Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Flapper Valve and Hayfork: Functional anatomy and taxonomic potential of the Gastric Mill of Bairdioidea (Ostracoda, Podocopida)

ROSALIE F. MADDOCKS

Abstract


The chewing apparatus of the Bairdioidea has been described just once and is rarely illustrated, but it might have more taxonomic significance than commonly supposed. It is constructed as a flapper valve (hinged check valve), which is unique among Ostracoda and unusual among animals. It projects into the midgut and is substantially enveloped by it. It serves three functions: to move bites of food into the stomach, to close the esophagus against back-flow, and to pack strands of food and mucus onto the rotating food ball. It is probably less effective for macerating the food to reduce particle size. Two braces anchor this structure to the lateral wall of the forehead. It is lined by cuticle that is shed at each molt, and the formation of food balls is interrupted during molting. In its construction and action, this apparatus is quite unlike the gastric mill of decapod crustaceans, and it shows only distant homology to the dorsal Wulst of Cypridoidea. Some architectural details differ among families and genera. The well-sclerotized plate has some potential for fossil preservation in exceptional circumstances. A revised anatomical analysis is presented, together with an annotated glossary of terms.

 


Keywords


Crustacea, chewing organ, esophagus, food ball, foregut, masticatory structure

Full Text:

PDF (20MB)

References


Barnes, R.D. (1980) Invertebrate Zoology, Fourth Edition. Saunders College (Philadelphia). Rinehart & Winston, Holt, 1089 pp.

Becker, G. (2005) Functional morphology of Palaeozoic ostracods: phylogenetic implications. Hydrobiologia, 538, 23–53.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-4921-0

Bergold, A. (1910) Beiträge zur Kenntnis des innern Baues der Süßwasserostracoden. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere, 30, 1–43.

Brady, G.S. (1866) On new or imperfectly known species of marine Ostracoda. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 5, 359–393.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1866.tb00649.x

Brady, G.S. (1870) Description of Ostracoda from Saint Vincent du Cap Vert, Strait of Magellan, Santiago de Cuba, Lucayes Island (Nouvelle Providence), Vera Cruz and Carmen, African coast. In: Folin, L. de & Prier, L. (Eds.), Les Fonds de la Mer, 1 (2), pp. 177–256.

Brady, G.S. (1880) Report on the Ostracoda dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger, Zoology, 1 (3), 1–184.

Brady, G.S. (1886) Notes on Entomostraca collected by Mr. A. Haly in Ceylon. The Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology, 19, 293–317.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1886.tb02227.x

Brandão, S.N. (2008) New species of Bairdioidea (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from the Southern Ocean and discussions on Bairdoppilata simplex (Brady, 1880), ?Bairdoppilata labiata (Müller, 1908) and Bythopussella aculeata (Müller, 1908). Zootaxa, 1866, 373–452.

Brosing, A. (2010) Recent developments on the morphology of the brachyuran foregut ossicles and gastric teeth. Zootaxa, 2510, 1–44.

Cannon, H.G. (1940) On the anatomy of Gigantocypris mülleri. Discovery Reports, 19, 185–244.

Claus, C. (1892) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Süsswasser-Ostracoden: 1. Über den Körper- und Gliedmassenbau der Cypriden nebst Bemerkungen über einzelne innere Organe derselben. Arbeiten aus dem Zoologischen Institute der Universität Wien und der Zoologischen Station in Triest, 10, 147–216.

Claus, C. (1895) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Süsswasser-Ostracoden: II. Arbeiten aus dem Zoologischen Institute der Universität Wien und der Zoologischen Station in Triest, 11, 1–32.

Danielopol, D.L. (1972) Supplementary data on the morphology of Neonesidea and remarks on the systematic position of the Family Bairdiidae (Ostracoda: Podocopida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 85, 39–48.

Danielopol, D.L. (1973) Preliminary report on the new Family Pussellidae (Ostracoda, Podocopa). In: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, Bucharest, Résultats des Expéditions biospéologiques Cubano-Roumaines á Cuba, 1973, pp. 145–149.

Felgenhauer, B.E. & Abele, L.G. (1983) Phylogenetic relationships among the shrimp-like decapods. In: Schram, F. (Ed.), Crustacean Phylogeny. Crustacean Issues, 1, pp. 291–311.

Felgenhauer, B.E. & Abele, L.G. (1989) Evolution of the foregut in lower Decapoda. In: Functional Morphology of Feeding and Grooming in Crustacea. In: Felgenhauer, B.E., Watling, L. & Thistle, A.B. (Eds.), Crustacean Issues, 6, pp. 205–219.

