Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Key for identification of the parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of aphids infesting alfalfa in Europe

MUSTAFA E. GHALIOW, ANDJELJKO PETROVIĆ, KORANA KOCIĆ, JELISAVETA ČKRKIĆ, ANA MITROVSKI BOGDANOVIĆ, PETR STARÝ, NICKOLAS G. KAVALLIERATOS, ŽELJKO TOMANOVIĆ

Abstract


Although Aphidiinae parasitoids have been used as agents for biocontrol of alfalfa aphids for more than half a century and have been the subject of numerous ecological investigations, there is an evident lack of systematic studies on the parasitoids of aphids infesting alfalfa in Europe. Here we present an original and up-dated key for identification of both native and invasive Aphidiinae parasitoids attacking aphids that feed on alfalfa in Europe. In total, 20 species are keyed and illustrated with scanning electron micrographs and line drawings.

 


Keywords


Hymenoptera, lucerne, biocontrol, Aphididae, parasitoid wasps

Full Text:

PDF (4MB)

References


Aeschlimann, J.P. (1981) Occurrence and natural enemies of Therioaphis trifolii Monel and Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Homoptera, Aphididae) on lucerne in the Mediterranean region. Acta Oecologica-Oecologia Applicata, 2, 3–11.

Annicchiarico, P. & Pecetti, L. (2010) Forage and seed yield response of lucerne cultivars to chemically weeded and non-weeded managements and implications for germplasm choice in organic farming. European Journal of Agronomy, 2, 74–80.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2010.02.006

Aslan, M.M., Uygun, N. & Starý, P. (2004) A survey of aphid parasitoids in Kahramanmaras, Turkey (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae; and Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Phytoparasitica, 32 (3), 255–263.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02979820

Atanassova, P., Brookes, C.P., Loxdale, H.D. & Powell, W. (1998) Electrophoretic study of five aphid parasitoid species of the genus Aphidius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), including evidence for reproductively isolated sympatric populations and a cryptic species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88, 3–13.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S000748530004150X

Autrique, A., Starý, P. & Ntahimpera, L. (1987) Introduction au Burundi d'Hyménopteres Aphidiides pour la lutte biologique contre les pucerons. Séminaire sur les maladies et le ravageurs des principales cultures vivrières d’Afrique Centrale, Bujumbura, 12–20 Février 1987, 359–366

Autrique, A., Starý, P. & Ntahimpera, L. (1989) Biological control of pest aphids by hymenopterous parasites in Burundi. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37, 71–74.

Bańkowska, R., Kierych, E., Mikołajczyk, W., Palmowska, J. & Trojan, P. (1975) Aphid-aphidophage community in alfalfa cultures (Medicago sativa L.) in Poland Part 1. Structure and phenology of the community. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 32 (14), 299–346.

Blackman, R.L. & Eastop, V.F. (1984) Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Wiley, New York, 466 pp.

Bortolus, A. (2008) Error cascades in the biological sciences: the unwanted consequences of using bad taxonomy in ecology. Ambio, 37 (2), 114–118.
https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2008)37%5B114:ECITBS%5D2.0.CO;2

Brown, G.C. & Fick, G.W. (1986) Modeling the ecological components of alfalfa production. In: Frisbie, R.E. & Adkisson, P.L. (Eds.), Integrated pest management of major agricultural systems. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Publication MP–1616. College Station, Texas, pp. 174–191.

Chen, J.H., González, H.D. & Luhman, J. (1990) A new species of Aphidius (Hymenoptera) attacking the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Entomophaga, 35 (4), 509–514.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02375085

Desneux, N. & Ramirez-Romero, R. (2009) Plant characteristics mediated by growing conditions can impact parasitoid's ability to attack host aphids in winter canola. Journal of Pest Science, 82, 335–342.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-009-0258-9

Dolphin, K. & Quicke, D.L.J. (2001) Estimating the global species richness of an incompletely described taxon: an example using parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 73, 279–286.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2001.tb01363.x

Eastop, V.F. & van Emden, H.F. (1972) The insect material. In: van Emden, H.F. (Ed.), Aphid Technology. Academic Press, London, pp. 1–45.

Elliott, N.C., Kieckhefer, R.W., Michels Jr., G.J. &. Giles, K.L. (2002) Predator abundance in alfalfa fields in relation to aphids, within-field vegetation, and landscape matrix. Environmental Entomology, 31 (2), 253–260.
https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-31.2.253

Ferrer-Suay, M., Selfa, J., Tomanović, Ž., Janković, M., Kos, K., Rakhshani, E. & Pujade-Villar, J. (2013) Revision of Alloxysta from the north-western Balkan Peninsula with description of two new species (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Charipinae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 53 (1), 347–368.

Foster, S.P., Devine, G. & Devonshire, A.L. (2007) Insecticide resistance. In: van Emden, H. & Harrington, R. (Eds.), Aphids as crop pests. CAB International, Oxford, pp. 261–285.
https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851998190.0261

Franz, A., Makkouk, K.M. & Vetten, H.J. (1998) Acquisition, retention and transmission of faba bean necrotic yellows virus by two of its aphid vectors, Aphis craccivora (Koch) and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Journal of Phytopathology, 146, 347–355.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.1998.tb04703.x

Fuerst, E.P., Koenig, R.T., Kugler, J., Painter, K., Stannard, M. & Goldberger, J. (2009) Organic alfalfa management guide. Washington State University Extension, Washington, 24 pp.

González, D., White, W., Hall, J. & Dickson, R.C. (1978) Geographical distribution of Aphidiidae (Hym.) imported to California for biological control of Acyrthosiphon kondoi and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hom.: Aphididae). Entomophaga, 23 (3), 239–248.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02373098

González, D., Hagen, K.S., Starý, P., Bishop, W., Davis, D.W. &. Pike, K.S. (1995) Pea aphid and blue alfalfa aphid. In: Nechols, J.R. (Ed.), Biological Control in the Western United States. Accomplishments and Benefits of Regional Research Project W-84, 1964–1989. Publication 3361. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, California, pp. 129–135.

Grez, A.A., Zaviezo, T. & Gardiner, M.M. (2014) Local predator composition and landscape affects biological control of aphids in alfalfa fields. Biological Control, 76, 1–9.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.04.005

Höller, C., Borgemeister, C., Haardt, H. & Powell, W. (1993) The relationship between primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids of cereal aphids: an analysis of field data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 12–21.
https://doi.org/10.2307/5478

Hughes, G.E., Sterk, G. & Bale, J.S. (2011) Thermal biology and establishment potential in temperate climates of the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus testaceipes. Biological Control, 56 (1), 19–33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10526-010-9314-x

Janković, M., Plećaš, M., Sandić, D., Popović, A., Petrović, A., Petrović-Obradović, O., Tomanović, Ž. & Gagić, V. (2016) Functional role of different habitat types at local and landscape scales for aphids and their natural enemies. Journal of Pest Science, 90 (1), 261–273.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0744-9

Kaiser, M.C. & Heimpel, G.E. (2016) Parasitoid-induced transgenerational fecundity compensation in an aphid. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 159 (2), 197–206.
https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12431

Kaliuzhna, M.O. & Zubenko, O.G. (2013) Aphidiid wasps (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae) parasitizing aphids on herbaceous legumes (Fabaceae) in the central wood-and-steppe zone of Ukraine. Vestnik Zoologii, 47 (5), 8–20.
https://doi.org/10.2478/vzoo-2013-0042

Kavallieratos, N.G., Athanassiou, C.G. & Tomanović, Ž. (2003) A new species and a key to Greek Praon Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 50, 13–22.
https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.20030500104

Kavallieratos, N.G., Lykouressis, D.P., Sarlis, G.P., Stathas, G.J., Sanchis Segovia, A. & Athanassiou, C.G. (2001) The Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae) of Greece. Phytoparasitica, 29 (4), 306–340.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02981847

Kavallieratos, N.G., Tomanović, Ž., Starý, P., Athanassiou, C.G., Sarlis, G.P., Petrović, O., Niketić, M. & Anagnou Veroniki, M. (2004) A survey of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of Southeastern Europe and their aphid–plant associations. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39 (3), 527–563.
https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2004.527

Kavallieratos, N.G., Tomanović, Ž., Starý, P., Athanassiou, C.G., Fasseas, C., Petrović, O., Stanisavljević, LJ. & Anagnou Veroniki, M. (2005) Praon Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of Southeastern Europe: key, host range and phylogenetic relationships. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 243, 181–209.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2004.11.001

Kavallieratos, N.G., Tomanović, Ž., Sarlis, G.P., Fasseas, C. & Emmanouel, N.E. (2006) A review of the genus Aphidius Nees in Greece (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) with the description of a new species. Journal of Natural History, 40, 1179–1197.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930600822555

Kavallieratos, N.G., Tomanović, Ž., Petrović, A., Janković, M., Starý, P., Yovkova, M. & Athanassiou, C.G. (2013) Review and key for the identification of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of aphids infesting herbaceous and shrubby ornamental plants in Southeastern Europe. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 106 (3), 294–309.
https://doi.org/10.1603/an12090

Kavallieratos, N.G., Tomanović, Ž., Petrović, A., Kocić, K., Janković, M. & Starý, P. (2016) Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of aphids feeding on ornamental trees in Southeastern Europe: key for identification and tritrophic associations. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 109 (3), 473–487.
https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/saw003

Kechang, L., Ping, Z. & Cash, D. (2009) Biology and management of major alfalfa diseases and pests. In: Cash, D. (Ed.), Alfalfa management guide for Ningxia. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Beijing, pp. 37–50.

Kierych, E. (1975) Materiały do znajomości Aphidiidae (Hymenoptera) Polski. Fragmenta Faunistica, 20, 233–246.
https://doi.org/10.3161/00159301FF1975.20.15.233

Kittel, R.N. (2016) Eighty-nine replacement names for Braconidae and Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology, 22 (2), 161–174.

Kos, K., Tomanović, Ž., Rojht, H. & Trdan, S. (2009) The first record of Aphidius ervi Haliday in Slovenia. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 93, 163–168.
https://doi.org/10.2478/v10014-009-0011-3

Laamari, M., Chaouche, S.T., Halimi, C.W., Benferhat, S., Abbes, S.B., Khenissa, N. & Starý, P. (2012) A review of aphid parasitoids and their associations in Algeria (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae; Hemiptera: Aphidoidea). African Entomology, 20 (1), 161–170.
https://doi.org/10.4001/003.020.0120

Michaud, R., Lehmen, W.F. & Rumbaugh M.D. (1988) World distribution and historical development. In: Hanson, A.A., Barnes, D.K. & Hill, R.R. (Eds.), Alfalfa and alfalfa improvement. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 25–91.

Muller, L., Krüger, K. & Kfir, R. (2014) First report of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from South Africa. African Entomology, 22 (1), 214–215.
https://doi.org/10.4001/003.022.0126

Ölmez, S. & Ulusoy, M.R. (2003) A survey of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Diyarbakir, Turkey. Phytoparasitica, 31 (5), 524–528.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02979745

Pennacchio, F. (1989) The Italian species of the genus Aphidius Nees (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri, 46, 75–106.

Petrović, A., Mitrović, M., Starý, P., Petrović-Obradović, O., Žikić, V., Tomanović, Ž. & Vorburger, C. (2013) Lysiphlebus orientalis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new invasive aphid parasitoid in Europe – evidence from molecular markers. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 103, 451–457.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485313000035

Petrović, A., Mitrović, M., Ivanović, A., Žikić, V., Kavallieratos, N.G., Starý, P., Mitrovski Bogdanović, A., Tomanović, Ž. & Vorburger, C. (2015) Genetic and morphological variation in sexual and asexual parasitoids of the genus Lysiphlebus – an apparent link between wing shape and reproductive mode. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15 (1), 5–16.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-015-0293-5

Pimentel, D. & Wheeler, A.G. (1973) Species and diversity of arthropods in the alfalfa community. Environmental Entomology, 2 (4), 659–668.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/2.4.659

Pons, X., Lumbierres, B., Antoni, R. & Starý, P. (2011) Parasitoid complex of alfalfa aphids in an IPM intensive crop system in northern Catalonia. Journal of Pest Science, 84, 437–456.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-011-0383-0

Powell, W. (1982) The identification of hymenopterous parasitoids attacking cereal aphids in Britain. Systematic Entomology, 7, 465–473.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1982.tb00457.x

Rahmann, G. & Böhm, H. (2005) Organic fodder production in intensive organic livestock production in Europe: recent scientific findings and the impact on the development of organic farming. In: Rowlinson, P., Wachirapakorn, C., Pakdee, P. & Wanapat, M. (Eds.), Integrating Livestock-Crop Systems to Meet the Challenges of Globalisation. Proceedings of the AHAT/BSAS International Conference, November 14–18, 2005, Khon Kaen, Thailand. British Society of Animal Science, Midlothian, pp. 471–485.

Rakhshani, E., Talebi, A.A., Kavallieratos, N.G., Rezwani, A., Manzari, S. & Tomanović, Ž. (2005) Parasitoid complex (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) of Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) in Iran. Journal of Pest Science, 78 (4), 193–198.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-004-0080-3

Rakhshani, E., Talebi, A.A., Manzari, S., Rezwani, A. & Rakhshani, H. (2006) An investigation on alfalfa aphids and their parasitoids in different parts of Iran, with a key to the parasitoids (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 25 (2), 1–14.

Sandrock, C., Schirrmeister, B.E. & Vorburger, C. (2011) Evolution of reproductive mode variation and host associations in a sexual-asexual complex of aphid parasitoids. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11, 348–367.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-348

Sharkey, M.J. & Wharton, R.A. (1997) Morphology and terminology. In: Wharton, R.A., Marsh, P.M. & Sharkey, M.J. (Eds.), Manual of the new world genera of the family Braconidae. Special publication I, International Society of Hymenopterists, Washington, D.C., pp. 19–37.

Soroka, J. & Otani, J. (2011) Arthropods of legume forage crops. In:. Floate, K.D (Ed.), Arthropods of Canadian grasslands. Vol. 2. Inhabitants of a changing landscape. Biological Survey of Canada, Monograph Series 4, pp. 239–264.

Starý, P. (1970a) The spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis trifolii (Mon.), as a pest of alfalfa in Czechoslovakia. Ochrana Rostlin, 18 (5), 25–32. [in Czech]

Starý, P. (1970b) Routine alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cutting program and its influence on pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) populations. Oecologia, 5, 374–379.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00815501

Starý, P. (1971) Migration and parasitization as factors of population regulation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) in alfalfa fields in Central Europe. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 68, 353–364.

Starý, P. (1972) Host range of parasites and ecosystem relations, a new viewpoint in multilateral control concept (Hom., Aphididae, Hym., Aphidiidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 8, 351–358.

Starý, P. (1974a) Population dynamics, parasitization, control and prognosis of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) in Czechoslovakia. Transactions of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Series of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, 84, 1–123.

Starý, P. (1974b) Taxonomy, origin, distribution and host range of Aphidius species (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae) in relation to biological control of the pea aphid in Europe and North America. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 77, 141–171.

Starý, P. (1979) Aphid parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) of the Central Asian area. Dr. W. Junk b.v., The Hague, 116 pp.

Starý, P. (1988) Aphidiidae. In: Minks, A.K. & Harrewijn, P. (Eds.), Aphids, their natural enemies and control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 171–184.

Starý, P. (2006) Aphid parasitoids of the Czech Republic (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Academia, Praha, 430 pp.

Starý, P., Gerding, M., Norambuena, H. & Remaudière, G. (1993) Environmental research on aphid parasitoid biocontrol agents in Chile (Hym., Aphidiidae; Hom., Aphidoidea). Journal of Applied Entomology, 115, 292–306.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1993.tb00394.x

Starý, P. & González, D. (1978) Parasitoid spectrum of Acyrthosiphon aphids in Central Asia (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, 9, 140–145.
https://doi.org/10.1163/187631278X00089

Starý, P. & Havelka, J. (2008) Fauna and associations of aphid parasitoids in an up-dated farmland area (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Insectology, 61 (2), 251–276.

Starý, P., Kavallieratos, N.G., Petrović, A., Žikić, V., Rakhshani, E., Tomanović, S., Tomanović, Ž. & Havelka, J. (2014) Interference of field evidence, morphology, and DNA analyses of three related Lysiphlebus aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Aphidiinae). Journal of Insect Science, 14, 1–6.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/ieu033

Starý, P. & Lukáš, J. (2009) Aphid parasitoids and their tritrophic associations in Slovakia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Folia Hymenopterologica Slovaca I, Bratislava, Slovakia, 63 pp.

Starý, P., Lumbierres, B. & Pons, X. (2004) Opportunistic changes in the host range of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cr.), an exotic aphid parasitoid expanding in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Pest Science, 77 (3), 139–144.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-003-0041-2

Starý, P., Rakhshani, E., Tomanović, Ž., Hoelmer, K., Kavallieratos, N.G., Yu, J., Wang, M. & Heimpel, G. (2010) A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), from China. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 19 (1), 179–186.

Starý, P., Remaudiere, G. &. Autrique, A. (1985) New and little known species of aphid parasitoids from Burundi (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 21, 133–140.

Starý, P., Remaudiere, G. & Leclant, F. (1971) Les Aphidiidae (Hym.) de France et leurs hotes (Hom., Aphididae). Mém Hors Series, Entomophaga, 5, 1–72. [in French]

Starý, P., Sampaio, M.V. & Bueno, V.H.P. (2007) Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) and their associations related to biological control in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 51, 107–118.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262007000100018

Stern, V.M., van den Bosch, R. & Leight, T.F. (1965) Effects of strip cutting on pest and beneficial insect populations in alfalfa. Annual Pesticide Conference, January 1964, Davis, California (mimeo).

