Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Articles
Published: 2021-06-30

Antarctic bryophyte research—current state and future directions

Departamento de Botânica, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil UnB
Departamento de Botânica, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil UnB
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands; Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands
Antarctic bryophyte Antarctic flora conservation future challenges molecular phylogenetics phylogeography

Abstract

Botany is one of the oldest sciences done south of parallel 60 °S, although few professional botanists have dedicated themselves to investigating the Antarctic bryoflora. After the publications of liverwort and moss floras in 2000 and 2008, respectively, new species were described. Currently, the Antarctic bryoflora comprises 28 liverwort and 116 moss species. Furthermore, Antarctic bryology has entered a new phase characterized by the use of molecular tools, in particular DNA sequencing. Although the molecular studies of Antarctic bryophytes have focused exclusively on mosses, molecular data (fingerprinting data and/or DNA sequences) have already been published for 36 % of the Antarctic moss species. In this paper we review the current state of Antarctic bryological research, focusing on molecular studies and conservation, and discuss future questions of Antarctic bryology in the light of global challenges.

References

  1. Adam, K.D., Selkirk, P.M., Connett, M.B. & Walsh, S.M. (1997) Genetic variation in populations of the moss Bryum argenteum in East Antarctica. In: Battaglia, B., Valencia, J. & Walton, D.W.H. (Eds.) Antarctic Communities. Species, Structure and Survival. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 33–38.
    Ando, H. (1979) Ecology of terrestrial plants in the Antarctic with particular reference to bryophytes. Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research Special Issue 11: 81–103.
    Bartling, F.G. (1831) Colobanthus. In: Presl, K.B. Reliquiae Haenkeanae; Descriptiones et Icones Plantarum, Quas in America Meridionali et Boreali, in Insulis Philippinis et Marianis Collegit Thaddaeus Haenke, Vol. 2, Fasc. 1. J.G. Calve, Pragae, 56 pp.
    Bednarek-Ochyra, H., Váňa, J., Ochyra, R. & Smith, R.I.L. (2000) The Liverwort Flora of Antarctica. Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, 236 pp.
    Bergstrom, D.M., Wienecke, B.C., van den Hoff, J., Hughes, L., Lindenmayer, D.B., Ainsworth, T.D., Baker, C.M., Bland, L., Bowman, D.M.J.S., Brooks, S.T., Canadell, J.G., Constable, A.J., Dafforn, K.A., Depledge, M.H., Dickson, C.R., Duke, N.C., Helmstedt, K.J., Holz, A., Johnson, C.R., McGeoch, M.A., Melbourne-Thomas, J., Morgain, R., Nicholson, E., Prober, S.M., Raymond, B., Ritchie, E.G., Robinson, S.A., Ruthrof, K.X., Setterfield, S.A., Sgrò, C.M., Stark, J.S., Travers, T., Trebilco, R., Ward, D.F.L., Wardle, G.M., Williams, K.J., Zylstra, P.J. & Shaw, J.D. (2021) Combating ecosystem collapse from the tropics to the Antarctic. Global Change Biology 27: 1692–1703. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15539
    Berkeley, M.J. (1863) Handbook of Brish Mosses, comprising all that are known to be natives of the British Isles. Lovell Revee & Co., London, 324 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.55400
    Bescherelle, E. (1885) Mousses Nouvelles de L’Amérique Australe. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 32: LXIII–LXVIII. https://doi.org/10.1080/00378941.1885.10830136
    Biersma, E.M., Convey, P., Wyber, R., Robinson, S.A., Dowton, M., van de Vijver, B., Linse, K., Griffiths, H. & Jackson, J.A. (2020) Latitudinal Biogeographic Structuring in the Globally Distributed Moss Ceratodon purpureus. Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 502359. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.502359
    Biersma, E.M., Jackson, J.A., Bracegirdle, T.J., Griffiths, H., Linse, K. & Convey, P. (2018b) Low genetic variation between South American and Antarctic populations of the bank−forming moss Chorisodontium aciphyllum (Dicranaceae). Polar Biology 41: 599–610. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-017-2221-1
    Biersma, E.M., Jackson, J.A., Hyvönen, J., Linse, K., Griffiths, H. & Convey, P. (2017) Global biogeographic patterns in bipolar moss species. Royal Society Open Science 4: 170147. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.170147
    Biersma, E.M., Jackson, J.A., Stech, M., Griffiths, H., Linse, K. & Convey, P. (2018a) Molecular data suggest long-term in situ Antarctic persistence within Antarctica’s most speciose plant genus, Schistidium. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6: 77. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2018.00077
    Bridel, S.E. (1801) Animadversiones in Muscologiae Recentiorum Tomum secundum, ab ipso auctore propositae. Journal für die Botanik (Schrader) 1800 (1): 268–299.
    Bridel, S.E. (1812) Muscologiae Recentiorum Supplementum seu Species Muscorum 2: 1–257.
    Bridel, S.E. (1819) Muscologiae Recentiorum Supplementum 4: 1–220.
    Bridel, S.E. (1826) Bryologia Universa seu systematica ad novam methodum disposition, vol. 1. historia et description omnium muscorum frondosorum huscusque cognitorum cum synonymia ex auctoribus probatissimis. Lipsiae (Leipzig), 856 pp.
    Brotherus, V.F. (1925) Musci (Laubmoose) 2. In: Engler, A. (Ed.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen, unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten, Zweite Auflage, Bd. 11. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 542 pp.
    Bruch, P., Schimper, W.P. & Gümbel, T. (1845) Distichium. Bryologia Europaea seu genera Muscorum Europaeorum monographice illustrata: Fasciculus XXIX–XXX, 1–200.
    Bruch, P., Schimper, W.P. & Gümbel, T. (1845) Schistidium. Bryologia Europaea seu genera Muscorum Europaeorum monographice illustrata: Fasciculus XXV–XXVIII, 1–10.
    Byun, M.Y., Cho, S.M., Lee, J., Park, H. & Lee, H. (2019) The complete mitochondrial genome of an Antarctic moss Chorisodontium aciphyllum (Hook. f. & Wilson) Broth. Mitochondrial DNA Part B 4: 1714–1715. https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1605856
    Câmara, P.E.A.S., Carvalho-Silva, M., Henriques, D.K., Guerra, J., Gallego, M.T., Rios Poveda, D. & Stech, M. (2018) Pylaisiaceae Schimp. (Bryophyta) revisited. Journal of Bryology 40: 251–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/03736687.2018.1472850
    Câmara, P.E.A.S., Silva, B.G.C., Carvalho-Silva, M. & Henriques, D.K. (2017) The moss flora of Ostrov Geologov (Geologists Island), Maxwell Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 52: 251–255. https://doi.org/10.31055/1851.2372.v52.n2.17439
    Câmara, P.E.A.S., Soares, A.E.R., Henriques, D.K., Peralta, D.F., Bordin, J., Carvalho-Silva, M. & Stech, M. (2019a) New insights into the species diversity of Bartramia Hedw. (Bryophyta) in Antarctica. Antarctic Science 31: 208–215. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102019000257
    Câmara, P.E.A.S., Valente, D.V. & Sancho, L.G. (2020) Changes in the moss (Bryophyta) flora in the vicinity of the Spanish Juan Carlos I Station (Livingston island, Antarctica) over three decades. Polar Biology 43: 1745–1752. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-020-02740-0
    Câmara, P.E.A.S., Valente, D.V., Amorim, E.T., Henriques, D.K., Carvalho-Silva, M., Convey, P. & Stech, M. (2019b) Integrated analysis of intraspecific diversity in Roaldia revoluta (Mitt.) P.E.A.S. Câmara & M. Carvalho-Silva (Bryophyta) in Antarctica. Polar Biology 42: 485–496. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-018-2437-8
    Câmara, P.E.A.S. & Carvalho-Silva, M. (2020) 180 years of Botanical Investigations in Antarctica and the Role of Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 34. [Online access] https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062020abb0172
    Câmara, P.E.A.S., Carvalho-Silva, M., Pinto, O.H.B., Amorim, E.T., Henriques, D.K., Silva, T.H., Pellizzari, T., Convey, P. & Losa, L.H. (2021) Diversity and Ecology of Chlorophyta (Viridiplantae) Assemblages in Protected and Non-protected Sites in Deception Island (Antarctica, South Shetland Islands) Assessed Using an NGS Approach. Microbial Ecology 81: 323–334.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01584-9
    Cardot, J. (1906) Notice Préliminaire sur les Mousses Recueillies par l’Expédition Antartique Suédoise. Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 1–88.
    Chown, S.L., Lee, J.E., Hughes, K.A., Barnes, J., Barrett, P.J., Bergstrom, D.M., Convey, P., Cowan, D.A., Crosbie, K., Dyer, G., Frenot, Y., Grant, S.M., Herr, D., Kennicutt II, M.C., Lamers, M., Murray, A., Possingham, H.P., Reid, K., Riddle, M.J., Ryan, P.G., Sanson, L., Shaw, J.D., Sparrow, M.D., Summerhayes, C., Terauds, A. & Wall, D.H. (2012) Challenges to the Future Conservation of the Antarctic. Science 337 (6091): 158–159. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1222821
    Clarke, L.J., Ayre, D.J. & Robinson, S.A. (2008) Somatic mutation and the Antarctic ozone hole. Journal of Ecology 96: 378–385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01347.x
    Clarke, L.J., Robinson, S.A. & Ayre, D.J. (2009) Genetic structure of Antarctic populations of the moss Ceratodon purpureus. Antarctic Science 21: 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102008001466
    Coetzee, B.W.T., Convey, P. & Chown, S.L. (2017) Expanding the Protected Area Network in Antarctica is Urgent and Readily Achievable. Conservation Letters 10 (6): 670–680. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12342
    Crum, H. (1964) Mosses of the Douglas Lake region of Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 3 (2): 1–63.
    Dale, T.M., Skotnicki, M.L., Adam, K.D. & Selkirk, P.M. (1999) Genetic diversity in the moss Hennediella heimii in Miers Valley, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polar Biology 21: 228–233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003000050357
    Desvaux, E.-E. (1853) Flora Chilena, 6. Historia Fisica y Politica de Chile, Botanica, 551 pp.
    Dusén, P.K.H. (1905) Beiträge zur Bryologie der Magellansländer, von Westpatagonien und Südchile. Arkiv för Botanik 4 (1): 1–46. 
    Ellis, L.T., Asthana, A.K., Gupta, R., Nath, V., Sahu, V., Bednarek-Ochyra, H., Ochyra, R., Cykowska, B., Calvo Aranda, S., Fischer, E., Gabriel, R., Górski, P., Gremmen, N., Hespanhol, H., Kurbatova, L.E., Smith, R.I.L., Long, D.G., Bell, D., Mogro, F., Sérgio, C., Garcia, C.A., Stow, S., Martins, A., Smith, V.R., Váňa, J. & Vanderpoorten, A. (2013a) New national and regional bryophyte records, 34. Journal of Bryology 35: 62–70. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743282012Y.0000000042
    Ellis, L.T., Bednarek-Ochyra, H., Ochyra, R., Benjumea, M.J., Saïs, L.V., Caparrós, R., Lara, F., Mazimpaka, V., Dulin, M.V., Gailleti, R., Gremmen, N., Grundling, P.L., Heras, P., Infante, M., Huttunen, S., Ignatov, M.S., Korvenpää, T., Lebouvier, M., Lewis Smith, R.I., Lin, S.-H., Yang, J.-D., Linström, A., Plášek, V., Rosselló, J.A., Sawicki, J., van Rooy, J., Smith, V.R. (2013b) New national and regional bryophyte records, 35. Journal of Bryology 35: 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743282013Y.0000000049
    Fedosov, V.E., Fedorova, A.V., Larraín, J., Bonfim Santos, M., Stech, M., Kučera, J., Brinda, J.C., Tubanova, D.Y., Von Konrat, M., Ignatova, E.A. & Ignatov, M.S. (2020) Unity in diversity: Phylogeny of Rhabdoweisiaceae (Dicranales, Bryophyta). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 195: 545–567. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boaa087
    Fedosov, V.E., Fedorova, A.V., Fedosov, A.E. & Ignatov, M.S. (2016a) Phylogenetic inference and peristome evolution in haplolepideous mosses, focusing on Pseudoditrichaceae and Ditrichaceae s.l. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 139–155. https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12408
    Fedosov, V.E., Fedorova, A.V., Troitsky, A.V., Bobrova, V.K. & Ignatov, M.S. (2016b) On the systematic position of Hymenoloma. Arctoa 25: 119–130. https://doi.org/10.15298/arctoa.25.10
    Fleischer, M. (1912) Laubmoose. Nova Guinea: Resultats de L’expédition Scientifique Neerlandaise a la Nouvelle-Guinee en 1907 et 1909 8 (2): 735–753.
    Freitas, K.E.J., Metz, G.F., Cañon, E.R.P., Roesch, L.F.W., Pereira, A.B. & Victoria, F.C. (2018) Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast and Mitochondria Genomes from the Antarctic Polytrichaceae Species Polytrichum juniperinum and Polytrichum strictum. Diversity 10 (3): 89.  https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030089
    Frey, W. & Stech, M. (2009) Marchantiophyta, Bryophyta, Anthocerotophyta. In: Frey, W. (Ed.) Syllabus of Plant Families. A. Engler´s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 13th ed., Part 3 Bryophytes and seedless Vascular Plants. Borntraeger, Stuttgart, pp. 13–263.
    Gaertner, G., Meyer, B. & Scherbius, J. (1802) Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau. Vol. 3. Frankfurt am Main, 388 pp.
    Greene, S.W. (1964) Problems and progress in Antarctic bryology. In: Carrick, R., Holdgate, M.W. & Prévost, J. (Eds.) Biologie antarctique. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Antarctic Biology, Paris, 2-8 Sept. 1962. Hermann, Paris, pp. 173–179.
    Greene, S.W. (1967) The changing pattem of Antarctic botanical studies. Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition Scientific Reports, Special Issue. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Pacific-Antarctic Sciences. National Science Musecum, Department of Polar Research, Tokyo, pp. 236–244.
    Hagen, I.S. (1915) Forarbejder til en Norsk Løvmosflora XX. Dicranaceae. Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter: 1–192.
    Harvey, W.H. (1838) The Genera of South African Plants. Arranged according to the Natural System, Cape Town, 483 pp.
    Hebel, I., Dacasa Rüdinger, M.C., Jaña, R.A. & Bastias, J. (2018) Genetic Structure and Gene Flow of Moss Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske in Maritime Antarctica and Southern-Patagonia. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6: 152. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2018.00152
    Hedenäs, L. (2012) Global phylogeography in Sanionia uncinata (Amblystegiaceae: Bryophyta). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 168: 19–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01189.x
    Hedwig, J. (1801) Species Muscorum Frondosorum, descriptae et tabulis aeneis LXXVII coloratis illustratae. J.A. Barth, Leipzig, 325 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.26
    Henriques, D.K., Silva, B.G., Zuñiga, G.E. & Câmara, P.E.A.S. (2018) Contributions to the bryological knowledge of ASPA 125, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. Biological Research 51: 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40659-018-0178-3
    Hills, S.F.K., Stevens, M.I. & Gemmill, C.E.C. (2010) Molecular support for Pleistocene persistence of the continental Antarctic moss Bryum argenteum. Antarctic Science 22: 721–726. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102010000453
    Hooker, J.D. & Wilson, W. (1844) Musci Antarctici; being Characters with brief descriptions of the new species of Mosses discovered during the voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships, Erebus and Terror, in the Southern Circumpolar Regions, together with those of Tasmania and New Zealand. London Journal of Botany 3: 533–556.
    Hughes, K.A., Pertierra, L.R. & Walton, D.W.H. (2013) Area protection in Antarctica: How can conservation and scientific research goals be managed compatibly? Environmental Science & Policy 31: 120–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2013.03.012
    Ignatov, M.S. & Ignatova, E.A. (2004) Flora mkhov srednei chasti evropeiskoi Rossii. Tom 2. Fontinalaceae—Amblystegiaceae. Moss flora of the Middle European Russia. Volume 2: Fontinalaceae—Amblystegiaceae. Arctoa 11(Supplement 2): 609–960.
    Ignatov, M.S. & Fedosov, V.E. (2016) On the systematic position of Hymenoloma (Bryophyta). Arctoa 25 (1): 119–130. https://doi.org/10.15298/arctoa.25.10
    Iwatsuki, Z. (1970) A revision of Plagiothecium and its related genera in Japan and her adjacent areas. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 33: 331–380.
    Burton-Johnson, A., Black, M., Fretwell, P.T. & Kaluza-Gilbert, J. (2016) An automated methodology for differentiating rock from snow, clouds and sea in Antarctica from Landsat 8 imagery: a new rock outcrop map and area estimation for the entire Antarctic continent. The Cryosphere 10: 1665–1677. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-1665-2016
    Kato, K., Arikawa, T., Imura, S. & Kanda, H. (2013) Molecular identification and phylogeny of an aquatic moss species in Antarctic lakes. Polar Biology 36: 1557–1568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-013-1373-x
    Kennicutt, M.C., Chown, S.L., Cassano, J.J., Liggett, D., Massom, R., Peck, L.S., Rintoul, S.R., Storey, J.W.V., Vaughan, D.G., Wilson, T.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2014) Six priorities for Antarctic science. Nature 512: 23–25.
    Khan, N., Tuffin, M., Stafford, W., Cary, C., Lacap, D.C., Pointing, S.B. & Cowan, D. (2011) Hypolithic microbial communities of quartz rocks from Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Polar Biology 34: 1657–1668. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-011-1061-7
    Kim, S.C., Byun, M.Y., Kim, J.H. & Lee, H. (2019) The complete chloroplast genome of an Antarctic moss Syntrichia filaris (Müll.Hal.) R.H. Zander. Mitochondrial DNA Part B 4: 2303–2304. https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1627945
    King, D.H. (2017) Monitoring Antarctic bryophyte communities in a time of change. PhD Thesis, University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Kunth, K.S. (1823) in Humboldt, F.W.H.A, Bonpland, A.J.A, Kunth, K.S. Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 6: 1–19.
    Kurbatova, L.E. & Ochyra, R. (2012) Two Noteworthy Additions to the Moss Flora of the Schirmacher Oasis in Continental Antarctica. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 33: 159–167. https://doi.org/10.7872/cryb.v33.iss2.2012.159
    Lewis, L.R., Biersma, E.M., Carey, S.B., Holsinger, K., McDaniel, S.F., Rozzi, R. & Goffinet, B. (2017b) Resolving the northern hemisphere source region for the long distance dispersal event that gave rise to the South American endemic dung moss Tetraplodon fuegianus. American Journal of Botany 104: 1651–1659. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1700144
    Lewis, L.R., Ickert-Bond, S.M., Biersma, E.M., Convey, P., Goffinet, B., Hassel, K., Kruijer, J.D., La Farge, C., Metzgar, J., Stech, M., Villarreal, J.C. & McDaniel, S.F. (2017a) Future directions and priorities for Arctic bryophyte research. Arctic Science 3: 475–497. https://doi.org/10.1139/as-2016-0043
    Li, S.-P., Ochyra, R., Wu, P.-C., Seppelt, R.D., Cai, M.-H., Wang, H.-Y. & Li, C.-S. (2009) Drepanocladus longifolius (Amblystegiaceae), an addition to the moss flora of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, with a review of Antarctic benthic mosses. Polar Biology 32: 1415–1425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-009-0636-z
    Limpricht, K.G. (1885–1889) Die Laubmoose Deutschlands, Oesterreichs und der Schweiz 1. Eduard Kummer, Leipzig, 836 pp.
    Lindberg, S.O. (1866) Förteckning öfver mossor insamlade under de Svenska expeditionerna till Spitsbergen 1858 och 1861. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 23 (10): 535–561.
    Liu, S., Zhang, Z., Wang, N., Cong, B., Zhang, P., Lin, X. & Huang, X. (2014) Phylogenetic analysis and in vitro culture of mosses from the Antarctic Fildes Peninsula. Advances in Polar Science 25: 97–104.
    Loeske, L. (1907) Drepanocladus, eine biologische Mischgattung. Hedwigia 46 (5): 300–321.
    Melick, D.R., Tarnawski, M.G., Adam, K.D. & Seppelt, R.D. (1994) Isozyme variation in three mosses from the Windmill Islands oasis, Antarctica: a preliminary study. Biodiversity Letters 2: 21–27. https://doi.org/10.2307/2999697
    Mitten, W. (1859) Musci indiae Orientalis, an Enumeration of the Mosses of the West Indies. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Botany, Supplement 2: 1–171. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.156377
    Ochyra, R. (1993) Antipodal mosses: I. A revision of the genus Holodontium (Musci, Seligeriaceae). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 38: 1–757.
    Ochyra, R., Smith, R.I.L. & Bednarek-Ochyra, H. (2008) The Illustrated Moss Flora of Antarctica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 685 pp.
    Park., M., Park, H., Lee, H., Lee, B.-H. & Lee, J. (2018) The Complete Plastome Sequence of an Antarctic Bryophyte Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19: 709. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030709
    Piñeiro, R., Popp, M., Hassel, K., Listl, D., Westergaard, K.B., Flatberg, K.I., Stenøien, H.K. & Brochmann, C. (2012) Circumarctic dispersal and long-distance colonization of South America: the moss genus Cinclidium. Journal of Biogeography 39: 2041–2051. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02765.x
    Pisa, S., Biersma, E. M., Convey, P., Patiño, J., Vanderpoorten, A., Werner, O. & Ros, R.M. (2014) The cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum in Antarctica: recent colonisation or in situ survival? Polar Biology 37: 1469–1477. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-014-1537-3
    Rankin, A.H., Pressel, S., Ducket, J., Rimington, W.R., Hawes, I., Sumner, D.Y., Mackey, T.J., Castendyke, D., Schneider, H. & Jungblut, A.D. (2017) Characterisation of a deep-water moss from the perennially ice-covered Lake Vanda, Antarctica. Polar Biology 40: 2063–2076. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-017-2127-y
    Robinson, S.A., King, D.H., Bramley-Alves, J., Waterman, M.J., Ashcroft, M.B., Wasley, J., Turnbull, J.D., Miller, R.E., Ryan-Colton, E., Benny, T., Mullany, K., Clarke, L.J., Barry, L.A. & Hua, Q. (2018) Rapid change in East Antarctic terrestrial vegetation in response to regional drying. Nature Climate Change 8: 879–884. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0280-0
    Rosa, L.H., da Silva, T.H., Ogaki, M.B., Pinto, O.H.B., Stech, M., Convey, P., Carvalho-Silva, M., Rosa, C.A. & Câmara, P.E.A.S. (2020) DNA metabarcoding uncovers fungal diversity in soils of protected and non-protected areas on Deception Island, Antarctica. Scientific Reports 10: 21986. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78934-7
    Roth, G. (1899) Übersicht über die Familie der Hypnaceen. Beiblatt zur Hedwigia 38: 3–8.
    Saługa, M., Ochyra, R., Żarnowiec, J. & Ronikier, M. (2018) Do Antarctic populations represent local or widespread phylogenetic and ecological lineages? Complicated fate of bipolar moss concepts with Drepanocladus longifolius as a case study. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 18: 263–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-018-0372-8
    Savicz-Lubitskaya, L.I. & Smirnova, Z.N. (1965) De Grimmia antarctici Card. ex Antarctide Orientalis. Novosti Sistematiki Nizshikh Rastenii 2: 251–257. https://doi.org/10.31111/nsnr/1965.2.251b
    Schimper, W.P. (1856) Corollarium Bryologiae Europaeae: Conspectum Diagnosticum Familiarum, Generum et Specierum, Adnotationes Novas Atque Emendationes Complectens. E. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 140 pp.
    Schimper, W.P. (1860) Synopsis muscorum Europaeorum praemissa introductione de elementis bryologicis tractante. Stuttgartiae: Schweizerbart.
    Schwägrichen, F. (1830) Species muscorum frondosorum. Pars I. In: Willdenow, C.L. (Ed.) Caroli a Linné Species plantarum exhibentes plantas rite cognitas ad genera relatas cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus secundum systema sexuale digestas. Ed. 4. 5(2[1]). Berolini: Impensis G.C. Nauck.
    Selkirk, P.M., Skotnicki, M., Adam, K.D., Connett, M.B., Dale, T., Joe, J.W. & Armstrong, J. (1997) Genetic variation in Antarctic populations of the moss Sarconeurum glaciale. Polar Biology 18: 344–350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003000050198
    Selkirk, P.M., Skotnicki, M.L., Ninham, J., Connett, M.B. & Armstrong, J. (1998) Genetic variation and dispersal of Bryum argenteum and Hennediella heimii populations in the Garwood Vaelly, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 10: 423–430. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102098000510
    Seppelt, R.D., Lewis Smith, R.I. & Kanda, H. (1998) Antarctic Bryology: Past Achievements And New Perspectives. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 84: 203–239.
    Siegert, M., Atkinson, A., Banwell, A., Brandon, M., Convey, P., Davies, B., Downie, R., Edwards, T., Hubbard, B., Marshall, G., Rogelj, J., Rumble, J., Stroeve, J. & Vaughan, D. (2019) The Antarctic Peninsula Under a 1.5°C Global Warming Scenario. Frontiers in Environmental Science 7: 102. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2019.00102
    Skotnicki, M.L., Selkirk, P.M. & Dale, T.M. (1997) RAPD profiling of genetic variation in Antarctic mosses. In: Lyons, W.B., Howard-Williams, C. & Hawes, I. (Eds.) Ecosystem Processes in Antarctic Ice-Free Landscapes. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 129–136.
    Skotnicki, M.L., Ninham, J.A. & Selkirk, P.M. (1998a) High levels of RAPD diversity in the moss Bryum argenteum in Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. The Bryologist 101: 412–421. https://doi.org/10.2307/3244180
    Skotnicki, M.L., Selkirk, P.M. & Beard, C. (1998b) RAPD profiling of genetic diversity in two populations of the moss Ceratodon purpureus in Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polar Biology 19: 172–176.   https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102098000510
    Skotnicki, M.L., Selkirk, P.M. & Ninham, J.A. (1998c) RAPD analysis of genetic variation and dispersal of the moss Bryum pseudotriquetrum from Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polar Biology 20: 121–126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003000050285
    Skotnicki, M.L., Ninham, J.A. & Selkirk, P.M. (1999a) Genetic diversity and dispersal of the moss Sarconeurum glaciale on Ross Island, East Antarctica. Molecular Ecology 8: 753–762. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.1999.00619.x
    Skotnicki, M.L., Selkirk, P.M. & Ninham, J.A. (1999b) RAPD analysis of genetic variation and dispersal of the moss Bryum argenteum in Ross Island and Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polar Biology 21: 417–422. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003000050382
    Skotnicki, M., Ninham, J. & Selkirk, P.M. (2000) Genetic diversity, mutagenesis and dispersal of Antarctic mosses-a review of progress with molecular studies. Antarctic Science 12: 363–373. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102000000419
    Skotnicki, M.L., Selkirk, P.M., Broady, P., Adam, K.D. & Ninham, J.A. (2001) Dispersal of the moss Campylopus pyriformis on geothermal ground near the summits of Mount Erebus and Mount Melbourne, Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 13: 280–285. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102001000396
    Skotnicki, M.L., Bargagli, R. & Ninham, J.A. (2002) Genetic diversity in the moss Pohlia nutans on geothermal ground of Mount Rittman, Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polar Biology 25: 771–777. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-002-0418-3
    Skotnicki, M.L., Mackenzie, A. & Selkirk, P.M. (2004a) Mosses surviving on the edge: Origins, genetic diversity, and mutation in Antarctica. In: Goffinet, B., Hollowell, V. & Magill, R. (Eds.) Molecular systematics of bryophytes, 98. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, pp. 388–403.
    Skotnicki, M.L., Mackenzie, A., Ninham, J.A. & Selkirk, P.M. (2004b) High levels of genetic variability in the moss Ceratodon purpureus from continental Antarctica, subantarctic Heard and Macquarie islands, and Australasia. Polar Biology 27: 687–698. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-004-0640-2
    Skotnicki, M.L., Mackenzie, A., Clements, M.A. & Selkirk, P.M. (2005) DNA sequencing and genetic diversity of the 18S-26S nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS) in nine Antarctic moss species. Antarctic Science 17: 377–384. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102005002816
    Skotnicki, M.L., Selkirk, P.M. & Boger, S.D. (2012) New records of three moss species (Ptychostomum pseudotriquetrum, Schistidium antarctici, and Coscinodon lawianus) from the southern Prince Charles Mountains, Mac. Robertson Land, Antarctica. Polar Record 48: 394–400. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0032247412000186
    Smith, G.L. (1971) A conspectus of the genera of Polytrichaceae. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 21: 1–83.
    Sollman, P. (2015) The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae) in Antarctica. Polish Botanical Journal 50: 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1515/pbj-2015-0004
    Stech, M. & Frey, W. (2008) A morpho-molecular classification of the mosses (Bryophyta). Nova Hedwigia 86: 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2008/0086-0001
    Stech, M. & Quandt, D. (2010) 20,000 species and five key markers: the status of molecular bryophyte phylogenetics. Phytotaxa 9: 196–228. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.9.1.11
    Stevens, M.I., Hunger, S.A., Hills, S.F.K. & Gemill, C.E.C. (2007) Phantom hitch-hikers mislead estimates of genetic variation in Antarctic mosses. Plant Systematics and Evolution 263: 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-006-0484-z
    Suárez, G.M., Bordin, J. & Câmara, P.E.A.S. (2019) Syzygiella teres (Marchantiophyta) in the Elephant Island, Antarctica. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 54: 185–189. https://doi.org/10.31055/1851.2372.v54.n2.24363
    Swartz, O. (1803) Cinclidium eine neue Moos-Gattung, entdeckt und beschrieben von Ol. Swartz. Journal für die Botanik (Schrader) 1801 (1): 25–30.
    Terauds, A. & Lee, J.R. (2016) Antarctic biogeography revisited: updating the Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions. Diversity and Distributions 22: 836–840. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12453
    Vanderporten, A., Hedenäs, L., Cox, C.J. & Shaw, A.J. (2002) Circumscription, classification, and taxonomy of Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data and morphology. Taxon 51 (2): 115–122. https://doi.org/10.2307/1554968
    Wasley, J., Robinson, S.A., Turnbull, J.D., King, D.H., Wanek, W. & Popp, M. (2012) Bryophyte species composition over moisture gradients in the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica: development of a baseline for monitoring climate change impacts. Biodiversity 13: 257–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/14888386.2012.712636
    Wilson, W. (1855) Bryologia Britannica, containing The mosses of Great Britain and Ireland, systematically arranged and described according to the method of Bruch and Schimper, with illustrative plates: Being a new (third) edition, with many additions and alterations, of The Muscologia Brittanica of Messrs. Hooker and Taylor. Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, London, 445 pp.
    Zaccara, S., Patiño, J., Convey, P., Vanetti, I. & Cannone, N. (2020) Multiple colonization and dispersal events hide the early origin and induce a lack of genetic structure of the moss Bryum argenteum in Antarctica. Ecology and Evolution 10: 8959–8975. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6601