Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Review
Published: 2021-12-31
Page range: 91–103
Abstract views: 605
PDF downloaded: 5

The lifespans of the potential biological control agents in the family Blattisociidae (Acari: Mesostigmata)

Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology of Vegetable Diseases and Insect Pests, Taian, 271018, China
Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology of Vegetable Diseases and Insect Pests, Taian, 271018, China
Acari Lasioseius Blattisocius Biocontrol Diet Temperature


This review summarized the duration of immature stages (egg to adult) and adult lifespans of the mites in the family Blattisociidae based on literature published from 1965 to 2021. We found 57 articles with information on the ecology and biology of the blattisociids. The lifespan and duration of immature stages were only reported in 16 out of 400 species. Most of the experiments were conducted in the laboratory, which may not accurately reflect their lifespans in nature. Temperatures, diets, and pesticides are the main factors that affect the lifespan of blattisociids. Low temperature could significantly prolong the lifespan and duration of immature stages of blattisociids. Different prey species or stages also affect the development time and lifespan of blattisociids significantly.


  1. Aguilar-Marcelino, L., Quintero-Martínez, M.T., Mendoza de Gives, P., López-Arellano, M.E., Liébano-Hernández, E., Torres-Hernández, G., González-Camacho, J.M. & Cid del Prado, I. (2014) Evaluation of predation of the mite Lasioseius penicilliger (Aracnida [sic.]: Mesostigmata) on Haemonchus contortus and bacteria-feeding nematodes. Journal of Helminthology, 88 (1), 20–23.

  2. Amal, A.A., Yassin, E.M.A., El-Bahrawy, A.F., El-Sharabasy, H.M. & Marwa, S.K. (2020) Biology of Blattisocius mali (Oudemans) (Acari: Gamasida: Ascidae)feeding on different diets under laboratory conditions. Egyptian Veterinary Medical Society of Parasitology Journal, 16, 92–101.

  3. Barker, P.S. (1967) Bionomics of Blattisocius keegani (Fox) (Acarina: Ascidae), a predator on eggs of pest of stored grains. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 45, 1093–1099.

  4. Beavers, J.B., Denmark, H.A. & Selhime, A.G. (1972) predation by Blattisocius keegani on egg masses of Diaprepes abbreviates in the laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65 (5), 1483–1484.

  5. Britto, E.P.J., Gago, E. & de Moraes, G.J. (2012) How promising is Lasioseius floridensis as a control agent of Polyphagotarsonemus latus?. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 56 (3), 221–231.

  6. Chen, Y.L., Xu, C.L., Xu, X.N., Xie, H., Zhang, B.X., Qin, H.G., Zhou, W.Q. & Li, D.S. (2013) Evaluation of predation abilities of Blattisocius dolichus (Acari: Blattisociidae) on a plant-parasitic nematode, Radopholus similis (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 60, 289–298.

  7. Chow, Y.S. & Liu, M.A. (1984) Preliminary studies on a parasite and a predatory mite of the tarsonemid mite Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley. In: Griffiths, D.A. & Bowman, C.E. (eds.), Acarology VI, Vol.1. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England, pp. 323–327.

  8. Da Silva, G.L., Thayná-Radaelli, F., Esswein, I.Z., Ferla, N.J. & Da Silva, O.S. (2016) Comparison of biological development of Blattisocius dentriticus (Blattisocidae) fed on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae) and Megninia ginglymura (Analgidae). International Journal of Acarology, 42 (8), 405–411.

  9. Darst, P.H. & King, E.W. (1969) Biology of Melichares tarsalis in Association with Plodia interpunctella. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62 (4), 747–749.

  10. Dizlek, H., Karagoz, M., Faraji, F. & Cakmak, I. (2019) Mites in dried figs of turkey: diversity, species composition and density. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 24 (6), 992–997.

  11. Enkegaard, A. & Brødsgaard, H.F. (2000) Lasioseius fimetorum: a soil-dwelling predator of glasshouse pests? BioControl, 45, 285–293.

  12. Gallego, J.R., Gamez, M. & Cabello, T. (2019) Potential of the Blattisocius mali Mite (Acari: Blattisociidae) as a biological control agent of potato tubermoth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes. Potato Research, 63, 241–251.

  13. Gavara, J., Caicedo, O., Gamez, M., Hernandez, J. & Cabello, T. (2020) Selection of predatory mites for the biological control of potato tuber moth in stored potatoes. Insects, 11(3), 1–10.

  14. Gavara, J., Piedra-Buena, A., Hernandez-Suarez, E., Gamez, M., Cabello, T. & Gallego, J.R. (2021) Potential for the postharvest biological control of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) by Blattisocius tarsalis (Mesostigmata, Blattisociidae). Agronomy, 288 (11), 1–10.

  15. Guo, L., Zheng, D.R. & Wu, H.J. (2014 a) Predation of Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese) on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank). Journal of Environmental Entomology, 36 (2), 199–204.

  16. Guo, L., Zheng, D.R. & Wu, H.J. (2014 b) Effects of temperature on the predatory efficiency of Blattisocius dentriticus to pest mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Journal of Beijing University of Agricultural, 29 (1), 74–76.

  17. Haines, C.P. (1981) Laboratory studies on the role of an egg predator, Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese) (Acari: Ascidae), in relation to the natural control of Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in warehouses. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 71, 555–574.

  18. Horn, T.B., Körbes, J.H., Granich, J. & Senter, M. (2015) Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil. Parasitology Research, 115 (1), 1–12. 

  19. Imbriani, J.L. & Mankau, R. (1983) Studies on Lasioseius scapulatus, a mesostigmatid mite predaceous on nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 15 (4), 523–528.

  20. Iturralde-García, R.D., Castañé, C., Wong-Corral, F.J. & Riudavets, J. (2020) Biological control of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Zabrotes subfasciatus in stored dried beans. BioControl, 65, 693–701.

  21. Javadpour, M., HaJizadeh, J. & Hosseini, R. (2018) Blattisociid mites of Guilan province of Iran with a checklist for Iranian blattisociid mites (Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae). Entomofauna, 39 (2), 697–710.

  22. Li, M., Wang, W.Z., Xu, C.L., Yang, S.H., Chen, C. & Xie, H. (2018) Sub-lethal effects of avermectin to Blattisocius dolichus (Acari:Aceosejidae) and control efficacy of different release modes of B. dolichu against root-knot nematode. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 34 (6), 818–824.

  23. Li, Y.Y. (2019) Evaluation effect on Bradysia odoriphaga and optimization of feeding prey of Lasioseius japonicus. Taian, China, Shandong Agriculture University, 22 pp.

  24. Lo, K.C. & Ho, C.C. (1984) Studies on the life history and predation of Lasioseius and its tolerance to some pesticides. Special Issue Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, 16, 235–240.

  25. Manwaring, M., Nahrung, H.F. & Wallace, H. (2020) Attack rate and prey preference of Lasioseius subterraneous and Protogamasellus mica on four nematode species. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 80 (3), 29–41.

  26. Mashaya, N. (2002) Predation of the booklouse Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) by Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese) and their susceptibility to deltamethrin and fenitrothion. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 22 (1), 75–79.

  27. Merlin, B.L., Castilho, R.C. & de Moraes, G.J. (2021) A new species of Lasioseius (Acari: Blattisociidae) from Brazil with morphological and DNA barcode data. Zootaxa, 5032 (4), 583–599.

  28. Microsoft Corporation. (2018). Microsoft Excel. Retrieved from

  29. Momen, F.M., Abou-Elela, M.M., Metwally, A.M., Naser, A.K. & Saleh, KH.M. (2011) Biology and feeding habits of the predacious mite, Lasioseius lindquisti (Acari: Ascidae) from Egypt. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 46 (1), 151–163.

  30. Moraes, G.J., Britto, E.P.J., Mineiro, J.F.C. & Halliday, B. (2016) Catalogue of the mite families Ascidae Voigts & Oudemans, Blattisociidae Garman and Melicharidae Hirschmann (Acari: Mesostigmata). Zootaxa, 4112 (1), 1–299.

  31. Moser, J.C (1975) Mite predators of the southern pine beetle. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 68 (6), 1113–1115.

  32. Nielsen, P.S. (1999) The impact of temperature on activity and consumption rate of moth eggs by Blattisocius tarsalis (Acari: Ascidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 23, 149–157.

  33. Nielsen, P.S. (2001) Developmental time of Blattisocius tarsalis (Acari: Ascidae) at different temperatures. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 25 (7), 605–608.

  34. Nielsen, P.S. (2003) Predation by Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese) (Acari:Ascidae) on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 39 (4), 395–400.

  35. Pan, Q. (2019) Bifenazate Resistance Selection and Resistance Mechnism of Blattisocius dentriticus. Chongqing, China, Southwest University, 8 pp.

  36. Pirayeshfar, F., Safavi, S.A., Sarraf-Moayeri, H.R. & Messelink, G.J. (2021) Active and frozen host mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) influence the mass production of the predatory mite Blattisocius mali (Acari: Blattisociidae): life table analysis. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 26 (11), 2096–2108.

  37. Quintero-Gutiérrez, E.J., Sandmann, D., Cómbita-Heredia, O., Klarner, B., Widyastutie, R. & Scheu, S. (2020) A new species of the genus Lasioseius (Acari: Blattisociidae) inhabiting litter of secondary rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia. Acarologia, 60 (2), 338–352.

  38. Rasmy, A.H., Nasr, A.K. & Reda, A.S. (1987) Reproductive response and development of three soil predaceous mites utilizing the acarid mite Tyrophagus casei Oud. as an alternate diet. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 60, 92–94.

  39. Rodríguez-Cruz, F.A. Janssen, A., Pallini, A., Duarte, M. & Venzon, M. (2017) Two predatory mite species as potential control agents of broad mites. BioControl, 62 (4), 1–9.

  40. Santos, J.C., Demite, P.R. & Moraes, G.J. de (2021) Blattisociidae Database. Available from: (accessed 1 November 2021)

  41. Sharma, R.D. (1971) Studies on the plant-parasitic nematode Tylenchorhynchus dubius. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, 71, 98–104.

  42. Shi, Y. (2003) Studies on the biology, ecology of Hypoaspis (Cosmolaelaps) chianensis Gu and Lasioseius sugawarai Ehara. Fuzhou, China, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 19 pp.

  43. Thing, B.B. & Ford, H.L. (2006) Laboratory studies on the use of two new arenas to evaluate the impact of the predatory mites Blattisocius tarsalis and Cheyletus eruditus on residual populations of the stored product mite Acarus siro, Experimental and Applied Acarology, 38, 167–180.

  44. Thomas, H.Q., Zalom, F.G. & Nicola, N.L. (2011) Laboratory studies of Blattisocius keegani (Fox) (Acari: Ascidae) reared on eggs of navel orangeworm: potential for biological control. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 101, 499–504.

  45. Tseng, Y.H. (1984) Mites associated with weeds, paddy rice, and upland rice fields in Taiwan. In: Griffiths, D.A & Bowman, C.E. (Eds.) Acarology VI vol. 2, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK, pp. 770–780.

  46. Vangansbeke, D., Va Duarte, M., Gobin, B., Tirry, L., Wäckers, F. & De Clercq, P. (2019) Cold-born killers: exploiting temperature - size rule enhances predation capacity of a predatory mite. Pest Management Science, 76, 1841–1846.

  47. Walter, D.E. & Lindquist, E.E. (1989) Life history and behavior of mites in the genus Lasioseius (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) from grassland soils in Colorado, with taxonomic notes and description of a new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67 (11), 2797–2813.

  48. Walter, D.E. & Lindquist, E.E. (1997) Australian species of Lasioseius (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae): the porulosus group and other species from rainforest canopies. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 11 (4), 525–547.

  49. Wang, C.L. (2019) The impact of sublethal effect and related genes of chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos on Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese). Chongqing, China, Southwest University, 8 pp.

  50. Wu, Z.Y., Zhang, X.H., Luo, J. & Fan, Q.H. (2009) Effects of five preys on growth and reproduction of Lasioseius sp. Journal of Fujian Agricultural Forest University (Natural Science Edition), 38, 581–584.

  51. Xu, C.L., Chen, Y.L., Xu, X.N., Wang, D.W., Xie, H., Wang, E.D., Li, D.S., Zhang, B.X. & Qin, H.G. (2014) Evaluation of Blattisocius dolichus (Acari: Blattisociidae) for biocontrol of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). BioControl, 59 (5), 617–624.

  52. Xu, X. (2010) Study on the biology and application of Lasioseius sp. Fuzhou, China, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 56 pp.

  53. Yang, J.S., Cong, L., Wang, C.L., Hong, D.Y., Zhou, H.N., Yu, S.J., Cheng, L.Y., Lei, S., Fu, Y.M., Cheng, M.M. & Ran, C. (2020) Effects of sublethal doses of chlorpyrifos and chlorfenapyr on the growth, reproduction and detoxification enzymes of Blattisocius dentriticus (Acari: Ascidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 63 (1), 36–45.

  54. Younes, A.A. & Hamama, H.M. (2008) Life history and predation of the mite, Blattisocius keegani Fox (Acari – Ascidae) on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera – Pyralidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, 85, 225–232.

  55. Zhang, N., Smith, C.L., Lan, H.J., Yin, Z., Yan, Y. & Xie, L.X. (2021) Effects of temperature on the adults and progeny of the predaceous mite, Lasioseius japonicus (Acari: Blattisociidae), fed on the cereal mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, Under review.

  56. Zhang, N., Xie, L.X., Wu, X.R., Liu, K., Liu, C.L. & Yan, Y. (2020) Development, survival and reproduction of a potential biological control agent, Lasioseius japonicus Ehara (Acari: Blattisociidae), on eggs of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 25 (8), 1461–1471.

  57. Zhang, Y.X. & Lin, J.Z. (1986) Identification of phytoseiids—the four species of natural enmies [sic] for controling [sic] tarsonemids on rice. Entomological Knowledge, 23, 83–85.

  58. Zhang, Y.X. & Lin, J.Z. (1989) Role of Gnorimus chaudhrii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in controlling tarsonemid mite in paddy fields in China. Indian Journal of Acarology, 10, 83–86.

  59. Zhang, Y.X. & Lin, J.Z. (1991) Studies on Gnorimus chaudhrii Acari Phytoseiidae, an important predator of tarsonemid mites in rice fields. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 7 (4), 163–165.

  60. Zhang, Z.Q. & Fan, Q.H. (2010) Blattisociidae of China: a review, with a checklist. Zoosymposia, 4, 280–287.

  61. Zheng, D.R. (2011) Studies on biology and ecology of Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese) and its application. Guangzhou, China. Sun Yat-sen University, 55 pp.

  62. Zhou, H.N., Pan, Q., Hou, D.Y., Yang, J.S., Yu, S.J., Cheng, L.Y., Lei, S., Wang, L., Cong, L. & Ran, C. (2020) Predatory function of bifenazate- resistant strain of Blattisocius dentriticus Berlese. Journal of Fruit Science, 37 (2), 264–271.

  63. Zhou, Z.B., Wu, H.J. & Zheng, J.J. (2021) Biological characteristics of Lasioseius scapulatus. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Science, 49 (1), 119–121.