Summers, C.G. (1998) Integrated pest management in forage alfalfa. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 3, 127–154.
https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1009654901994

Summers, C.G., Godfrey, L.D. & Natwick, E.T. (2007) Managing insects in alfalfa. In: Summers, C.G. & Putnam, D.H. (Eds.), Irrigated alfalfa management for Mediterranean and desert zones. UCANR Publications, Oakland, California, pp. 1–24.

Todorov, O.B. (2002) Biodiversity, distribution and economic significance of the entomophages of the family Aphidiidae (Hymenoptera) from Southwest Bulgaria. PhD dissertation, Agricultural University Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 163 pp. [in Bulgarian]

Tomanović, Ž. & Brajković, M. (2001) Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) of agroecosystems of the south part of the Pannonian area. Archives of Biological Sciences, 53, 57–64.

Tomanović, Ž., Brajković, M., Krunić, M. & Stanisavljević, L.J. (1996) Seasonal dynamics, parasitization and colour polymorphism of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Aphididae: Homoptera) on alfalfa in the south part of the Pannonian area. Tiscia, 30, 45–58.

Tomanović, Ž. & Kavallieratos, N.G. (2002) Trioxys Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Serbia and Montenegro. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 7, 67–81.

Tomanović, Ž., Kavallieratos, N.G., Athanassiou, C.G. & Stanisavljević, L.J. (2003a) A review of the West Palaearctic aphidiines (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitic on Uroleucon spp., with the description of a new species. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 39, 343–353.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2003.10697392

Tomanović, Ž., Kavallieratos, N.G., Starý, P., Athanassiou, C.G., Žikić, V., Petrović-Obradović, O. & Sarlis G.P. (2003b) Aphidius Nees aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Serbia and Montenegro: tritrophic associations and key. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 8, 15–39.

Tomanović, Ž., Petrović, A., Starý, P., Kavallieratos, N.G., Žikić, V. & Rakhshani, E. (2009) Ephedrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Serbia and Montenegro: tritrophic associations and key. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 14 (1), 39–53.

Traugott, M., Bell, J.R., Broad, G.R., Powel, W., van Veen, F.J.F., Vollhardt, I.M.G. & Symondson, W.O.C. (2008) Endoparasitism in cereal aphids: molecular analysis of a whole parasitoid community. Molecular Ecology, 17, 3928–3938.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03878.x

Uysal, M., Starý, P., Sahbaz, A. & Eszemerci, F. (2004) A review of aphid parasitoids (Hym., Braconidae, Aphidiinae) of Turkey. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 14, 355–370.

Van Achterberg, K. (2013) Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera, Braconidae. Fauna Europaea version 2.6.2. Available from: http://faunaeur.org (accessed 24 May 2017)

Van den Bosch, R. (1957) The spotted alfalfa aphid and its parasites in the Mediterranean region, Middle East, and East Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 50 (3), 352–356.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/50.3.352

Van den Bosch, R. & Stern, V.M. (1969) The effects of harvesting practices on insect populations in alfalfa. In: Proceedings, 1st Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management, 27–28 February 1969, Tallahassee, Florida, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, pp. 47–54.

Waterhouse, D.F. & Sands, D.P.A. (2001) Classical biological control of arthropods in Australia. CSIRO, Canberra, 560 pp.

Yu, D.S.K., van Achterberg, C. & Horstmann, K. (2012) Taxapad – world Ichneumonoidea. Taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution. Vancouver, Canada. Available from: http://www.taxapad.com (accessed 24 May 2017)

Yuegao, H. & Cash, D. (2009) Global status and development trends of alfalfa. In: Cash, D. (Ed.), Alfalfa management guide for Ningxia. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Beijing, pp. 1–12.

Zepeda-Paulo, F.A., Ortiz-Martínez, S.A. & Figueroa, C.C. (2013) Adaptive evolution of a generalist parasitoid: implications for the effectiveness of biological control agents. Evolutionary Applications, 6 (6), 983–999.
https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12081

Zubenko, O.G. (2014) Species composition of aphid parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) of Central forest-steppe region of Ukraine. Ukrainian Entomological Journal, 2 (9), 37–41. [in Russian]

Žikić, V., Ilić-Milošević, M., Stanković, S., Petrović, A., Petrović-Obradović, O., Kavallieratos, N.G., Starý, P. & Tomanović, Ž. (2012) Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Serbia and Montenegro – tritrophic interactions. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 17 (1/2), 83–105.

Žikić, V., Stanković, S.S., Ilić Milošević, M., Petrović-Obradović, O., Petrović, A., Starý, P. & Tomanović, Ž. (2014) First detection of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) in Serbia: an introduced species invading Europe? North-Western Journal of Zoology, 11 (1), 97–101.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4378.1.6

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand