|Phytotaxa ISSN 1179-3155 (print); ISSN 1179-3163 (online)|
A rapid international journal for accelerating the publication of botanical taxonomy
Aim and scope
Phytotaxa is a peer-reviewed,
international journal for rapid publication of high quality papers on any
aspect of systematic and taxonomic botany, with a preference for large
taxonomic works such as monographs, floras, revisions and evolutionary
studies and descriptions of new taxa. Phytotaxa covers all groups
covered by the International Code
for Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN (fungi, lichens, algae, diatoms,
mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and vascular plants), both living and
was founded in 2009 as botanical sister journal to Zootaxa. It has
a large editorial board, who are running this journal on a voluntary
basis, and it is published by Magnolia Press (
open access papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
on their length, three categories of papers are considered:
are significant papers of four or more printed pages reporting original
research. Papers between 4 and 59 printed pages are published in
multi-paper issues of ca. 60 pages. Monographs (60 or more pages) are
individually issued and bound and will receive ISBN numbers as well as
being part of the Phytotaxa series.
Phytotaxa encourages large comprehensive taxonomic works.
There is no upper limit on the length of manuscripts, although authors are
advised to break monographs of over 1000 pages into multi-volume
contributions simply because books over 1000 pages are difficult to bind
and too heavy to carry.
Manuscripts of one to four pages
are welcome. We can publish these fairly rapidly because they are useful
to fill blank pages in multi-paper issues. Phytotaxa publishes the
following six types of correspondence:
Opinions and views on current issues of interests to systematic botanists.
Commentaries on or additions/corrections to papers previously published in
Phytotaxa or elsewhere.
3. Obituaries of botanists.
4. Taxonomic/nomenclatural notes.
5. Book reviews meant to introduce readers to new or
noteworthy taxonomic works (interested authors/publishers are advised to
contact the editor before submitting books for review; editors then
prepare the book review or invite colleagues to write the review;
unsolicited reviews are not usually published).
6. Short papers converted from manuscripts submitted as
research articles but too short to qualify as such.
short contributions should generally have no more than
(exceptions may be considered), and the total
length should not exceed four printed pages.
Neither an abstract nor a list of key words is needed; major
headings (Introduction, Material and Methods, etc.) should not be used,
except for new taxon headings and References. A typical correspondence
should consist of (1) a short and concise title, (2) author name,
affiliation, address and e-mail address, (3) a series of paragraphs being
the main text, and (4) a list of references (if any). The first or last
paragraph may be a short summary.
on published papers are intended for scholarly exchange of different views
or interpretations of published data and should not contain personal
attack; note that authors of the papers concerned may be invited to reply
to comments on their papers.
3) Monographs, floras and other articles of more than 60 printed pages
in book-form with their own ISBN number. They may be different from the
standard formatting when the author provides reasonable arguments for
doing so. Please consult the editor in such cases.
Special issues with collected papers on a selected topic in the scope of the journal are also published. Potential guest editors should send a proposal to the chief editor for approval and instructions. Although guest editors for special issues are responsible for organizing the peer review of papers in these issues, they must follow the style of Phytotaxa (as laid out in this author guide) and peer review procedures. If any papers by the guest editors are to be included in the special issue, these papers must be handled by editors/colleagues other than the editor(s) involved. Special issues must be 60 or more pages. Funding may be required to offset part of the production costs. Author payment for Open Access is strongly encouraged. Reprints can be ordered for the entire issue or for individual papers.
Preparation of manuscripts
the guidelines below and additionally consult a recent article published
in Phytotaxa and follow the style therein.
Language. The article
has to be written in British or American English throughout the
manuscript. Authors whose native language is not English are encouraged to
ask colleagues familiar with the field of research and fluent in English
(preferably a native speaker) to correct the language in the manuscript before submission. An article
may be returned to the author without review if the language is not of an
The author is
also responsible for the correct usage of other languages, be it a Latin
diagnosis or an abstract in a foreign language. The grammar of texts in
foreign languages needs to be checked by the author before submission, and
again after review if the English from which it is translated (e.g. an
abstract) has changed. Latin scholars who are consulted for the correcting
of diagnoses should be acknowledged.
Metric mearures should be used. Please use the common font Times New Roman, 12 pt and as
little formatting as possible (apply only bold and italics
where necessary and indent paragraphs except the first). Special symbols
can be used but need to be carefully checked by the author at proof stage,
because they may be altered due to incompatibility of files.
Hyphens ‘-’ are
used to link words such as personal names, topographical names, some
prefixes and compound adjectives that could otherwise be confused
(examples: well-established, 5-sided, Kingston-upon-Thames, Kingdon-Ward,
En-dash or en-rule ‘–’ (a dash the length of the letter ‘n’') should be used for ranges or spans. In the context of Phytotaxa it is mainly used for ranges of numbers, most frequently size ranges, elevational ranges, dates and page numbers (e.g. 500–1000 m, 1–3 May, 1976–1977, figs 5–7). Remember also to apply them in the reference section for ranges of volumes, years and pages. The en-dash is also used in name associations ( e.g. a Federal–State agreement) and in phenology (e.g. flowering May–September).
Em-dash or em-rule ‘—’ (the
length of the letter ‘m’) is used infrequently; they are used for breaks in the text or subject. In
contrast to parentheses an em-dash can be used alone; e.g. “What could
these results mean—that John discovered the meaning of life?” Em-dashes
are also used after a subheading, for instance:
mark ‘!’ is used to indicate after the herbarium acronym to indicate that
this voucher specimen has been seen by the author (see above).
Multiplication or times sign ‘×’.
The multiplication sign × is not to be confused with the letter x. It should always be used in
hybrid taxa (e.g. Equisetum × schaffneri) and in measurements of
length and width (of leaves or petals, for
example), for example: “leaves 1.0–4.2 × 0.4–0.8 cm”.
and hyphens should not be spaced. Please feel free to copy these symbols from this author guide
and paste them into your manuscript. Using the correct symbols will
speed up the editing process. Editors may return the manuscript to the
author if dashes, hyphens and multiplication signs are not correctly used.
Italicisation. Generic names
and all ranks below are italicised. Book and journal titles are also in
italics, as well as diagnoses in Latin and Latin abbreviations (such as sp.
nov., comb. nov., nom. illeg., et al.). “subsp.”, “ser.”,
“var.”, “cv.” and “f.” (for forma or filius) are not
italicised, nor are names above the rank of genus. The abbreviation “ssp.”
should be avoided and replaced by “subsp.” (for subspecies) to prevent
confusion with the abbreviation spp. (= species in plural). As a general
rule abbreviations are discouraged.
Abbreviations of certain words are
standardised: ca. = circa, m = meter, cm = centimeter, dbh = diameter at
breast height, elev. = elevation (altitude is not used for
heights of land surfaces above sea level; altitude is used for heights
above the earth surface, e.g. of an airplane), sp. nov. =
new species, comb. nov. = new combination, gen. nov. = new
genus, subsp. = subspecies, sect. = section, pers. comm. = personal
communication, etc. Herbarium acronyms
follow Index Herbariorum http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/
Citation of author names
abbreviations are seldom used (generally only for basionym authors and new
taxa proposed in the manuscript); they are
generally cited fully in the references. This means that the name is not abbreviated but the surname is written in
full, followed in brackets by the year of publication, a colon, and the
page number of the page where the name was published. This is treated as a
normal citation, and thus the full article in
which the species was published has to be cited in the references.
(Include full title of the article, full journal title and full page
range.) This is obligatory for all taxonomic articles and articles in
which fewer than 30 taxa are mentioned. In articles that deal with a
larger number of species (such as ecological or phylogenetic studies or
checklists) this is not encouraged because it is impractical. If
uncertain, please contact an editor about this matter.
(strictly following IPNI) are only used in larger monographs and
checklists, but even in these articles names in introductions and running
text are properly cited in the references.
Taxon author names should be cited only once, when the
taxon/species first appears in the text. Phytotaxa
aims to have all taxonomic sources cited included in the reference
section. Citation of species authors is as follows:
Hymenophyllopsis asplenioides A.C.Sm. in Gleason (1931: 302). Smith is
abbreviated here because it is published in Gleason, which is the proper
article to cite.
Cyathea asplenioides (A.C.Sm.) Christenhusz (2009: 39). Smith is abbreviated here because the
basionym is already given above.
Cyathea gibbosa (Klotzsch 1844: 542) Domin (1929: 262). Both the basionym and new
combination are cited because the basionym is not given above.
In the references:
Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2009) New combinations and an
overview of Cyathea subg. Hymenophyllopsis (Cyatheaceae). Phytotaxa
Domin, C. (1929) Pteridophyta. České Akademie,
Gleason, H.A. (1931) Botanical results of the Tyler-Duida expedition. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 58: 227–344.
Klotzsch, J.F. (1844) Beiträge zu einer Flora der
Äquinoctial-Gegenden der neuen Welt, Filices. Linnaea 18:
of voucher specimens and GenBank numbers
Authors of new taxa are required
to deposit type specimens in national or international public museums or
collections, preferably ones listed in the Index
Herbariorum that are provided with a corresponding acronym.
Authors are also advised to
request registration numbers of deposited sequences in GenBank in advance
of the submission of papers to avoid unnecessary delay of publication.
Descriptions of species can also be linked to other sources such as the Encyclopedia of Life. For fungi MycoBank numbers need to be
Some countries (e.g.
Geography and elevation
Please apply the word
‘elevation’ when dealing with geological features. ‘Altitude’ is
here defined as the distance above the surface of the Earth, whereas
‘elevation’ applies to the height of an earth surface above sea level.
For country names (always
capitalised in specimen citations) and provinces (followed by a colon),
the standard spellings in English followed by the UN apply (e.g.
should be concise and informative and should cover the content of the article. No author names of taxa are given
in the title. Family names should always be included. The higher taxa containing
the taxa dealt with in the paper (when appropriate) should be indicated in
parentheses, example: A taxonomic
revision of the genus Aa (Cranichidae, Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae).
affiliations of article author(s)
Names of all authors must be given below the
title and should be typed in upper case (e.g. ADAM J. SMITH, BRIAN SMITH & CAROL SMITH). Inclusion of all major
contributors to the work should be considered.
names, the address(es) of professional affiliation for each author should
be given in italics each starting on a separate line. E-mail
address(es) should be provided if available. Affiliation addresses are
linked to the author names by numbers in superscript and are provided in
The abstract should cover concisely contents of the paper and should be phrased such that additional key words are not necessary. Any new names or new nomenclatural acts proposed in the article should be mentioned. No taxon author names are to be included in the abstract. Introductory information should not be included in the abstract, neither should be the citation of references.
Abstracts in other languages
using the Latin alphabet may also be included in addition to English and
should be a direct translation of the English abstract. The spelling and
grammar of these abstracts in other languages is the responsibility of the
author. An abstract in another language should be corrected if there are
any changes in the English abstract during the editorial process.
Key words may be given when the abstract does not already cover these. The key words may not include words that are already in the title, and they should be given in alphabetical sequence.
and key words are not included in short Communications.
introduction should place the study in context, and it should provide
recent or historical background relevant to the study. This information
should not be included in the abstract. Author names of a taxon should be
cited only once, when the taxon/species first appears in the text.
Material & Methods
and methodology used in empirical studies should be concisely provided.
Herbaria consulted can be listed here, if not done so in the
Acknowledgements. Field work should be highlighted. Floras and other
taxonomic works consulted to identify the plant material involved in a
study should be cited.
section should only present the results of the study. Do not mix results
and discussion. Combined Results/Discussion sections are discouraged.
Citations of other literature are not normally permitted in the Results
your results and place these in the context of the introduction.
conclusion should state what the scientific contribution of your study is
(ask yourself the question: ‘What can we learn from this study and how
do the results help us to understand the questions asked in the
introduction and discussion?’). It is helpful for other researchers to
point out further studies that may be needed in the future.
section should start with each taxon in bold italics. Abbreviations of
authors of new species should be given
(following IPNI, not bold), and these should be followed by the correct
designation (in italics, not bold, e.g. comb.
nov., nom. nov., spec. nov., stat. nov., etc.). When species are not
newly described, the author names should be followed by the year and page
of publication (and the full article should be included in the
All new taxa need to be accompanied by short diagnoses in
Latin that describe the new taxa. If you prefer Latin, please make
sure the language is used correctly. The editors will generally not correct your Latin
diagnoses. A specimen needs to be designated as its type (following the
ICBN), and the holotype must have been studied by the author of the
species. It is encouraged that, when possible, the holotype is deposited
in the country of origin, and that two or isotypes are deposited in major
herbaria where the specimens will be available for public study.
Taxonomic descriptions should be organised describing the plants from below to above and from outside towards the inner parts. Of course, this is different for each taxon and can thus follow a variable. Subsections of descriptions can be highlighted using italics. Additional data (e.g. distribution, ecology, etymology, etc.) may follow. Often these are subheaded by ‘:—‘ (m-dash).
Specimens are cited as follows:
COUNTRY. Province: Locality, elevation, coordinates, date
(day month (in full) year), Collector
number (herbarium acronym in upper case). All specimens studied should
be cited. Lectotypes, neotypes and epitypes should always be followed by
the reference where they are designated, for example:
Lectotype (designated by
Smith 2000/designated here):—FINLAND
keys should be dichotomous, and the leads should (preferably) be opposite
to each other in meaning so that the species can be easily distinguished.
Please do not format the key; provide it in the following simple layout:
longer than pedicels; filaments with 1 acute lobe at apex on either side
of anther … Ornithogalum nutans
shorter than pedicels; filaments without apical lobes on anther ... 2.
Inflorescence corymbose; tepals longer than 14 mm ... Ornithogalum
Inflorescence racemose; tepals shorter than 14 mm ... Ornithogalum
for the Acknowledgements is variable, and anyone can be thanked for their
contribution. Please consider co-authorship for people that contributed to
the study in a major way, especially contributors of specimens or
All literature cited in
the text (including full articles of taxon authors) should be included.
Please check this carefully before submission because errors are common. References should be cited in the
text as Smith (1999), Smith & Jones (2000) or Smith et al.
(2001), the latter when there are three or more authors, or alternatively
in a parenthesis (Adams 2000, Smith & Jones 2000, Jones 2001, Smith et
al. 2001). The citation of floras, revisions and monographs used to
identify the collections on which the study is based is strongly
Please include DOI for papers that have these. This facilitates linking to papers that have online versions.
Journal article: Author, A. & Author,
B.C. (YEAR) Title of the paper. Title of the journal in full in italics
volume: x–y. For example:
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Zhang, X.-C. & Schneider, H.
(2011) Linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and
ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7–54.
Book chapter: Author, A. & Author, B.C. (YEAR) Title of the chapter. In:
Author, A., Author, B.C. & Author, D. (eds.) Title of book in
italics. Publisher name, City, pp. x–y. For example:
H., Kreier, H.-P., Janssen, T., Otto, E., Muth, H. & Heinrichs, J.
(2010) Key innovations versus key opportunities: identifying causes of
rapid radiations in derived ferns. In: Glaubrecht, M. (ed.) Evolution
in action. Springer,
A. & Author, B.C. (YEAR) Title of book in italics. Publisher
name, location, xyz pp. For example:
E.B. (1947) Genera filicum. Chronica Botanica,
Internet source: Author, A. (YEAR) Title of website, database or other resources,
Publisher name and location (if indicated), number of pages (if known).
Available from: http://xxx.xxx.xxx/ (Date of access). For example:
IUCN (2010) The IUCN red list of threatened species, version 2010.4. IUCN Red
List Unit, Cambridge U.K. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Dissertations resulting from graduate
studies and non-serial proceedings of
conferences/symposia are to be treated as books and cited as such.
Articles not cited in the manuscript should not be included in the
Figures and Tables
Legends of figures and
be listed after the list of references
within the same file of the manuscript. Legends for tables and figures
should start with TABLE or FIGURE followed by its number and a full stop. Illustrators and
photographers should be mentioned in the figure legend, and if the
illustrator is not one of the authors he/she should also be acknowledged.
All figures and tables need to be referred to in the text.
FIGURE 1. Distribution map of Psilotum nudum in the
illustrations, authors should bear in mind that the journal has a
matter size of 25 cm by 17 cm and is printed on A4 paper. For species
illustrations, line drawings are preferred, although good quality black
and white or colour photographs are also acceptable. See a guide here for detailed information on preparing plates
for publication; this guide was prepared by Dr Daniel Geiger for Zootaxa,
but it applies equally to Phytotaxa.
Line drawings must be scanned at 600 to 1200 dpi as line art
(bitmap, =1 bit); they must NOT be scanned as 8 bit or full colour images.
Pictures and line drawings should be saved as TIFF files. In some cases PDF or DOC files are acceptable. JPG is
not an accepted format. Do not scan line drawings as JPG files because
this creates blurry or pixellated images. Sufficient resolution should be
provided, but it is up to the author to do so. Low resolution figures can
only be printed at a small size.
Tables, if any, should be provided at the end of the manuscript. Please use the
table function in your word processor to build tables such that the cells,
rows and columns remain aligned when font size and width of the table are
changed. Please do not use the tab key or space bar to type
Please follow the above guidelines in detail
and check if your manuscript has been prepared according to the style and
format of the journal. Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts by
e-mail as attachments to the subject editors responsible for the particular taxa or subject
areas of the manuscript; manuscripts on other taxa without existing
subject editors should be submitted to the chief editor. When you submit your manuscript to an editor,
it will be more expedient for the review process if you provide the names
of three or more potential reviewers with their email addresses.
purposes it should be noted that upon submitting an article the authors
agree to the following:
1) All authors agree to its
submission and the corresponding author has been authorised by co-authors
2) This article has not been
published before and is not concurrently being considered for publication
elsewhere (including another editor of Phytotaxa)
3) This article does not violate
any copyright or other personal proprietary right of any person or entity,
and it contains no abusive, defamatory, obscene or fraudulent or any other
statements that are unlawful in any way.
If the manuscript submitted does not follow
this guideline, it will not be processed.
For manuscripts with
numerous illustrations, which might be saved as separate TIFF or JPG
files, it will be easier and more efficient for the purpose of review and
for the subject editors and reviewers to have the figures converted into
one larger PDF (Portable Document Format)
file, instead of requiring the subject editor to save many files, cutting
and copying these into a string of messages/files to the reviewers. You
should retain the original figures in a higher resolution format for the
final production of the accepted paper. For the text, PDF file along with
original DOC files are preferred. The advantage of submitting an RTF file
for the text part of the manuscript is that the reviewers can amend the
manuscript electronically. If you cannot prepare PDF files, then submit
text in RTF and the figures in TIF (line drawing scanned at 600 dpi and
half tone at 300 dpi; please use LZW compression, if you can, to reduce
the size of e-files for easy transmission); if halftone TIFF files are too
big (exceeding 2 MB), then submit them in jpeg. See here for detailed information on preparing plates
accepted papers will be asked to submit an electronic version of the
manuscript so that the publisher does not need to re-key or scan the
manuscript. At this stage, the text part of the manuscript must be
submitted as DOC (MS Word) files and figures as TIF files.
submitting the final version of revised manuscript to editors, authors are
asked to provide the following information to aid typesetting and indexing
of the manuscript:
2) Author last name and running
title (<60 characters; to be used in footer)
3) Number of plates and cited
4) Higher level taxon (i.e.
taxon section in Phytotaxa
website in which the article should be filed) and number of new taxa
described in the paper
Authors need to complete and return an Assignment
of Copyright form
when a paper is accepted for publication. Authors from institutions that
do not allow transfer of copyrights to publishers (e.g. government
institutions such as USDA, CSIRO) should attach a copyright waiver or
When a manuscript is received by the Editor, he/she will have it reviewed by at least two
peers qualified to evaluate the manuscript. The editor normally asks the
reviewers to complete the review within one month. However, the reviewing
process may take longer, depending on the length of the manuscript and
Production and Publication
Once the manuscript is accepted by
your subject editor, final files, produced according to the requirements
above, will be forwarded by your subject editor to the managing editor,
who will liaise with the copy editor, author and printer to ensure that
the article is published without unnecessary delay. Normally the proof
will be sent to the author for checking one to three weeks after the final
files are accepted. The paper will usually be published within two weeks
(for larger papers it may take longer) once the corrections to the proof
and colour plates. There is no
mandatory page charge for publishing in Phytotaxa.
Publication of colour
figures/photographs in online editions are also free of charge
(print version in black and white). If colour plates in the print edition
are desired, authors will be asked to contribute the full cost. Current
rates: 300 USD for the first colour page and 200 USD for each additional
Phytotaxa endorses open access
publication of taxonomic information. Authors who have funds to publish
encouraged to pay a fee of 20 US$ per printed page to give free
online access of their papers to all readers at the Phytotaxa site
or their own site. Open access papers are read by many more people and can
be expected to have higher citation rates.
Reprints. Each author will be given a free
e-reprint (PDF) for personal use (printing a copy for own use or
exchange with other researchers, but not for deposition in a library or on
a website/ftp-site for public access).
copies of each paper/monograph in the form of the regular reprint can also
be produced by the Publisher for purchase by authors, with a discount
based on the number of copies ordered; quotes for price will be provided
when proofs are returned.
Phylogeny Group [APG III] (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG
III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105–121.
(see also http://mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00019p134.pdf)
M.J.M., Zhang, X.-C. &
Schneider, H. (2011a) Linear sequence of extant families and genera of
lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa
19: 7–54. http://mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00019p054.pdf
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Reveal, J.L., Farjon, A.,
Biodiversity heritage library: http://biodiversitylibrary.org
Index fungorum: http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp
Index herbariorum: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/
International code of botanical nomenclature (
International plant name index: http://www.ipni.org/
World checklist of selected plant families: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
▪ Jstor Plants science: http://plants.jstor.org
▪ The Plant List, http://www.theplantlist.org
▪ International Code of Nomenclature for
algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code):
|Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press||Published: 30 Jan. 2013|