Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2019-10-31

Diverse Texas beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea: Brachypsectridae) in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber: sexual dimorphism and palaeoecology

Department of Animal Science, Hartpury College, Hartpury, GL19 3BE, United Kingdom
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom
Coleoptera Elateroidea Brachypsectridae Brachypsectra Myanmar sexual dimorphism palaeoecology key checklist

Abstract

Brachypsectridae is a species-poor elateroid family containing two extant genera with a disjunct distribution range spanning the Nearctic, Palaearctic, Oriental, and Australian regions. Here we describe a second Texas beetle from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, Hongipsectra electrella gen. et sp. nov. The new genus can be distinguished from all hitherto known brachypsectrids by the 11-segmented sexually dimorphic antennae with antennomeres 6–10 bilamellate in males and serrate in females, pronotum with a pair of posterolateral carinae and an M-shaped notch in the posterior margin for the reception of a cordiform scutellum. The present discovery adds a fourth genus and eleventh species to Brachypsectridae. Given that two of the known Texas beetle genera are from the Cretaceous Burmese amber, the family probably have been much more widespread and diverse in the Mesozoic than it is today. A key to the extant and fossil genera of Brachypsectridae is provided, along with a list of fossil species.

References

  1. Barber, H.S. (1905) Illustrations of an undetermined coleopterous larva. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 7, 117–121.

    Blair, K.G. (1930) Brachypsectra. LeC.—The solution to an entomological enigma. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 78, 45–50.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1930.tb01199.x

    Bocák, L. & Bocáková, M. (2010b) Lycidae Laporte, 1836. In: Leschen, R.A.B., Beutel, R.G. & Lawrence, J.F. (Eds), Handbook of Zoology. Arthropoda: Insecta. Coleoptera, Beetles. Vol. 2: Morphology and Systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). De Gruyter, Berlin & New York, pp. 114–123.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110911213.114

    Cai, C.Y. & Huang, D.Y. (2019) Sexual dimorphism in mid-Cretaceous silvanid beetles from northern Myanmar (Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Brontinae). Palaeoentomology, 2 (3), 289–296.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/palaeoentomology.2.3.14

    Cai, C.Y., Leschen, R.A., Hibbett, D.S., Xia, F. & Huang, D.Y. (2017) Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous. Nature Communications, 8, 14894.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14894

    Costa, C., Vanin, S.A., Lawrence, J.F., Ide, S. & Branham, M.A. (2006) Review of the family Brachypsectridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99 (3), 409–432.

    https://doi.org/10.1603/0013-8746(2006)99[409:ROTFBC]2.0.CO;2

    Costa, C., Vanin, S.A., Lawrence, J.F., Ide, S. & Branham, M.A. (2010) Brachypsectridae Horn, 1881. In: Leschen, R.A.B., Beutel, R.G. & Lawrence, J.F. (Eds.), Handbook of Zoology. Arthropoda: Insecta. Coleoptera, Beetles. Vol. 2: Morphology and Systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). De Gruyter, Berlin & New York, pp. 47–54.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110911213.47

    Crowson, R.A. (1973) On a new superfamily Artematopoidea of polyphagan beetles, with the definition of two new fossil genera from the Baltic amber. Journal of Natural History, 7 (2), 225–238.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222937300770181

    Ferris, G.F. (1927) Notes on an entomological enigma. Canadian Entomologist, 59, 279–281.

    https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent59279-12

    Fleenor, S.B. & Taber, S.W. (1999) Review of Brachypsectra LeConte with a new record of the Texas beetle (B. fulva LeConte; Coleoptera: Brachypsectridae). The Coleopterists’ Bulletin, 53 (4), 359–364.

    Geiser, S.W. (1933) G. W. Belfrage’s Texas localities. Entomological News, 44, 127–132.

    Gosden, T.P. & Svensson, E.I. (2009) Density-dependent male mating harassment, female resistance, and male mimicry. The American Naturalist, 173 (6), 709–721.

    https://doi.org/10.1086/598491

    Grimaldi, D.A. & Ross, A.J. (2017) Extraordinary Lagerstätten in amber, with particular reference to the Cretaceous of Burma. In: Fraser, N. C. & Sues H.D. (Eds.), Terrestrial Conservation Lagerstätten: Windows into the Evolution of Life on Land. Dunedin Academic Press, Edinburgh, pp. 287–342.

    Grimaldi, D.A., Engel, M.S. & Nascimbene, P.C. (2002) Fossiliferous Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma): its rediscovery, biotic diversity, and paleontological significance. American Museum Novitates, 3361, 1–71.

    https://doi.org/10.1206/0003-0082(2002)361<0001:FCAFMB>2.0.CO;2

    Hájek, J. (2010) Brachypsectra kadleci sp. nov. from Western Iran—the first Palaearctic member of the family Brachypsectridae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Elateriformia). Annales Zoologici, 60 (1), 29–33.

    https://doi.org/10.3161/000345410X499498

    Horn, G.H. (1881) Notes on Elateridae, Cebrionidae, Rhipiceridae and Dascyllidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 9, 85–86.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/25076401

    Huang, D.Y., Hormiga, G., Cai, C.Y., Su, Y.T., Yin, Z.W., Xia, F.Y. & Giribet, G. (2018) Origin of spiders and their spinning organs illuminated by mid-Cretaceous amber fossils. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2 (4), 623–627.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0475-9

    Jiang, R., Liu, Z. & Wang, S. (2019) Fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in Monotomidae beetles from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Cretaceous Research, 102, 7–11.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2019.05.008

    Klausnitzer, B. (2009) Bemerkungen zu rezenten und fossilen larven (bernstein) der Gattung Brachypsectra LeConte (Coleoptera, Brachypsectridae). Contributions to Natural History, 12, 721–742.

    Kovalev, A.V. & Kirejtshuk, A.G. (2016) Asiopsectra gen. n., a second genus of the family Brachypsectridae (Coleoptera, Elateroidea) from the Palaearctic Region. Insect Systematics & Evolution, 47 (3), 195–208.

    https://doi.org/10.1163/1876312X-47022140

    Lawrence, J.F. & Britton, E.B. (1994) Australian Beetles. Melbourne University, Carlton, 192 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643100695

    Lawrence, J.F., Ślipiński, A., Seago, A.E., Thayer, M.K., Newton, A.F. & Marvaldi, A.E. (2011) Phylogeny of the Coleoptera based on morphological characters of adults and larvae. Annales Zoologici, 61 (1), 1–217.

    https://doi.org/10.3161/000345411X576725

    LeConte, J.L. (1874) Descriptions of new Coleoptera chiefly from the Pacific slope of North America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 5, 43–72.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/25076287

    Le Rouzic, A., Hansen, T.F., Gosden, T.P. & Svensson, E.I. (2015) Evolutionary time-series analysis reveals the signature of frequency-dependent selection on a female mating polymorphism. The American Naturalist, 185 (6), E182–E196.

    https://doi.org/10.1086/680982

    Li, Y.D., Liu, Z.H., Jarzembowski, E.A., Yin, Z.W., Huang, D.Y. & Cai, C.Y. (2019) Early evolution of Cupedidae revealed by a mid-Cretaceous reticulated beetle from Myanmar (Coleoptera: Archostemata). Systematic Entomology, 44 (4), 777–786.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12355

    McKenna D.D., Wild A.L., Kanda K., Bellamy C.L., Beutel R.G., Caterino M.S., Farnum C.W., Hawks D.C., Ivie M.A., Jameson M.L., Leschen R.A.B., Marvaldi A.E., McHugh J.V., Newton A.F., Robertson J.A., Thayer M.K., Whiting M.F., Lawrence J.F., Ślipiński A., Maddison D.R. & Farrell B.D. (2015) The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology, 40, 835–880.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12132

    Mao, Y.Y., Liang, K., Su, Y.T., Li, J.G., Rao, X., Zhang, H., Xia, F.Y., Fu, Y.Z., Cai, C.Y. & Huang, D.Y. (2018) Various amberground marine animals on Burmese amber with discussions on its age. Palaeoentomology, 1 (1), 91–103.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/palaeoentomology.1.1.11

    Neck, R.W. (1993) Notes on habitats and rearing of Brachypsectra fulva LeConte (Coleoptera: Brachypsectridae). The Coleopterists’ Bulletin, 47 (3), 291–292.

    Petrželková, I., Makris, C. & Kundrata, R. (2017) The genus Brachypsectra LeConte, 1874 (Coleoptera: Brachypsectridae) in the Palaearctic Region. European Journal of Taxonomy, 276, 1–14.

    https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2017.276

    Shi, G., Grimaldi, D.A., Harlow, G.E., Wang, J., Wang, J., Yang, M., Lei, W., Li, Q. & Li, X. (2012) Age constraint on Burmese amber based on U–Pb dating of zircons. Cretaceous Research, 37, 155–163.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2012.03.014

    Svensson, E.I., Abbott, J. & Härdling, R. (2005) Female polymorphism, frequency dependence, and rapid evolutionary dynamics in natural populations. The American Naturalist, 165 (5), 567–576.

    https://doi.org/10.1086/429278

    Qu, T.Q., Yin, Z.W., Huang, D.Y. & Cai, C.Y. (2019) First Mesozoic brachypsectrid beetles in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Coleoptera: Elateroidea: Brachypsectridae). Cretaceous Research, 106, 104190.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2019.07.020

    Young, D.K. (2002) Brachypsectridae Bøving and Craighead 1931. In: Leschen, R.A.B., Beutel, R.G. & Lawrence, J.F. (Eds.), American Beetles. Vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 148–149.

    Yu, T., Kelly, R., Ma, L., Ross, A.J., Kennedy, J., Broly, P., Xia, F., Zhang, H., Wang, B. & Dilcher D. (2019) An ammonite trapped in Burmese amber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116 (23), 11345–11350.

    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821292116

    Westerweel, J., Roperch, P., Licht, A., Dupont-Nivet, G., Win, Z., Poblete, F., Ruffet, G., Swe, H.H., Thi, M.K. & Aung, D. W. (2019) Burma Terrane part of the Trans-Tethyan arc during collision with India according to palaeomagnetic data. Nature Geoscience, 12, 863–868.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0443-2

    Woodruff, R.E. (2004) A new species of the beetle genus Brachypsectra from the Dominican Republic, with fossil connections (Coleoptera: Brachypsectridae). Insecta Mundi, 16, 161–170.