Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Taxonomic revision of the flavopalliata species group of Signiphora (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae)

J. B. WOOLLEY, A. DAL MOLIN

Abstract


The flavopalliata species group of Signiphora Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) is revised. Twelve species are redescribed: Signiphora aleyrodis Ashmead, S. aspidioti Ashmead, S. borinquensis Quezada et al., S. coquilletti Ashmead, S. fax Girault, S. flavella Girault, S. flavopalliata Ashmead, S. lutea Rust, S. maculata Girault, S. merceti Malenotti, S. perpauca Girault and S. xanthographa Blanchard. Signiphora townsendi Ashmead is synonymized under S. aleyrodis n. syn.; Thysanus insularis Dozier and S. flavopalliata desantisi De Santis are synonymized under S. fax n. syns.; S. basilica Girault, S. euclidi Girault, S. flava Girault, S. caridei Brèthes, S. thoreauini Girault and Thysanus louisianae Dozier are synonymized under S. flavella n. syns.; and S. woolleyi Hayat is synonymized under S. perpauca n. syn. Thirteen new species are described: S. bennetti n. sp., S. biloba n. sp., S. brachyptera n. sp., S. curepensis n. sp., S. dozieri n. sp., S. ehleri n. sp., S. ensifera n. sp., S. falcata n. sp., S. jojobae n. sp., S. longitibia n. sp., S. plaumanni n. sp., S. renuncula n. sp. and S. tridentata n. sp. Lectotypes are designated for S. aleyrodis, S. townsendi, S. fax, S. flavella, S. occidentalis, S. lutea, S. maculata and S. xanthographa.

 


Keywords


Hymenoptera, taxonomy, parasitoid, hyperparasitoid, parasitic wasps, Parasitica, Chalcidoidea, biological control, new species, Neotropics, Sternorrhyncha, Aleyrodidae, Diaspididae

References


Agekyan, N.G. (1968) Signiphora merceti Malen. (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)-a parasite of Hemiberlesia rapax (Comst.) in Adzharia. Entomological Review, 47, 454–486.

Ashmead, W.H. (1880) Orange Insects: A Treatise on the Injurious and Beneficial Insects found on the Orange Trees of Florida. Ashmead Bros, Jacksonville, FL, 78 pp.

Ashmead, W. H. (1900) On the genera of the chalcid-flies belonging to the subfamily Encyrtinae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 22, 323–412.

https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.22-1202.323

Bennett, F.D. (1981) Report on a visit to Brazil to collect Melanaspis parasites for shipment to India, Nov. 21– Dec. 6, 1981. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Curepe, 14 pp.

Blanchard, E.E. (1936) Apuntes sobre Himenópteros útiles Argentinos. Revista Argentina de Entomologia, 2, 37–50.

Blanchard, E.E. (1938) Informaciones técnicas. Boletín Informativo de la Dirección de Sanidad Vegetal, 1, 25–32.

Brèthes, J. (1914) I.-Les Ennemis de la "Diaspis Pentagona" dans La Republique Argentine. Nunquam Otiosus, 1–16.

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.23608

Brown, P.A. (1997) A review of techniques used in the preparation, curation and conservation of microscope slides at the Natural History Museum, London. The Biology Curator, 10 (Supplement), 1–33.

Burks, B. (1967) Family Thysanidae. In: Krombein, K.V. & Burks, B.D. (Eds.), Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, Second Supplement. USDA Agriculture Monograph 2. USDA, Washington, D.C., pp. 235–236.

Dahms, E.C. (1986) A checklist of the types of Australian Hymenoptera described by Alexandre Arsene Girault: IV Chalcidoidea species N–Z and genera with advisory notes plus addenda and corrigenda. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 22, 319–739.

Dal Molin, A. (2014) Chapter II: Background. In: Web-integrated taxonomy and systematics of the parasitic wasp family Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, pp. 5–27.

DeBach, P. (1953) Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.) parasitic on Comperiella bifasciata How. in California Red Scale. Journal of Economic Entomology, 46, 1112.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/46.6.1112

DeBach, P., Kennett, C.E. & Pence, R.J. (1958) Species of Thysanus as primary parasites. Journal of Economic Entomology, 51, 114–115.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/51.1.114a

De Santis, L. (1938) Una Cochinilla Argentina Poco Conocida. Revista Facultad Agromonia, La Plata Universidad Nacional, 21, 225–240.

De Santis, L. (1957) Anotaciones sobre Calcidoideos Argentinos (Hymenoptera). Notas del Museo de la Plata Zoologia, 19, 107–119.

De Santis, L. (1967) Catalogo de los Himenopteros Argentinos de la serie parasitica, incluyendo Bethyloidea. Provincia de Buenos Aires, Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas, Ciencias Naturales y Museo de la Plata, La Plata, 337 pp.

De Santis, L. (1968) Nomenclatura y Clasificacion de la familia Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, 3ª época, 44, 7–16.

De Santis, L. (1973) Nota sobre Signiforidos de la Republica Argentina (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, 3ª época, 49, 143–153.

De Santis, L. (1979) Catalogo de los Himenopteros Calcidoideos de America al Sur de los Estados Unidos. Comision De Investigaciones Cientificas De La Provincia De Buenos Aires, La Plata, 488 pp.

Domenichini, G. (1954) Sulla morfologia e posizione sistematica dei Thysanidae (=Signiphoridae) (Hym. Chalcidoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e Bachicoltura, 20, 95–110.

Dozier, H.L. (1933) Miscellaneous notes and descriptions of chalcidoid parasites (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 35, 85–100.

Ferrière, C. (1953) Encyrtides palearctiques (Hym, Chalcidoidea). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 26, 1–45.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y. & Hardy, N.B. (2016) ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. USDA Systematic Entomology and Auburn University. Available from: http://scalenet.info (accessed 14 November 2016)
https://doi.org/10.1093/database/bav118

Gibson, G.A.P. (1997) Morphology and Terminology. In: Gibson, G.A.P., Huber, J.T. & Woolley, J.B. (Eds.), Annotated keys to the genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp. 16–44.

Gibson, G.A.P., Heraty, J.M. & Woolley, J.B. (1999) Phylogenetics and classification of Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea—a review of current concepts (Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Zoologica Scripta, 28, 87–124.

https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-6409.1999.00016.x

Gibson, G.A.P., Read, J.D. & Fairchild, R. (1998) Chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea): illustrated glossary of positional and morphological terms. Available from: http://www.canacoll.org/Hym/Staff/Gibson/apss/chglintr.htm (accessed 13 March 2017)

Girault, A.A. (1913) A Systematic Monograph of the Chalcidoid Hymenoptera of the subfamily Signiphorinae. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, 45, 189–233.
https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.1977.189

Girault, A.A. (1915) Australian Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea—VII. The family Encyrtidae with descriptions of new genera and species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 4, 1–84.

Girault, A.A. (1916) New Encyrtidae from North America. Psyche, 23, 41–50.

https://doi.org/10.1155/1916/76065

Girault, A.A. (1935) Microhymenoptera Australiensis Nova. Mostly Chalcididae. Privately printed, Wright & Baker, Sydney, pp. 2–4.

Gordh, G. (1979) Family Encyrtidae. In: Krombein, K.V., Hurd, B.D., Smith, D.R. & Burks, B.D. (Eds.), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vol.1. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., pp. 890–967.

Gordh, G. & Hall, J.C. (1979) A critical point drier used as a method of mounting insects from alcohol. Entomological News, 90, 57–59.

Hayat, M. (1976) Some Indian species of Chartocerus (Hym.: Chalcidoidea: Signiphoridae). Oriental Insects, 10, 161–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.1976.10434900

Hayat, M. (2009) A review of the Indian Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Biosystematica, 3, 5–27.

Hayat, M., Narendran, T.C., Remadeiv, O.K. & Manikandan, S. (2003) Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea; Ceraphronoidea) reared mainly from Coccoidea (Homoptera) attacking sandalwood, Santalum album L. Oriental Insects, 37, 309–334.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.2003.10417352

Hayat, M. & Subba Rao, B.R. (1985) Family Signiphoridae [The Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of India and the adjacent countries. Vol. I]. Oriental Insects, 19, 224–225.

Hayat, M. & Subba Rao, B.R. (1986) Family Signiphoridae [The Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of India and the adjacent countries. Part II]. Oriental Insects, 20, 139–141.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.1986.10433724

Hayat, M. & Verma, M. (1980) A catalogue of the Indian Signiphoridae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 76, 481–485.

Heraty, J., Burks, R.A., Cruaud, A., Gibson, G., Lilijeblad, J., Munro, J., Rasplus, J.-Y., Delvare, G., Jansta, P., Gumovsky, A.V., Huber, J.T., Woolley, J.B., Krogmann, L., Heydon, S., Polaszek, A., Schmidt, S., Darling, D.C., Gates, M., Mottern, J., Murray, E., Dal Molin, A., Triapitsyn, S., Baur, H., Pinto, J.D., van Noort, S., George, J. & Yoder, M. (2013) A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics, 29, 466–542.
https://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12006

Howard, L.O. (1894) The hymenopterous parasites of the California red scale. Insect Life (USDA), 6, 227–236.

Katja S., Yoder, M., Miko, I., Forshage, M., Bertone, M., Agosti, D., Austin, A., Balhoff, J., Borowiec, M., Brady, S., Broad, G., Brothers, D., Burks, R., Buffington, M., Campbell, H., Dew, K., Ernst, A., Fernandez-Triana, J., Gates, M., Gibson, G., Jennings, J., Johnson, N., Karlsson, D. Kawada, D., Krogmann, L., Kula, R. Mullins, P., Ohl, M., Rasmussen, C., Ronquist, F., Schulmeister, S., Sharkey, M., Talamas, E., Tucker, E., Vilhemsen, L., Ward, P.S., Wharton, R. & Deans, A. (2012) A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 27, 67–88.
https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.27.2961

Malenotti, E. (1916) "Signiphora merceti" Malen. n. sp. Redia, 12, 181–182.

Malenotti, E. (1918) I nemici naturali della "Bianca-Rossa" (Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Morg.). Redia, 13, 2–53.

Mercet, R.G. (1916) Signiforinos de España (Himenópteros Calcídidos). Boletin de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural (Seccion Biologica), 16, 519–533.

Mercet, R.G. (1927) Calcídidos africanos y de la isla de Madera. EOS (Revista Espanola de Entomología), 3, 490–499.

Mound, L.A. & Halsey, S.H. (1978) Whitefly of the World. British Museum (Natural History), Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 340 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.118687

Munro, J.B., Heraty, J.M., Burks, R.A., Hawks, D., Mottern, J., Cruaud, A., et al. (2011) A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS ONE, 6, e27023.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027023

Myartseva, S.N., Ruiz-Cancino, E., Coronado-Blanco, J.M. & Varela-Fuentes, S.E. (2005) Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) hiperparasíticos y sus hospederos en Mexico. Entomología Mexicana, 4, 937–940.

Nikol'skaya, M.N. (1950) [Representatives of the Family Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) in the Fauna of the USSR] [in Russian]. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 75, 319–321.

Nikol'skaya, M.N. (1952 [1963]) Family Signiphoridae. In: The Chalcid Fauna of the USSR (Chalcidoidea) (translated from Russian). Smithsonian Institution/National Science Foundation/Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, pp. 516–523.

Noyes, J.S. (1982) Collecting and preserving chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of Natural History, 16, 315–334.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938200770261

Noyes, J.S. (1990) A Word on Chalcidoidea Classification. Chalcid Forum, 13, 6–7.

Noyes, J.S. (2016) Universal Chalcidoidea Database. Available from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/data/chalcidoids/database (accessed 15 July 2016)

Peck, O. (1951) Family Thysanidae. In: Muesebeck, C.F.W., Krombein, K. & Townes, H. K. (Eds.), Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico—Synoptic Catalog. USDA (United Stated Department of Agriculture), Washington, D.C., pp. 472–474.

Peck, O. (1963) A catalogue of the Neartic Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Canadian Entomologist, 30 (Supplement), 1–1092.

Peck, O., Boucek, Z. & Hoffer, A. (1964) Keys to the Chalcidoidea of Czechoslovakia (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Memories of the Entomological Society of Canada, 34, 1–134.
https://doi.org/10.4039/entm9634fv

Quezada, J.R., DeBach, P. & Rosen, D. (1973) Biological and taxonomic studies of Signiphora borinquensis, new species (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae); a primary parasite of diaspine scales. Hilgardia, 41, 543–603.

https://doi.org/10.3733/hilg.v41n18p543

Ramírez-Ahuja, M.L., Dal Molin, A., González-Hernández, A. & Woolley, J.B. (2015) Sinopsis y clave para la identificación de las especies de Signiphora (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) de México, con notas sobre biología y distribución. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 86, 337–347.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2015.04.026

Rozanov, I.V. (1965) [Review of the genera of parasitic Hymenoptera of the family Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)] [in Russian]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 44, 866–884.

Rust, E.W. (1913) New Peruvian Parasites from Hemichionaspis minor (Hym.). Entomological News, 24, 160–165.

Schmidt, S. (2005) Slide preparation of Encarsia. Available from: http://www.ento.csiro.au/science/encarsia/slideprep.htm (accessed 15 July 2016)

Subba Rao, B.R. (1974) The genera of Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera) with description of a new genus. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 64, 525–531.

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007485300035835

Trjapitzin, V.A. (1978 [1987]) Signiphoridae (Thysanidae) (Signiphorids). In: Medvedev, G.C. (Ed.), Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the U.S.S.R. Vol. III. Hymenoptera, Second part. (translated from Russian). Amerind Publishing Co./Oxonian Press, New Delhi, pp. 938–942.

Various Contributors (2016) Hymenoptera Online (HOL). Available from: http://hol.osu.edu (accessed 14 November 2016)

World Health Organization (WHO) (2000) Chloral Hydrate: Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents #25, WHO, Geneva, 40 pp. Available from: http://www.who.int (accessed 20 December 2016)

Woolley, J.B. (1983) Higher classification of the Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and a revision of Signiphora Ashmead of the New World. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 488 pp.

Woolley, J.B. (1986) Signiphoridae or Thysanidae? A review of a problem in family-level nomenclature (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 32, 91–96.

https://doi.org/10.1093/besa/32.2.91

Woolley, J.B. (1988) Phylogeny and classification of the Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Systematic Entomology, 13, 465–501.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1988.tb00256.x

Woolley, J.B. (1990) Signiphoridae. In: Rosen, D. (Ed.), The Armored Scale Insects: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 167–176.

Woolley, J.B. (1997) Signiphoridae. In: Gibson, G.A.P., Huber, J.T. & Woolley, J.B. (Eds.), Annotated Keys to the Genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp. 693–699.

Woolley, J.B. & Hanson, P. (2006) Familia Signiphoridae. In: Hanson, P. & Gauld, I.D. (Eds.), Hymenoptera de la Region Neotropical. Memories of the American Entomological Institute. Vol. 77. AEI, Gainesville, pp. 422–425.

Woolley, J.B. & Vet, L.E.M. (1981) Postovipositional web-spinning behavior in a hyperparasite, Signiphora coquilletti Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 31, 627–633.

https://doi.org/10.1163/002829681x00194

Yoder, M.J., Dole, K., Seltmann, K. & Deans, A. (2006) Mx, a collaborative web based content management for biological systematists. Available from: http://mx.phenomix.org (accessed 20 July 2016)

Yoshimoto, C.M. (1965) The Hawaiian Thysaninae (Hym.: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). Pacific Insects, 7, 703–704.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4315.1.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand