Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Taxonomic revision of the species of Colletes Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Colletinae) found in Chile



A taxonomic revision of Colletes Latreille species with known geographic distribution in Chile is presented. In addition to the traditional morphological approach to taxonomy, DNA barcoding was employed to facilitate sexual association and cryptic species recognition. I provide diagnoses, synonymies, geographic and floral records, and a fully-illustrated key for 31 recognized species, 23 of them previously described: C. alocochila Moure, C. atacamensis Janvier, C. atripes Smith, C. bicolor Smith, C. chusmiza Rojas & Toro, C. cognatus Spinola, C. cyanescens (Haliday), C. cyaniventris Spinola n. stat., C. flaminii Moure, C. fulvipes Spinola, C. gilvus Vachal, C. guanta Rojas & Toro, C. longiceps Friese, C. lucens Vachal, C. mastochila Moure, C. murinus Friese, C. musculus Friese, C. nigritulus Friese, C. patagonicus Schrottky, C. quelu Rojas & Toro, C. rutilans Vachal, C. sulcatus Vachal, and C. vicugnensis Rojas & Toro. In addition, eight new species are described: C. arthuri n. sp., C. coquimbensis n. sp., C. flavipilosus n. sp., C. kuhlmanni n. sp., C. nigropilosus n. sp., C. simulatus n. sp., C. toroi n. sp., and C. ventricarinatus n. sp. Lectotypes for the following species are designated: Andrena cyanescens, Colletes bicolor, C. campoi Herbst, C. chubutensis Cockerell, C. gilvus, C. lucens, C. patagonicus, C. rufosignatus Cockerell, and C. viridans Vachal. Colletes seminitidus Spinola and C. viridans are both proposed as junior synonyms of C. cyanescens, and C. araucariae Friese is considered a junior synonym of C. sulcatus. Colletes cyaniventris n. stat. is resurrected from synonymy.



Crustacea, Apoidea, bee, Colletini, key, Neotropics, review, systematics

Full Text:

PDF (63MB)


Aguiar, A.P. & Gibson, G.A.P. (2010) The spatial complexity in describing leg surfaces of Hymenoptera (Insecta), the problem and a proposed solution. Zootaxa, 2415, 54–62.

Almeida, E.A.B. & Danforth, B.N. (2009) Phylogeny of colletid bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) inferred from four nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 50, 290–309.

Almeida, E.A.B, Pie, M.R., Brady, S.G. & Danforth, B. (2011) Biogeography and diversification of colletid bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae): emerging patterns from the southern end of the world. Journal of Biogeography, 39, 526–544.

Ascher, J.S. & Pickering, J. (2017) Discover Life bee species guide and world checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Available from: guide=Apoidea_species (accessed 5 February 2017)

Claude-Joseph, F. (1926) Recherches biologiques sur les Hyménoptères du Chili (Melliféres). Annales des sciences naturelles, Zoologie, 10, 113–268.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1904) Some little-know bees of the genus Colletes. Entomological News, 15, 276–277.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1905) Some American Hymenoptera. Entomological News, 16, 9–10.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1909) Descriptions and records of bees. —XXIII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4, 393–404.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1917a) A second Colletes with spotted wings (Hym.). Entomological News, 28, 363.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1917b) Descriptions and Records of bees. —LXXV. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 19, 477–481.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1918a) Some South American bees. The Canadian Entomologist, 50, 137–140.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1918b) A new colletid bee from Ecuador. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washingtion, 20, 206–207.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1919) Bees in the collection of the United States Museum.- 3. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 55, 167–221.

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1926) Descriptions and records of bees. —CIX. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 17, 301–309.

Cracraft, J. (1985) Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological monographs, 36, 49–84.

Dalla Torre, C.G. (1896) Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Guilelmi Engelmann, Lipsiae, 643 pp.

Ducke, A. (1912) Die natürlichen Bienengenera Südamerikas. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere, 34, 51–116.

Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32, 1792–1797.

Friese, H. (1900) Neue Bienenarten Süd-America's. Entomologische Nachrichten, 26, 180–184.

Friese, H. (1906) Resultate einer Reise des Herrn A. C. Jensen-Haarup in die Gegend von Mendoza (Argentina). Flora og Fauna, 8, 89–102.

Friese, H. (1910) Zur Bienenfauna des südlichen Argentinien (Hym.). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere, 29, 641–660.

Friese, H. (1912) Zur Bienenfauna des südlichen Argentinien. (Hym.). II. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1912, 362–367.

Friese, H. (1921) Nachtrag zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 82, 73–98.

Gazola, A.L. & Garófalo, C.A. (2009) Trap-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in forest fragments of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Genetics and Molecular Research, 8, 607–622.

Gazulla, P. & Ruiz, F. (1928) Los insectos de la Hacienda de “Las Mercedes”. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 32, 288–305.

Gibbs, J. (2009a) Integrative taxonomy identifies new (and old) species in the Lasioglossum (Dialictus) tegulare (Robertson) species group (Hymenoptera, Halictidae). Zootaxa, 2032, 1–38.

Gibbs, J. (2009b) New species in the Lasioglossum petrellum species group identified through an integrative taxonomic approach. The Canadian Entomologist, 141, 371–396.

Gibbs, J. (2010) Revision of the metallic especies of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini). Zooxata, 2591, 1–382.

Gibbs, J. (2011) Revision of the metallic Lasioglossum (Dialictus) of eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Halictini). Zootaxa, 3073, 1–216.

Gray, J.E. (1850) On the Species of Anomiadae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 17, 113–125.

Haliday, A.H. (1836) Descriptions, &c. of the Hymenoptera. In: Curtis, S., Haliday, A.H. & Walker, F. (Eds.), Descriptions etc. of the insects collected by Captain P.P. King, R.N., F.R.S., in the survey of the Straits of Magellan. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, London, pp. 315–359.

Harris, R.A. (1979) A glossary of surface sculpturing. Occasional Papers in Entomology, 28, 1–31.

Herbst, P. (1920) Neue chilenische Blumenwespen. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 24, 8–9.

Hogendoorn, K., Stevens, M. & Leijs, R. (2015) DNA barcoding of euryglossine bees and the description of new species of Euhesma Michener (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Euryglossinae). ZooKeys, 520, 41–59.

Houston, J. (2006) Variability of precipitation in the Atacama Desert: Its causes and hydrological impact. International Journal of Climatology, 26, 2181–2198.

Ikudome, S. (1989) A revision of the family Colletidae of Japan. Bulletin of the Institute of Minami-kyushu Regional Science, Kagoshima Women’s Junior College, 5, 43–314.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, Padova, 306 pp.

Jaffuel, F. & Pirion, A. (1926) Himenópteros del valle de Marga-Marga. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 30, 362–383.

Janvier, H. (1955) Le nid et la nidification chez quelques abeilles des Andes tropicales. Annales des Sciences Naturelles-Zoologie et Biologie Animale, 17, 311–349.

Jensen-Haarup, A.C. (1908) Biological researches amongst the Argentine bees with special reference to flowers they visit. Flora og Fauna,10, 95–107.

Jörgensen, P. (1909) Beobachtungen über Blumenbesuch, Biologie, Verbreitung usw. der Bienen von Mendoza. (Hym.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1909, 211–227.

Jörgensen, P. (1912a) Los Crisídidos y los Himenópteros Aculeatos de la Provincia de Mendoza. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires, 22, 267–328.

Jörgensen, P. (1912b) Rivision der Apiden der Provinz Mendoza, República Argentina (Hym.). Zoologische Jahrbücher, 32, 89–162.

Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.

Kuhlmann, M. (2014) Colletes kinabalu n. sp., first record of the genus for the Malay Archipelago and southeast Asia (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Colletidae). Journal of Melittology, 28, 1–6.

Kuhlmann, M., Almeida, E.A.B., Laurenne, N. & Quicke, D.L.J. (2009) Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the bee genus Colletes Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apiformis: Colletidae), based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S nuclear sequence data. Insect Systematics & Evolution, 40, 291–318.

Kuhlmann, M., Else, G.R., Dawson, A. & Quicke, D.L.J. (2007) Molecular, biogeographic and phenological evidence for the existence of three western European sibling species in the Colletes succinctus group (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 7, 155–165.

Kuhlmann, M. & Pauly, A. (2013) The bee genus Colletes Latreille 1802 in Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae). Zootaxa, 3693 (2), 267–292.

Kuhlmann, M. & Proshchalykin, M.Y. (2011) Bees of the genus Colletes Latreille 1802 of the Asian part of Russia, with keys to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae). Zootaxa, 3068, 1–48.

Kuhlmann, M. & Proshchalykin, M.Y. (2013) The genus Colletes (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae) in Central Asia. Zootaxa, 3750 (5), 401–449.

Kuhlmann, M. & Proshchalykin, M.Y. (2014) New and little known bees of the genus Colletes Latreille 1802 (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) from Central Asia. Zootaxa, 3846 (4), 591–596.

Kuhlmann, M. & Proshchalykin, M.Y. (2016) The bees of the genus Colletes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) of the Caucasus region. Zootaxa, 4161 (3), 367–385.

Latreille, P.A. (1802) Ordre natural des insectes désignés généralement sous le nom d'abeille, Apis Lin. Geoff. In: Latreille, P.A. (Ed.), Histoire naturelle des fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insects. Théophile Barrois, Paris, pp. 401–438.

Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. 10th Edition. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 824 pp.

Michener, C.D. (1979) Biogeography of the bees. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 66, 277–347.

Michener, C.D. (1989) Classification of American Colletinae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 53, 22–703.

Michener, C.D. (2007) Bees of the World. Second Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1016 pp.

Montalva, J. & Ruz, L. (2010) Actualización de la lista sistemática de las abejas chilenas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Revista Chilena de Entomología, 35, 15–52.

Moreira-Muñoz, A. (2011) Plant Geography of Chile. Springer, Dordrecht, 253 pp.

Morrone, J.J. (2014) Biogeographic regionalisation of the Neotropical region. Zootaxa, 3782 (1), 1–110.

Morrone, J.J. (2015) Biogeographic regionalisation of the Andean region. Zootaxa, 3936 (2), 207–236.

Moure, J.S. (1956) Algumas espécies novas de Colletes do Brasil e do Chile (Hymenopt.- Apoidea). Dusenia, 7, 197–210.

Moure, J.S. (1997) A new specific name in Colletes (Colletidae, Apoidea). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 14, 513.

Moure, J.S. & Urban, D. (2002) Catálogo de Apoidea da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera, Colletidae). III. Colletini. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 19, 1–30.

Moure, J.S., Urban, D. & Melo, G.A.R. (2007) Colletini Lepeletier, 1841. In: Moure, J.S., Urban, D. & Melo, G.A.R. (Eds.), Catalogue of Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the Neotropical Region. Sociedade Brasileira de Entomologia, Curitiba, pp. 677–691.

Niu, Z.Q., Zhu, C.D. & Kuhlmann, M. (2014) The bees of the genus Colletes (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae) from China. Zootaxa, 3856 (4), 451–483.

Noskiewicz, J. (1936) Die palaarktischen Colletes - Arten. Prace Naukowe Wydawnictwo Towarzystwa Naukowego we Lwowie, 3, 1–531.

Packer, L. (2008) Phylogeny and classification of the Xeromelissinae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Colletidae) with special emphasis on the genus Chilicola. Systematic Entomology, 33, 72–96.

Packer, L., Zayed, A., Grixti, J.C., Ruz, L., Owen, R.E., Vivallo, F. & Toro, H. (2005) Conservation genetics of potentially endangered mutualisms: reduced levels of genetic variation in specialist versus generalist bees. Conservation Biology, 19,195–202.

Patiny, S. & Michez, D. (2007) Biogeography of bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in Sahara and the Arabian deserts. Insect Systematics & Evolution, 38, 19–34.

Patton, W.H. (1879) List of a collection of aculeate Hymenoptera made by Mr. S. W. Williston in northwestern Kansas. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographic Survey of the Territories, 5, 349–370.

Pauly, A., Devalez, J., Sonet, G., Nagy, Z.T. & Boevé, J.L. (2014) DNA barcoding and male genital morphology reveal five new cryptic species in the West Palearctic bee Seladonia smaragdula (Vachal, 1895) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Zootaxa, 403, 257–290.

Pérez, V. & Cerda, M. (1980) Adiciones a la Apidofauna de la Región Magallánica (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Revista Chilena de Entomología, 10, 99–100.

Prentice, M.A. (1998) The comparative morphology and phylogeny of apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1439 pp.

Proshchalykin, M.Y. & Kuhlmann, M. (2012) The bees of the genus Colletes Latreille 1802 of the Ukraine, with a key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae). Zootaxa, 3488, 1–40.

Rasmussen, C., Garcete-Barrett, B.R. & Gonçalves, R.B. (2009) Curt Schrottky (1874-1937): South American entomology at the beginning of the 20th century (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera). Zootaxa, 2282, 1–50.

Ratnasingham, S. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2007) BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data System (http://www. barcodinglife. org). Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 355–364.

Ratnasingham, S. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2013) A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN) system. PLoS ONE, 8, 1–16.

Rocha-Filho, L.C. & Packer, L. (2015) Revision of the Neotropical subgenera Coelioxys (Platycoelioxys) Mitchell and C.(Rhinocoelioxys) Mitchell (Hymenoptera; Megachilidae) with the description of one new species. Zootaxa, 3941 (2), 151–203.

Roig-Alsina, A. (1991) Revision of the cleptoparasitic bee tribe Isepeolini (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). The University of Kansas Science B ulletin, 54, 257–288.

Rojas, M. & Toro, H. (1993) Nuevas especies de colletidos chilenos (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Acta Entomologica Chilena, 18, 83–87.

Ruiz, F. (1935) Algunas notas entomologicas. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 39, 271–278.

Ruiz, F. (1936) Himenopteros de la Provincia de Coquimbo. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 40, 159–169.

Ruiz, F. (1944) Apidología Chilena, II Parte. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 46, 200–231.

Ruiz, F. & Stuardo, C. (1935) Insectos colectados en las Termas de Chillán. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 39, 313–322.

Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1987) The neighbour-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4, 406–425.

Schrottky, C. (1907) Contribución al conocimiento de los himenópteros del Paraguay. Anales Científicos Paraguayos, 7, 1–78.

Schrottky, C. (1913) La distribución geográfica de los himenópteros argentinos. Anales de la Sociedad Científica Argentina, 75, 180–286.

Smith, F. (1853) Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Andrenidae and Apidae. British Museum, London, 198 pp.

Smith, F. (1854) Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Part II. Apidae. British Museum, London, 267 pp. [pp. 199–465]

Smith, F. (1879) Descriptions of New Species of Hymenoptera in Collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London, 240 pp.

Smith-Ramírez, C. (2004) The Chilean coastal Range: a vanishing center of biodiversity and endemism in South American temperate rainforests. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 373–393.

Spinola, M. (1851) Himenopteros. In: Gay, C. (Ed.), Historia Fisica y Politica de Chile. Zoologia. Vol. 6. Casa del autor, Paris, pp. 153–569.

Stephen, W.P. (1953) Um nome novo para Colletes ciliatus Friese (Hymenopera: Apoidea). Dusenia, 4, 40.

Stephen, W.P. (1954) A revision of the bee genus Colletes in America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera, Colletidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 36, 149–527.

The Plant List (2017) The Plant List. V.1.1. Available from: (accessed 29 August 2017)

Torchio, P.F. (1965) Observations on the biology of Colletes ciliatoides (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Colletidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 38, 182–187.

Torchio, P.F., Trostle, G.E. & Burdick, D.J. (1988) The nesting biology of Colletes kincaidii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) and development of its immature forms. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 81, 605–625.

Toro, H. (1986) Lista preliminar de los apidos chilenos (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Acta Entomológica Chilena, 13, 121–132.

Toro, H. (1999) Las especies Chilenas del género Colletes (Hymenoptera: Colletidae): clave de especies. Acta Entomológica Chilena, 23, 23–32.

Toro, H. & Cabezas, V. (1977) Nuevos generos y especies de Colletini sudamericanos, segunda parte. Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparíso, 10, 45–64.

Trewick, S.A. (2008) DNA Barcoding is not enough: mismatch of taxonomy and genealogy in New Zealand grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Cladistics, 24, 240–254.

Vachal, J. (1909) Espèces nouvelles ou litigieuses d' Apidae du haut Bassin du Parana et des régions contiguës et délimitation d' une nouvelle sous-famille Diphaglossinae (Hym.). Revue d’Entomologie, 28, 5–64.

Vázquez, D.P. & Simberloff, D. (2002) Ecological specialization and susceptibility to disturbance: conjectures and refutations. The American Naturalist, 159, 606–623.

Warncke, K. (1978) Uber die westpalaarktischen Arten der Bienengattung Colletes Latr. (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 48, 329–370.

Westwood, J.O. (1875) Descriptions of some new species of short-tongued bees belonging to the genus Nomia of Latreille. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1875, 207–222.

Zayed, A., Packer, L., Grixti, J.C., Ruz, L., Owen, R.E. & Toro, H. (2005) Increased genetic differentiation in a specialist versus a generalist bee: implications for conservation. Conservation Genetics, 5, 1017–1026.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand