Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Trachelus stipa (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), a new stem sawfly from Central Anatolia associated with feather grass (Stipa holosericea, Poaceae)



Trachelus stipa is described from Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is morphologically close to T. flavicornis and T. troglodyta regarding the structure of the preapical sterna of the male. It is unique among Trachelus species regarding the shape of the claw of the posterior leg, the size of the denticles of the ovipositor and the short valvula 3 of the ovipositor sheath in the female, and the distally notched hypopygium in the male. The genetic distance found in two mitochondrial (COI and cyt b) and one nuclear (EF-1α) gene regions support the recognition of this species and its placement within Trachelus, although the shape of the ovipositor sheath disagrees with this concept. Stipa holosericea, the host of T. stipa according to field observations, represents the first record of a feather grass as the host of a sawfly species.



Hymenoptera, COI, cyt b, EF1a, Symphyta, Turkey

Full Text:



Altinayar, G. (1975) Ekin Sap Arilari (Cephus pygmeus (L.) ve Trachelus tabidus (F.) (Hymenoptera: ephidae)’nin Konya Ilinde Biyo-ekolojileri, Sebep Olduklari Urun Kayiplari ve Savas Yollari Uzerine Arastirmalar. Ankara Bolge Zirai Mücadele Arastırma Enstitüsü Yayinlari, Arastirma Eserleri Serisi, 36, 135.

Benson, R.B. (1946) Classification of the Cephidae (HymenopteraSymphyta). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 96, 89–108.

Benson, R.B. (1968) Hymenoptera from Turkey, Symphyta. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology), 22, 109–207.

Blank, S.M., Shinohara, A. & Altenhofer, E. (2013) The Eurasian species of Xyela (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae): Taxonomy, host plants and distribution. Zootaxa, 3629 (1), 1–106.

Blank, S.M. & Taeger, A. (2011) Case 3542 Trachelus Jurine, 1807 (Hymenoptera, cephidae): proposed precedence over Astatus Panzer, [1801]. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 68, 65–70.

Blank, S.M., Taeger, A., Liston, A.D., Smith, D.R., Rasnitsyn, A.P., Shinohara, A., Heidemaa, M. & Viitasaari, M. (2009) Studies toward a World Catalog of Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Zootaxa, 2254, 1–96.

Budak, M., Korkmaz, E.M. & Basibuyuk, H.H. (2011) A molecular phylogeny of the Cephinae (Hymenoptera, Cephidae) based on mtDNA COI gene: a test of traditional classification. Zookeys, 130, 363–378.

Carpenter, J.M. & Wheeler, W.C. (1999) Towards simultaneous analysis of morphological and molecular data in Hymenoptera. Zoologica Scripta, 28, 251–260.

Cognato, A.I. (2006) Standard percent DNA sequence difference for insects does not predict species boundaries. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99, 1037–1045.

Hebert, P.D., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L. & DeWaard, J.R. (2003)a) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270, 313–321.

Hebert, P.D., Ratnasingham, S. & DeWaard, J.R. (2003)b) Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270 (Supplement), S96–S99.

ICZN [International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature] (2012) Opinion 2306 (Case 3542). Trachelus Jurine, 1807 (Hymenoptera, Cephidae): precedence given over Astatus Panzer, [1801]. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 69, 240–241.

Katoh, K. & Standley, D.M. (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular biology and evolution, 30, 772–780.

Kawakita, A., Sota, T., Ascher, J.S., Ito, M., Tanaka, H. & Kato, M. (2003) Evolution and Phylogenetic Utility of Alignment Gaps Within Intron Sequences of Three Nuclear Genes in Bumble Bees (Bombus). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20, 87–92.

Korkmaz, E.M., Budak, M., Orgen, S.H., Bagda, E., Gencer, L., Ulgenturk, S. & Basibuyuk, H.H. (2010)a) New records and a checklist of Cephidae (Hymenoptera: Insecta) of Turkey with a short biogeographical consideration. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 34, 203–211.

