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Articles
Published: 2021-06-30

Cell wall polymers in the Phaeoceros placenta reflect developmental and functional differences across generations

Department of Biology, One University Plaza, MS 6200, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA
Vicinale Cupa Parisi 2L, 84133 Salerno, Italy
4358 River Road South, Salem OR 97302 USA
Department of Plant Biology, MC:6509, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
Department of Plant Biology, MC:6509, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
AGPs bryophytes hemicelluloses immunocytochemistry pectins transfer cells wall ingrowths

Abstract

The placenta of hornworts is unique among bryophytes in the restriction of transfer cells that are characterized by elaborate wall labyrinths to the gametophyte generation. During development, cells around the periphery of the sporophyte foot elongate, forming smooth-walled haustorial cells that interdigitate with gametophyte cells. Using immunogold labeling with 22 antibodies to diverse cell wall polymers, we examined compositional differences in the developmentally and morphologically distinct cell walls of gametophyte transfer cells and sporophyte haustorial cells in the placenta of Phaeoceros. As detected by Calcofluor White fluorescence, cellulose forms the cell wall scaffolding in cells on both sides of the placenta. Homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) pectins are abundant in both cell types, and haustorial cells are further enriched in methyl-esterified HGs. The abundance of pectins in placental cell walls is consistent with the postulated roles of these polymers in cell wall porosity and in maintaining an acidic apoplastic pH favorable to solute transport. Xyloglucan hemicellulose, but not mannans or glucuronoxylans, are present in cell walls at the interface between the two generations with a lower density in gametophytic wall ingrowths. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are diverse along the plasmalemma of placental cells and are absent in surrounding cells in both generations. AGPs in placental cell walls may play a role in calcium binding and release associated with signal transduction as has been speculated for these glycoproteins in other plants. Callose is restricted to thin areas in cell walls of gametophyte transfer cells. In contrast to studies of transfer cells in other systems, no reaction to the JIM12 antibody against extensin was observed in Phaeoceros.

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