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Type: Review
Published: 2023-12-18
Page range: 549–611
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New genera and species of Mantispoidea (Insecta, Neuroptera) from the mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber, Myanmar

Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100091, China
Beijing Xiachong Amber Museum, 9 Shuanghe Middle Road, Beijing 101399, China
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Minoh Park Insect Museum, Minoh Park 1–18, Minoh City, Osaka 562-0002, Japan
Hokkaido University Museum, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
Three Gorges Entomological Museum, Chongqing 400015, China
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100091, China; Göttingen University, Göttingen 37073, Germany
Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin 10115, Germany
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Zweite Zoologische Abteilung, Burgring 7, A-1010, Vienna, Austria; Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
Institute of Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine, Medical Parasitology, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, A-1090, Vienna, Austria
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100091, China
Insecta Neuroptera Mantispoidea new species new genera taxonomy mid-Cretaceous Myanmar Kachin amber

Abstract

Mantispoidea (Insecta, Neuroptera) are well-known for the hypermetamorphic larval development and for most adults having praying mantis-like raptorial forelegs. Currently, this superfamily comprises Berothidae (beaded lacewings) and three raptorial mantispoid families: Rhachiberothidae (thorny lacewings), Dipteromantispidae and Mantispidae (mantidflies or mantid lacewings). It includes about 530 extant species in 74 genera, and 143 extinct species in 97 genera from the Upper Triassic to the Miocene. Berothidae, well-known for some adults with scale-like setae on the female wings, currently includes 119 extant species in 26 genera, and 59 extinct species in 37 genera from the Upper Triassic to the Eocene. Rhachiberothidae represents the relictual group of Mantispoidea, comprising only 14 extant species across four genera, which are confined to the Afrotropical Region. However, the abundant fossil records (28 species and 21 genera), especially from the Cretaceous, highlight the past glory of this family. The Cretaceous dipteran-like family Dipteromantispidae, comprising ten species across nine genera, remains enigmatic in terms of its phylogenetic status. Mantispidae, the largest family within Mantispoidea, comprises approximately 395 extant species across 44 genera and 46 extinct species in 30 genera, ranging from the Lower Jurassic to the Miocene. This family is distinctive from other raptorial families for its highly mobile and variously elongated prothorax. Here, we describe several new genera and species from mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber, Myanmar: Three new species of Osmyloberotha Khramov, 2021 (O. dispersa sp. nov., O. chenzuyini Zhuo, Li & Liu sp. nov. and O. magnimaculata sp. nov.) in Berothidae, with a detailed redescription of O. simpla Khramov, 2021; two new genera and three new species (Paraberothinae: Paraberothoides longispina Li, Zhang & Liu gen. et sp. nov.; Subfamily unknown: Dicranoberotha zhangzhiqiae Zhuo, Li & Liu gen. et sp. nov., Dicranoberotha liumohanae Zhuo, Li & Liu gen. et sp. nov.) of Rhachiberothidae, three new species (Enigmadipteromantispa dilatata Li, Nakamine, Yamamoto & Liu sp. nov., Kurtodipteromantispa relicta Li, Nakamine, Yamamoto & Liu sp. nov. and Kurtodipteromantispa univenula sp. nov.) of Dipteromantispidae, as well as four new genera and five new species (Symphrasinae: Parvosymphrasites aploneura Li, Lin, Liu & Wang gen. et sp. nov. and Proplega evelynae Zhuo, Li & Liu gen. et sp. nov.; Subfamily unknown: Haplacantha robusta gen. et sp. nov., Haplacantha tenuis gen. et sp. nov. and Mesomantispoides felixoporcus gen. et sp. nov.) of Mantispidae. Sinuijumantispa So & Won, 2022, previously classified within Drepanicinae, is now recognized as a stem group of Mantispidae, which is possibly related to Mesomantispoides gen. nov. or Mesomantispinae. Our new findings offer crucial insights into the taxonomy, morphological diversity and evolution of Mantispoidea.

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