Korkmaz, E.M., Orgen, S.H., Gencer, L., Ulgenturk, S. & Basibuyuk, H.H. (2010)b) Determination of some wheat pests and their parasitoids in wheat fields of Central Anatolia Region. Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi-Turkish Journal of Entomology, 34, 361–377.

Kürschner, H., Raus, T. & Venter, J. (1995) Pflanzen der Türkei. Ägäis, Taurus, Inneranatolien. Quelle & Meyer, Wiesbaden, 484 pp.

Lanfear, R., Calcott, B., Kainer, D., Mayer, C. & Stamatakis, A. (2014) Selecting optimal partitioning schemes for phylogenomic datasets. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14, 82.

Middlekauff, W.W. (1969) The Cephid stem borers of California (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Bulletin of the California insect survey, 11, 1–19.

Muche, H. (1981) Die Cephidae der Erde (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Neue Folge, 28, 259–324.

Paradis, E., Claude, J. & Strimmer, K. (2004) APE: Analyses of Phylogenetics and Evolution in R language. Bioinformatics, 20, 289–290.

Ries, D.T. (1937) Revision of the Nearctic Cephidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 63, 259–324.

Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology, 61, 539–542.

Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Flook, P. (1994) Evolution, Weighting, and Phylogenetic Utility of Mitochondrial Gene-Sequences and a Compilation of Conserved Polymerase Chain-Reaction Primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87, 651–701.

Smith, M.A., Eveleigh, E.S., McCann, K.S., Merilo, M.T., McCarthy, P.C. & Van Rooyen, K.I. (2011) Barcoding a quantified food web: crypsis, concepts, ecology and hypotheses. PloS ONE, 6, e14424.

Stroganova, V.K. (1976) Novye i maloizvestnye vidy semejstva Cephidae (Hymenoptera) v faune zapadnoj Sibiri. [New and little-known species of the family Cephidae (Hymenoptera) in the fauna of West Siberia.] In: Cherepanov, A.I. (Ed.), Novosti fauny Sibiri. [News of the fauna of Siberia.] Novye i maloizvestnye vidy fauny Sibiri, Novosibirsk, pp. 168–174. [in Russian, abstract in English]

Taeger, A., Altenhofer, E., Blank, S.M., Jansen, E., Kraus, M., Pschorn-Walcher, H. & Ritzau, C. (1998) Kommentare zur Biologie, Verbreitung und Gefährdung der Pflanzenwespen Deutschlands (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). In: Taeger, A. & Blank, S.M. (Eds.), Pflanzenwespen Deutschlands (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). Kommentierte Bestandsaufnahme. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, pp. 49–135.

Taeger, A., Blank, S.M. & Liston, A.D. (2006) European Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) – A Species Checklist for the Countries. In: Blank, S.M., Schmidt, S. & Taeger, A. (Eds.), Recent Sawfly Research: Synthesis and Prospects. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, pp. 399–504.

Taeger, A., Blank, S.M. & Liston, A.D. (2010) World Catalog of Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Zootaxa, 2580, 1–1064.

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.

Wild, A.L. (2009) Evolution of the Neotropical ant genus Linepithema. Systematic Entomology, 34, 49–62.

Viitasaari M. (2002). The Suborder Symphyta of the Hymenoptera. In: Viitasaari, M. (Ed.), Sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). Vol. I. A review of the suborder, the Western Palaearctic taxa of Xyeloidea and Pamphilioidea. Tremex , Helsinki, pp. 11–174.

Yassin, A., Markow, T.A., Narechania, A., O’Grady, P.M. & DeSalle, R. (2010) The genus Drosophila as a model for testing tree- and character-based methods of species identification using DNA barcoding. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 57, 509–517.

Zombori, L. (1971) Symphyta (Hymenoptera) from Mongolia with the description of two new species I. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei (No. 229). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 17, 233–241.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand