriophyidae) on ‘‘Hamlin’’ orange in Central Florida. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 78, 143–161.

  55. Ferla, N.J. & de Moraes, G.J. (2003) Ciclo biológico de Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 (Acari, Eriophyidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 47, 399–402.

  56. Flechtmann, C.H.W. (1977) Acaros de importancia agricola. Livraria Nobel S.A., Sao Paulo, Brazil, 189 pp.

  57. Flechtmann, C.H.W., de Moraes, G.J. & Moreira, F.R.B. (2001). A new species of Calacarus Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) on papaya in northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 5, 1–5.

  58. Fornazier, M.J., Martins, D.D.S., Fornazier, D.L., Azevedo, L.H., Zanuncio, J.S.Jr. & Zanuncio, J.C. (2014). Range expansion of the litchi erinose mite Aceria litchii (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 97 (2), 846–848.

  59. Gondim, M.G.C.Jr. & de Moraes, G.J. (2003) Life cycle of Retracrus johnstoni Keifer (Acari: Phytoptidae). Neotropical Entomology, 32, 197–201.

  60. Haque, M.M. & Kawai, A. (2003) Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 38 (1), 97–101.

  61. Hatzinikolis, E.N. (1973) A contribution to the study of Aceria oleae (Nalepa, 1900) (Acarina: Eriophyidae). In: Daniel, M. & Rosicky, B. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of Acarology, Prague, Czechoslovakia, pp. 221–224.

  62. Hatzinikolis, E.N. (1979) Studies of biology and ecology of Aculus benakii Hatzinikolis, 1968 (Acarina: Eriophyidae). In: Piffl, E. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Acarology. Academiai Kiado, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 189–191.

  63. Hatzinikolis, E.N. (1984) A contribution to the study of Ditrymacus athiasella Keifer 1960 (Acarina: Eriophyidae). In: Griffiths, D.A. & Bowman, C.E (Eds.), Acarology VI. Ellis Horwood Ltd. Chichester, UK, pp. 809–812.

  64. Havasi, M.R., Kheradmand, K., Mosallanejad, H. & Fathipour, Y. (2018) Sublethal effects of diflovidazin on life history and life table parameters of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). International Journal of Acarology, 115–120.

  65. Hobza, R.F. & Jeppson, L.R. (1974) A temperature and humidity study of citrus rust mite employing a constant humidity air-flow technique. Environmental Entomology, 3, 813–822.

  66. Hong, X.-Y. & Dong, H.-Q. (1997) A review of economic eriophyoid mites in China. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 2, 17–32.

  67. Hong, X.-Y..Ji, J., Ma, J.-X. & Dong, H.-Q. (1998) Tests of host plant suitability of the tea pink mite, Acaphylla theae (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae), at different temperatures. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 3, 63–68. 

  68. Ikemoto, T. & Egami, C. (2013) Mathematical elucidation of the Kaufmann effect based on the thermodynamic SSI model. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 48 (3), 313–323.

  69. Ikemoto, T. & Takai, K. (2000). A new linearized formula for the law of total effective temperature and the evaluation of line-fitting methods with both variables subject to error. Environmental Entomology, 29 (4), 671–682.

  70. Jeppson, L.R., Keifer, H.H. & Baker, E.W. (1975) Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. University of California Press, Berkeley, 614 pp.

  71. Karpicka-Ignatowska, K., Laska, A., Rector, B.G., Skoracka, A. & Kuczynski, L. (2021) Temperature‐dependent development and survival of an invasive genotype of wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 83, 513–525.

  72. Kassar, A. & Amrine, J.W.Jr (1990) Rearing and development of Phyllocoptes fructiphilus (Acari: Eriophyidae). Entomological News, 101 (5), 276–282.

  73. Kiedrowicz, A., Rector, B.G., Lommen, S., Kuczynki, L., Szydlo, W. & Skoracka, A. (2017) Population growth rate of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Acariformes: Eriophyidae), on agriculturally important plants and implications for its taxonomic status. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 73 (1), 1–10.

  74. Kozlowski, J. & Boczek, J. (1989) Life-cycle of apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 31 (2), 49–65.

  75. Krantz, G.W. & Walter, D.E. (2009) A Manual of Acarology. Third Edition. Texas Tech University Press, 877 pp.

  76. Kuang, H.Y. (1995) Economic Insect Fauna of China. Fasc. 44 (Acari: Eriophyoidea) (1). Science Press, Beijing, China, 110 pp. [in Chinese]

  77. Lake, E.C., Smith, M.C., Pratt, P.D., Boughton, A.J. & Pemberton, R.W. (2014) Dispersal and establishment of new populations of the biological control agent Floracarus perrepae (Acariformes: Eriophyidae) on Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae). Florida Entomologist, 97, 827–829.

  78. Li, L.-S., Huang, F.-N. & Chen, J.-L. (1989) Ecological characteristics of the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 32, 184–191 [in Chinese with English summary]

  79. Li, Y.Y., Fan, X., Zhang, G.H., Liu, Y.Q., Chen, H.Q., Liu, H. & Wang, J.J. (2017) Sublethal effects of bifenazate on life history and population parameters of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 22 (1), 148–158.

  80. Lindquist, E.E. & Oldfield, G.N. (1996) Evolution of eriophyoid mites in relation to their host plants. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 277–300.

  81. Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (1996) Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 790 pp.

  82. Manson, D.C.M. & Oldfield, G.N. (1996) Life forms, deutogyny, diapause and seasonal development. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites-Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 173–183.

  83. Mariau, D. 1977. Aceria (Eriophyes) guerreronis: un important ravageur des cocoteraies africaines et americaines. Oleagineux, 32 (3), 101–111.

  84. Marini, F., Weyl, P., Vidović, B., Petanović, R., Littlefield, J., Simoni, S., de Lillo, E., Cristofaro, M. & Smith, L. (2021) Eriophyid mites in classical biological control of weeds: progress and challenges. Insects, 12 (6), 513.

  85. Maula, F. & Khan, I.A. (2016) Effect of temperature variation on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi Koch (Tetranychidae: Acarina) under laboratory conditions in Swat valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 4 (1), 279–283.

  86. Metwally, A.M., Abou-Awad, B.A., Hussein, A.M. & Farahat, B.M. (2020) Life table parameters of tomato russet mite Aculops lycopersici (Acari: Eriophyidae) at different temperatures in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Plant Protection Research Institute, 3 (3), 816–822.

  87. Michalska, K., Skoracka, A., Navia, D. & Amrine, J.W. (2010) Behavioural studies on eriophyoid mites: an overview. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 31–59.

  88. Mizuta, T. (2000) Effect of temperature on developmental period and oviposition of tea rust mite, Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 44 (2), 95–99. [in Japanese with English summary]

  89. Morais, M.R., Zanardi, O.Z. & Andrade, D.J. (2019) Biological and demographic parameters of Tegolophus brunneus (Acari: Eriophyidae) in citrus. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 79, 35–46.

  90. Naidu, V.G. & ChannaBasavanna, G.P. (1986) Bio-ecology of Eriophyes cymbopogonis (Acari: Eriophyidae), a pest of citronella. In: ChannaBasavanna, G.P. & Viraktamath, C.A. (Eds.), Progress in Acarology, Vol. 2. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp. 129–133.

  91. Navia, D., Ochoa, R., Welbourn, C. & Ferragut, F. (2010) Adventive eriophyoid mites: a global review of their impact, pathways, prevention and challenges. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 225–255.

  92. Navia, D., de Mendonca, R.S., Skoracka, A., Szydło, W., Knihinicki, D., Hein, G.L., Pereira, P.R.V.S., Truol, G. & Lau, D. (2013) Wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella, and transmitted viruses: an expanding pest complex affecting cereal crops. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 59, 95–143.

  93. Oldfield, G.N. (1996) Toxemias and other non-distortive feeding effects. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 243–250.

  94. Oldfield, G.N. & Proeseler, G. (1996) Eriophyoid mites as vectors of plant pathogens. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 259–275.

  95. Ozman, S.K. (2000) Some biological and morphological differences between gall and vagrant forms of Phytoptus avellanae Nal. (Acari: Phytoptidae). International Journal of Acarology, 26 (3), 215–219.

  96. Ozman, S.K. (2001) The life history and population development of Rhyncaphytoptus negundivagrans Farkas (Acari: Diptilomiopidae). In: Halliday, R.B., Walter, D.E., Proctor, H.C., Norton, R.A. & Colloff, M.J. (Eds.), Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Acarology. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, pp. 352–354.

  97. Ozman-Sullivan, S.K. (2014) Do the contradictory life cycles of the hazelnut big bud mite, Phytoptus avellanae Nal. (Acari: Phytoptidae) imply two species? Abstract Book, XIVth International Congress of Acarology, 14–18 July 2014, Kyoto, Japan, p. 90.

  98. Ozman-Sullivan, S.K. (2018) Pest management in organic hazelnut growing. In: Vacante, V. & Kreiter, S. (Eds.), Handbook of Pest Management in Organic Farming, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 297–327.

  99. Ozman, S.K. & Goolsby, J.A. (2005) Biology and phenology of the eriophyid mite, Floracarus perrepae, on its native host in Australia, Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 35 (3), 197–213.

  100. Ozman, S.K. & Toros, S. (1997a) Life cycles of Phytoptus avellanae Nal. and Cecidophyopsis vermiformis Nal. (Acarina: Eriophyoidea). Acta Horticulturae, 445, 493–501.

  101. Ozman, S.K. & Toros, S. (1997b) Damage caused by Phytoptus avellanae Nal. and Cecidophyopsis vermiformis Nal. (Acarina: Eriophyoidea) in hazelnut. Acta Horticulturae, 445, 537–543.

  102. Perring, T.M. (1996) Vegetables. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 593–610.

  103. Rice, R.E. & Strong, F.E. (1962) Bionomics of the tomato russet mite, Vasates lycopersici (Massee). Annals of Entomological Society of America, 55, 431–435.

  104. Rosenthal, S.S. (1996) Aceria, Epitrimerus, and Aculus species and biological control of weeds. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 729–739.

  105. Roy, M., Brodeur, J. & Cloutier, C. (2002) Relationship between temperature and developmental rate of Stethorus punctillum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its prey Tetranychus mcdanieli (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Environmental Entomology, 31, 177–187.

  106. Sabelis, M.W. (1992) Predatory arthropods. In: Crawley, M.J. (Ed.), Natural Enemies. The Population Biology of Predators, Parasites and Disease. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 225–264.

  107. Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (1996) Evolutionary ecology: life history patterns, food plant choice and dispersal. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 329–366.

  108. Schliesske, J. (1984) Effect of photoperiod and temperature on the development and reproduction of the gall mite Aculus fockeui (Nalepa and Trouessart) (Acari: Eriophyoidea) under laboratory conditions. In: Griffiths, D.A. & Bowman, C.E. (Eds.), Acarology VI. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, UK, pp. 804–808.

  109. Schmidt, A.R., Jancke, S., Lindquist, E.E., Ragazii, E., Roghi, G., Nascimbene, P.C., Schmidt, K., Wappler, T. & Grimaldi, D.A. (2012) Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (37), 14796‒14801.

  110. Seo, Y.-D. & Kim, D.-S. (2014a) Temperature-driven models of Aculops pelekassi (Acari: Eriophyidae) based on its development and fecundity on detached citrus leaves in the laboratory. Journal of Asia-Pasific Entomology, 17, 135–142.

  111. Seo, Y.-D. & Kim, D.-S. (2014b) Effects of humidity and citrus leaf age on the multiplication of Aculops pelekassi (Acari: Eriophyoidea) and seasonal population abundances in citrus orchards. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 53 (1), 1–6.

  112. Shi, A. (2001) The life-cycle of Epitrimerus gibbosus (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Blackberry (Rubus spp.). Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Biological Sciences, 49 (1), 49–58.

  113. Skoracka, A. & Kuczynski, L. (2004) Demography of the cereal rust mite Abacarus hystrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on quack grass. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 32, 231–242.

  114. Skoracka, A. & Kuczynski, L. (2006) Host related differences in the development and reproduction of the cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Poland. International Journal of Acarology, 32, 397–405.

  115. Skoracka, A., Smith, L. & Oldfield, G. (2010) Host-plant specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites and their importance for the use of eriophyoid mites as biocontrol agents of weeds. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 93–113.

  116. Skoracka, A., Magalhaes, S., Rector, B.G. & Kuczynski, L. (2015) Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species? Experimental and Applied Acarology, 67, 165–182.

  117. Smith, L., de Lillo, E. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2010) Effectiveness of eriophyid mites for biological control of weedy plants and challenges for future research. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 115–149.

  118. Sobha, T.R. & Haq, M.A. (2011) Postembriyonic development of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, on coconut in Kerala, India. Zoosymposia, 6, 68–71.

  119. Stark, J.D. & Banks, J.E. (2003) Population-level effects of pesticides and other toxicants on arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology, 48, 505–519.

  120. Sternlicht, M. (1970) Contribution to the biology of citrus bud mite, Aceria sheldoni (Ewing) (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Annals of Applied Biology, 65 (2), 221–230.

  121. Stoeva, A., Rector, B.G. & Harizanova, V. (2011) Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 55, 225–232.

  122. Sullivan, G.T. & Ozman-Sullivan S.K. (2021) Alarming evidence of widespread mite extinctions in the shadows of plant, insects and vertabrate extinctions. Austral Ecology, 46 (1), 163–176.

  123. Swirski, E. & Amitai, S. (1958) Contribution to the biology of the citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashm.). A. Development, adult longevity and life cycle. Ktavim Records of the Agricultural Research Station, 8 (1–2), 189–207.

  124. Swirski, E. & Amitai, S. (1959) Contribution to the biology of the citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashm.). C. Oviposition and longevity of males and females. Ktavim Records of the Agricultural Research Station, 9, 281–285.

  125. Thomsen, J. (1976) Morphology and biology of the gall mite Eriophyes tiliae tiliae Pgst. (Acarina: Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 44 (1), 9–17.

  126. van der Merwe, T.J. & Coates, T.J. (1965) Biological study of the grey mite Calacarus citrifolii Keifer. South African Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8, 817–824.

  127. Wahba, M.L., Doss, S.A. & Farrag, A.M.I. (1985) Source of re-infestation by Eriophyes tulipae K. for garlic plant with some biological aspects. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique D’Egypte, 65, 179–182.

  128. Walter, D.E. & Proctor, H.C. (2013) Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. Life at a Microscale. Springer, 2nd edition, 494 pp.

  129. Walton, V.M., Dreves, A.J., Coop, L.B., Jones, G.V. & Skinkis, P.A. (2010) Developmental parameters and seasonal phenology of Calepitrimerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in wine grapes of western Oregon. Environmental Entomology, 39 (6), 2006–2016.

  130. Westphal, E. & Manson, D.C.M. (1996) Feeding effects on host plants: Gall formation and other distortions. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), Eriophyoid Mites—Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 231–242.

  131. Westphal, E., Dreger, F. & Bronner, R. (1990) The gall mite Aceria cladophthirus. I. Life cycle, survival outside the gall and symptoms, expression on susceptible or resistant Solanum dulcamara plants. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 9, 183–200.

  132. Xu, L.-B. & Duan, L.-Q. (2005) Study on bio-characteristics and threshold temperature and effective temperature of Aceria pallida Keifer. Journal of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 26 (2), 55--57. [In Chinese with English abstract]

  133. Xu, X., Li, L.-Y., Wang, D.-S., Hong, X.-Y., Wu, J., Yuan, Y.-D. & Xie, X.-C. (2006) Effect of temperature and relative humidity on development and reproduction of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acarina, Eriophyidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 49 (5), 816–821. [In Chinese with English abstract]

  134. Yothers, W.W. & Mason, A.C. (1930) The citrus rust mite and its control. U.S.D.A. Technical Bulletin, 176, 1–56.

  135. Yue, B., Sun, M. & Qiu, A. (1998) A comparison of citrus resistance to citrus rust mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) in the laboratory. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 3, 59–62.

  136. Zhang, Z.Q. (2003) Mites of Greenhouses: Identification, Biology and Control. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, xii + 244 pp.