Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2024-04-17
Page range: 34-42
Abstract views: 15
PDF downloaded: 0

Seasonality and composition of the Simuliidae fauna (Insecta: Diptera) from the altitudinal gradient in Itatiaia National Park, Brazil

Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Parque Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - IOC/Fiocruz, Laboratório de Simulídeos, Oncocercose, Entomologia Médica e Forense (LSOEMF/IOC-Fiocruz), Coleção de Simulídeos do IOC - CSIOC/Fiocruz, 21040-360, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Parque Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Laboratório de Meio Ambiente e Saúde, Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Saúde, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Campo Grande, Avenida Manuel Caldeira De Alvarenga, 23070-200, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Altitude fields Atlantic Forest Blackflies Ecology Malaise

Abstract

Black flies are abundant on all continents except Antarctica, currently being known 2,384 species, of which 97 occur in Brazil. Due to the hematophagous habit of females, they cause extreme discomfort, causing severe allergic reactions, in addition to some species being disease vectors. Abiotic factors strongly interfere with the life cycle of insects and this work seeks to understand how the distribution of Simuliidae adults is influenced at in different altitudes in the Parque Nacional de Itatiaia (PNI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Three six-meter-long Malaise-type flight interception traps were installed in streams during 30 days, with two collection pots at each end. Altogether, 1,430 adult specimens of Simuliidae were analyzed, with two genera and 11 species identified. Throughout the project, four collections were made, two in the dry season and two in the rainy season. The statistical analyzes (CCA and N-MDS) showed that wind speed and altitude are the most influent factors in the distribution of species.

References

  1. Adler P. H. 2022. World blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): a comprehensive revision of the taxonomic and geographical inventory. Clemson, Clemson University, 145 pp. Available from: https://biomia.sites.clemson.edu/pdfs/blackflyinventory.pdf (Accessed may 15, 2023).
  2. Anderson J. R. & Voskuil G. B. A. 1963. Reduction in milk production caused by feeding of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) on dairy cattle in California, with notes on feeding activity on other animals. Mosquito News 23(2): 126–31.
  3. Andreazze R., Py-Daniel V. & Medeiros J. F. 2002. Influence of climatic factors on the hematophagic activity of Psaroniocompsa incrustata (Lutz, 1910) (Diptera, Simuliidae) vector of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1910) in Xitei/Xidea, Yanomami indigenous area, Roraima, Brazil. Entomologia y Vectores 9(4): 559–577.
  4. Araújo-Coutinho C. J. P. C., Maia-Herzog M. & Souza B. C. 1988. Levantamento das espécies do gênero Simulium Latreielle (Diptera, Simuliidae) no Litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 32: 11–17.
  5. Borkent A., Brown B. V., Adler P. H., Amorim D. S., Barber K., Bickel D. & Burington Z. L. 2018. Remarkable Fly (Diptera) Diversity in a patch of Cloud Forest Costa Rica: Why inventory is a vital science. Zootaxa 4402(1): 53–90. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4402.1.3
  6. Carvalho B. M. C., Wainfas R. L., Rodrigues T., Berbert L. C., Franklin T., Lima-de-Sousa I. K. & Figueiró R. 2016. Black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae body size variation along an altitude gradient in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazil. Acta Ambiental Catarinense 13: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.24021/raac.v13i1.3314
  7. Chung Y. S., Choi S. C., Silva R. R., Kang J. W., Eom J. H. & Kim C. 2017. Case study: Estimation of sorghum biomass using digital image analysis with Canopeo. Biomass and Bioenergy 105: 207–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.06.027
  8. Cilek J. E. & Schaediger J. F. 2004. Regional Occurrence of a Severe Infestation of Simulium slossonae (Diptera: Simuliidae) Associated with an El Niño Event in Florida. Florida Entomologist 87(2): 169–172. https://doi.org/10.1653/0015-4040(2004)087[0169:ROOASI]2.0.CO;2
  9. Coscarón S. 1987. El gęnero Simulium Latreille en la Región Neotropical: Análisis de los Grupos Supraespecíficos, Especies que los Integran y Distribución Geográfica (Simuliidae, Diptera), Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Coleçăo Emilie Snethlage, Belém, Brazil, 111 pp.
  10. Coscarón S. & Coscarón-Arias C. L. 2007. Neotropical Simuliidae (Diptera: Insecta). In: J. Adis, J. R. Arias, G. Rueda-Delgado, K. M. Wantzen, Aquatic Biodiversity in Latin America (ABLA), Pensaft, Sofia-Moscow, Vol. 3, 685 pp.
  11. Crosskey R. W. 1990. The Natural History of Black Flies, p. 711. The Natural History Press Museum, JS Wiley, London, UK.
  12. Currie D. C. & Adler P. 2000. Update on a survey of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the Northwest Territories and the Nunavut project. Arctic Bug News 11: 6–9.
  13. Currie D. C. & Adler P. H. 2008. Global diversity of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in freshwater. Hydrobiology 595: 469–475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-007-9114-1
  14. Eymann M. 1993. Some boundary layer features of microhabitats occupied by larval blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Hydrobiology 259: 57–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00005965
  15. Figueiró R., Araújo-Coutinho C. J. P. C., Gil-Azevedo L. H., Nascimento E. S. & Monteiro R. F. 2006. Spatial and temporal distribution of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 35(4): 542–550. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2006000400018
  16. Figueiró R. & Gil-Azevedo L. H. 2010. The role of Neotropical blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) as vectors of onchocerciasis: a brief overview of the ecology behind the disease. Oecol Aust 14(3): 745–755. https://doi.org/10.4257/oeco.2010.1403.10
  17. Firmino J. V. L., Mendonça M. D. S., Lima I. M. M. & Grazia J. 2017. Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Herbaceous and Shrub Strata of Atlantic Forest Remnants in Northeast Brazil. Entomologia Ambiental 46(3): 480–486. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvx062
  18. Gil-Azevedo L. H., Figueiró R. & Maia-Herzog M. 2005. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa) stellatum (Diptera: Simuliidae), a new black fly from a high mountain range in southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 922(1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.922.1.1
  19. Gil-Azevedo L. H. 2010. Revision and phylogeny of Lutzsimulium (Diptera: Simuliidae). Zoology 27(5): 761–788. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702010000500014
  20. Grillet M. E., Villamizar N. J., Cortez J., Frontado H. L., Escalona M., Vivas-Martínez S. & Basáñez M. G. 2005. Diurnal biting frequency of Simulium parasitic vectors (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the focus of Amazonian onchocerciasis. Acta Tropica 94(2): 139–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2005.02.002
  21. Hamada N. 1989. Aspectos ecológicos de Simulium goeldii (Diptera: Simuliidae)—relação entre substrato e densidade larvas. Memorias Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 84(4): 263–266. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761989000800046
  22. Hamada N. & Mccreadie J. W. 1999. Environmental factors associated with the distribution of Simulium perflavum (Diptera: Simuliidae) among streams in the Brazilian Amazon. Hydrobiology 397(0): 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003642430681
  23. Hamada N., Mccreadie J. W. & Adler P. H. 2002. Species richness and spatial distributions of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Central Amazonian streams, Brazil. Freshwater Biology 47: 31–40. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00778.x
  24. Hamada N., Nascimento J. M. C. & Pepinelli M. 2015. A new species of Simulium (Chirostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Serra da Mantiqueira, southeastern Brazil. Acta Tropica 150: 143–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.07.006
  25. ICMBIO. 2018. Itatiaia National Park. Available at: http://www.icmbio.gov.br/parnaitatiaia/ (Accessed on October 13, 2018).
  26. Ilmonen J., Adler P. H., Malmqvist B. & Cywinska A. 2009. The Simulium vernum group (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Europe: multiple character sets for assessing species status. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156(4): 847–863. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00500.x
  27. Kuvangkadilok C., Boonkemtong C. & Phayuhasena S. 1999. Distribution of the larvae of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at Doi Inthanon National Park, northern Thailand. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 30(2): 328–37. https://doi.org/10.1508/cytologia.64.197
  28. Malmqvist B., Adler P. H., Kuusela K., Merritt R. W. & Wotton R. S. 2004. Blackflies in the boreal biome, key organisms in terrestrial and aquatic environments: a review. Ecoscience 11: 187–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/11956860.2004.11682824
  29. Mccreadie J. W. & Colbo M. H. 1991. Spatial distribution patterns of larval cytotypes from the Simulium venustum / verecundum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) on the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland: factors associated with occurrence. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 2651–2659. https://doi.org/10.1139/z91-373
  30. Mccreadie J. W., Adler P. H. & Hamada N. 2005. Patterns of species richness for black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Ecological Entomology 30(2): 201–209. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0307-6946.2005.00681.x
  31. Medeiros J. F. & Py-Daniel V. 2003. Atividade hematofágica diária e taxa de infecção de Cerqueirellum argentiscutum (Shelley & Luna Dias) (Diptera: Simuliidae) por Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) em uma comunidade do Rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brasil. Entomologia y Vectores 10(1): 9–20.
  32. Medeiros J. F., Py-Daniel V. & Izzo T. J. 2006. The influence of climatic parameters on the daily hematophagic activity of Cerrellqueium argentiscutum (Shelley & Luna Dias) (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Amazonas, Brazil. Acta Amazônica 36(4): 563–568. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0044-59672006000400019
  33. Möhlmann T. W. R., Wennergren U., Tälle M., Favia G., Damiani C., Bracchetti L. & Koenraadt C. J. M. 2018. Community analysis of the abundance and diversity of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in three European countries at different latitudes. Parasites & Vectors 11(1): 217. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2792-x
  34. Py-Daniel V. 1994. Oncocercose em expansão no Brasil. Revista Saúde Pública 28(2): 173–174. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101994000200012
  35. Py-Daniel V., Andreazze R. & Medeiros J. 2000. Pilot Project Xitei/Xidea (Roraima)—I. Epidemiological indices of Onchocerca volvulus transmission for the years 1995–1996. Entomologia y Vectores 7(4): 389–444.
  36. Raastad J. & Solem J. 1989. Autogeny as a Successful Reproductive Strategy in High Altitude Blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae). Annales De Limnologie—International Journal of Limnology 25(3): 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/1989026
  37. Sá M. R. & Maia-Herzog M. 2003. Overseas disease: comparative studies of oncocercosis in Latin America and Africa. Rio de Janeiro. História, Ciência, Saúde—Manguinhos 10(1): 251–58. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-59702003000100008
  38. Salman I. N. A. & Blaustein L. 2018. Vegetation cover drives arthropod communities in Mediterranean/subtropical green roof habitats. Sustainability 10(11): 4209. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114209
  39. Shelley A. J., Maia-Herzog M., Luna-Dias A. P. A., Camargo M. & Garritano P. 2001. Biting behavior and potential vector status of anthropophilic simuliid species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a new focus of human onchocerciasis in Minaçu, central Brazil. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 15 (1): 28–39. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2001.00275.x
  40. Vebrova L., Van Nieuwenhuijzen A., Kolář V. & Boukal D. S. 2018. Seasonality and climatic conditions jointly drive flight activity patterns of aquatic and terrestrial chironomids. BMC Ecology 18: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-018-0175-y
  41. Veloso H. P., Rangel-Filho A. L. R. & Lima J. C. A. 1991. Classification of Brazilian vegetation, adapted to a universal system. 124 pp. PDF. Available in http://jbb.ibict.br//handle/1/397
  42. Witter L. A., Johnson C. J., Croft B., Gunn A. & Poirier L. M. 2012. Measuring effects of climate change at local scales: climate indices to monitor insect harassment in caribou. Ecological Applications 22(6): 1838–1851. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-0569.1