Gramann, F. (1962) Extremitätenfunde an liassischen Bairdien (Ostracoda). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 36, 28–32.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02989626

Hartmann, G. (1967) Ostracoda, 2. Lieferung. In: Gruner, H.E. (Ed.), Dr. H. G. Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Band 5. Arthropoda, I. Abteilung: Crustacea, 2. Buch, IV. Teil. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig K.-G., Leipzig, pp. 217–408.

Horne, D.J. (2005) Homology and homoeomorphy in ostracod limbs. Hydrobiologia, 538, 55–80.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-4937-5

Horne, D.J., Smith, R.J., Whittaker, J.E. & Murray, J.W. (2004) The first British record and a new species of the superfamily Terrestricytheroidea (Crustacea, Ostracoda): morphology, ontogeny, lifestyle and phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 142, 253–288.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00134.x

Huxley, T.H. (1880) The crayfish, an introduction to the study of Zoology. C. Kegan Paul & Co., London, 371 pp.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.55693

Kesling, R.V. (1951) The Morphology of Ostracod Molt Stages. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 324 pp.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.50392

Kesling, R.V. (1965) Anatomy and dimorphism of adult Candona suburbana Hoff. In: Kesling, R.V., Darby D.G., Smith, R.N. & Halls, D.D. (Eds.), Four Reports of Ostracod Investigations conducted under National Science Foundation Project GB–26. Privately published, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 1–56.

Keyser, D. & Friedrich, F. (2017) An exceptionally well preserved new species of ostracod (Crustacea) with soft parts in Baltic amber. Historical Biology, 29, 53–62.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2015.1123554

Leland, J. C., Coughran, J. & Bucher, D.J. (2011) A preliminary investigation into the potential value of gastric mills for ageing crustaceans. In: Asakura, A. (Ed.), New Frontiers in Crustacean Biology, Proceedings of the TCS Summer Meeting, 20–24 September 2009. Crustaceana Monographs, 15, pp. 58–68.
https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004174252.i-354.52

Lewis, C.T. (1966) An Elementary Latin Dictionary. Oxford University Press, London, 952 pp.

Maddocks, R.F. (1969) Revision of Recent Bairdiidae (Ostracoda). United States National Museum Bulletin, 295, 1–126.
https://doi.org/10.5479/si.03629236.295.1

Maddocks, R.F. (1973) Bythocypris promoza n. sp. and males of Zabythocypris helicina and Bairdoppilata hirsuta (Ostracoda, Podocopida). Crustaceana, 24, 33–42.
https://doi.org/10.1163/156854073X00047

Maddocks, R.F. (1975) Recent Bairdiidae (Ostracoda) from Ascension Island. Crustaceana, 28, 53–65.
https://doi.org/10.1163/156854075X00874

Maddocks, R.F. (1976) Pussellinae are interstitial Bairdiidae (Ostracoda). Micropaleontology, 22, 194–214.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1485400

Maddocks, R.F. (1990) Living and fossil Macrocyprididae (Ostracoda). The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Monograph 2, 1–285.

Maddocks, R.F. (1991) New Bairdiidae (Ostracoda) from Tulear, Madagascar. Journal de Micropalaeontologie, 9, 189–204.
https://doi.org/10.1144/jm.9.2.189

Maddocks, R.F. (1992) Chapter 9. Ostracoda. In: Harrison, F.W. & Humes, A.G. (Eds.), Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 9. Crustacea. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp. 415–441.

Maddocks, R.F. (2013) New and poorly known species of Neonesidea (Bairdiidae, Ostracoda, Crustacea) from French Frigate Shoals, the Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa, 3608 (6), 457–510.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3608.6.3

Maddocks, R.F. (2015) New and poorly known species of Bairdoppilata and Paranesidea (Bairdiidae, Ostracoda) from French Frigate Shoals and O’ahu, the Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa, 4059 (2), 277–317.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4059.2.3

Maddocks, R.F. & Iliffe, T.M. (1986) Podocopid Ostracoda of Bermudian caves. Stygologia, 2, 26–76.

Maddocks, R.F. & Iliffe, T.M. (1991) Anchialine podocopid Ostracoda of the Galapagos Islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103, 75–99.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1991.tb00898.x

Martin, J. (2017) Crustacea Glossary. Available from: https://research.nhm.org/glossary/ (accessed 28 September 2017)

Matzke-Karasz, R., Neil, J.V., Smith, R.J., Godthelp, H., Archer, M. & Hand, S.J. (2013) Ostracods (Crustacea) with soft part preservation from Miocene cave deposits of the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, NW Queensland, Australia. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 11, 789–819.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14772019.2012.760007

Maynard, D.M. & Dando, M.R. (1974) The structure of the stomatogastric neuromusculature system in Callinectes sapidus, Homarus americanus and Panulirus argus (Decapoda, Crustacea). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 268, 161–220.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1974.0024

Merriam-Webster (2017) Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary (accessed 28 September 2017)

Müller, G.W. (1894) Die Ostracoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, Monographie, 21, 1–404.

Olempska, E., Horne, D.J. & Szaniawski, H. (2012) First record of preserved soft parts in a Palaeozoic podocopid (Metacopina) ostracod, Cytherellina submagna: phylogenetic implications. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, 564–570.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.0943

Oxford Dictionaries (2017) Oxford University Press. Available from: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/ (viewed 28 September 2017)

Panulirus1. (2012) Endoscope movie of gastric mill in Panulirus interruptus. Uploaded to YouTube by panulirus1. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ptVIzhlKxOw (accessed 23 September 2017)

Rome, R. (1960) Note sur Triebelina coronata (Brady) et sa position systématique. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 36, 1–14.

Sars, G.O. (1888) Nye Bidrag til Kundskaben om Middelhavets Invertebratfauna. 4. Ostracoda mediterranea (Sydeuropæiske Ostracoder). Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, 12, 173–324.

Schulz, K. (1975) The chitinous skeleton and its bearing on taxonomy and biology of ostracodes. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 65, 587–599.

Schulz, K. (1976) Das Chitinskelett der Podocopida (Ostracoda, Crustacea) und die Frage der Metamerie dieser Gruppe. Doctoral Dissertation, Universität Hamburg, 167 pp.

Scott, H.W. (1961) Shell morphology of Ostracoda. In: Moore, R.C. (Ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part Q, Arthropoda 3 Crustacea Ostracoda. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 21–37.

Sheridan, M., O’Connor, I. & Henderson, A.C. (2016) Investigating the effect of molting on gastric mill structure in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and its potential as a direct ageing tool. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 484, 16–22.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2016.08.005

Siveter, D.J., Briggs, D.E.G., Siveter, D.J. & Sutton, M.D. (2010) An exceptionally preserved myodocopid ostracod from the Silurian of Herefordshire, UK. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277, 1539–1544.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.2122

Siveter, D.J., Siveter, D.J., Sutton, M.D. & Briggs, D.E.G. (2007) Brood care in a Silurian ostracod. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 465–469.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3756

Siveter, D.J., Sutton, M.D., Briggs, D.E.G. & Siveter, D.J. (2003) An ostracode crustacean with soft parts from the Lower Silurian. Science, 302, 1749–1751.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1091376

Siveter, D.J., Tanaka, G., Farrell, U.C., Margin, M.J., Siveter, D.J. & Briggs, D.E.G. (2014) Exceptionally preserved 450-million-year-old Ordovician ostracods with brood care. Current Biology, 24, 801–806.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.040

Smith, R.J. (2000) Morphology and ontogeny of Cretaceous ostracods with preserved appendages from Brazil. Palaeontology, 43, 63–98.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4983.00119

Smith, R.N. (1965) Musculature and muscle scars of Chlamydotheca arcuata (Sars) and Cypridopsis vidua (O. F. Müller) (Ostracoda—Cyprididae). In: Kesling, R.V., Darby, D.G., Smith, R.N. & Halls, D.D. (Eds.), Four Reports of Ostracod Investigations conducted under National Science Foundation Project GB–26. Privately published, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 1–40.

Swain, F.M. (1967) Ostracoda from the Gulf of California. The Geological Society of America, Memoir, 101, 1–139.
https://doi.org/10.1130/MEM101-p1

Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (1951) G. & C. Merriam Company, Publishers, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1223 pp.

Weygoldt, P. (1960) Embryologische Untersuchungen an Ostrakoden: Die Entwicklung von Cyprideis litoralis (G.S. Brady) (Ostracoda, Podocopa, Cytheridae). Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere, 78, 369–496.

Wikipedia. (2017) Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Available from: https://www.wikipedia.org (accessed 28 September 2017)

Wouters, K. (1988) Two interesting new marine interstitial Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Comoros, with the description of Danipussella gen. nov. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 58, 85–93.

Yamada, S. & Matzke-Karasz, R. (2011) Skeleto-musculature of the mandible and its function in podocopid ostracodes exemplified by Loxoconcha pulchra (Cytheroidea: Loxoconchidae) and Fabaeformiscandona tyrolensis (Cypridoidea: Candonidae). Journal of Morphology, 272, 1342–1352.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10988

Zenker, G.F.W. (1854) Monographie der Ostracoden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 20, 1–87, 126–138.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4378.1.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand