Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A new small bent-toed gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the lower slopes of Mount Tambora, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia



We describe the sixth species of bent-toed gecko from the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. This species was first collected on the banks of the Oi Marai River on the low northern slopes of Gunung (Mount) Tambora on Sumbawa Island. The new species is differentiated from Greater Sunda Islands (including Sulawesi) and Lesser Sunda Islands congeners by having the following unique combination of characters: (1) two scales between the second pair of postmentals in contact with the first pair; (2) dorsal surface of antebrachium tuberculate; (3) no tubercles on dorsal surface of brachium; (4) dorsal surfaces of thigh and crus tuberculate; (5) 18 irregularly aligned, longitudinal rows of keeled tubercles at midbody; (6) 26–27 paravertebral tubercles; (7) 40 ventral scales between indistinct ventrolateral folds; (8) 16–17 fourth-toe subdigital scales; (9) a continuous enlarged precloacal and femoral scales present, with the enlarged femoral scales arranged in three rows; (10) males with five to six precloacal pores, with four larger pores situated in a short groove; (11) femoral pores absent in both sexes; (12) lack of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and (13) 7–9 irregular, paired black blotches on the body.



Reptilia, Gekkonidae, Cyrtodactylus, new species, Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Tambora, Sumbawa, Indonesia

Full Text:



Biswas, S. (2007) Assignment of currently misplaced Cnemaspis gordongekkoi Das, 1993 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) to Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 14 (1), 15–20.

Boulenger, G.A. (1897) A catalogue of the reptiles and batrachians of Celebes with special reference to the collections made by Drs P & F Sarasin in 1893–1896. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1897, 193–237.

Boulenger, G.A. (1893) Concluding report on the reptiles and batrachians obtained in Burma by Signor L. Fea, dealing with a collection made in Pegu and Karin Hills in 1887–1888. Annali Del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 2 (8), 303–347.

Brongersma, L.D. (1948) Lizards from the island of Morotai (Moluccas). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 51, 486–495.

Chan, K.O. & Norhayati, A. (2010) A new insular species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa, 2389, 47–56.

Darevsky, I.S. (1964) Two new species of gekkonid lizards from the Komodo Island in Lesser Sundas Archipelago. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 173, 169–174.

Das, I. (1993) Cnemaspis gordongekkoi, a new gecko from Lombok, Indonesia, and the biogeography of Oriental species of Cnemaspis (Squamata: Sauria: Gekkonidae). Hamadryad, 18, 1–9.

Dring, J.C.M. (1979) Amphibians and reptiles from northern Trengganu, Malaysia, with descriptions of two new geckos: Cnemaspis and Cyrtodactylus. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology, 34 (5), 181–241.

Dunn, E.R. (1927) Result of the Douglas Burden expedition to the island of Komodo. III. Lizards from the East Indies. American Museum Novitates, 288, 1–13.

Gray, J.E. (1827) A Synopsis of the Genera of Saurian Reptiles in which some new Genera are indicated, and the others reviewed by actual Examination. Philosophical Magazine, 2 (2), 54–58.

Grismer, L.L. & Ahmad, N. (2008) A new insular species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa, 1924, 53–68.

Grismer, L.L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood, P.L. Jr. & Belabut, D. (2008) Three new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa, 1921, 1–23.

Grismer, L.L. & Leong, T.M. (2005) New species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from southern Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Herpetology, 39 (4), 584–591.

Grismer, L.L., Wood, P.L. Jr. & Lim, K.K.P. (2012) Cyrtodactylus majulah, a new species of bent-toed gecko Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Singapore and the Riau Archipelago. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 60 (2), 487–499.

Hartmann, L., Mecke, S., Kieckbusch, M., Mader, F. & Kaiser, H. (2016) A new species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia, with taxonomic remarks on C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). Zootaxa, 4067 (5), 552–568.

Harvey, M.B., O’Connell, K.A., Barraza, G., Riyanto, A., Kurniawan, N. & Smith, E.N. (2015) Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the southern Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra and an estimation of their phylogeny. Zootaxa, 4020 (3), 495–516.

Hayden, C.J., Brown, R.M., Gillespie, G., Setiadi, M.I., Linkem, C.W., Iskandar, D.T., Umilaela, Bickford, D.P., Riyanto, A., Mumpuni & McGuire, J.A. (2008) A new species of bent-toed gecko Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827, (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Herpetologica, 64 (1), 109–120.


Hikida, T. (1990) Bornean gekkonid lizards of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Lacertilia: Gekkonidae) with descriptions of three new species. Japanese Journal of Herpetology, 13 (3), 91–107.

Inger, R.F. (1958) A new Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus, with a key to the species from Borneo and the Philippine Islands. Sarawak Museum Journal, 8, 261–264.

Inger, R.F. & King, W. (1961) A new cave-dwelling lizard of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Niah. Sarawak Museum Journal, 11, 274–276.

Iskandar, D.T., Rachmansah, A. & Umilaela (2011) A new bent-toed gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) from Mount Tompotika, eastern peninsula of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 2838, 65–78.

Kathriner, A., Bauer, A.M., O’Shea, M., Sanchez, C. & Kaiser, H. (2014) Hiding in plain sight: a new species of bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from West Timor, collected by Malcolm Smith in 1924. Zootaxa, 3900 (4), 555–568.

Lang, R. de (2011) The snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia. Asian Herpetological Research, 2 (1), 46–54.

Linkem, C.W., McGuire, J.A., Hayden, C.J., Setiadi, I.M., Bickford, D.P. & Brown, R.M. (2008) A new species of bent-toed gecko (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Sulawesi Island, Eastern Indonesia. Herpetologica, 64 (2), 224–234.

Mecke, S., Kieckbusch, M., Hartmann, L. & Kaiser, H. (2016) Historical considerations and comments on the type series of Cyrtodactylus marmoratus Gray, 1831, with an updated comparative table for the bent-toed geckos of the Sunda Islands and Sulawesi. Zootaxa, 4175 (4), 353–365.

Mocquard, F. (1890) Diagnoses d’espèces nouvelles de reptiles et de batraciens des iles Bornéo et Palawan. Le Naturaliste, 1890, 144–145.

Müller, F. (1895) Reptilien und Amphibien aus Celebes, (II. Bericht). Verhandlungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel, 10, 862–869.

Oliver, P., Krey, K., Mumpuni & Richards, S.J. (2011) A new species of bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus, Gekkonidae) from the North Papuan Mountains. Zootaxa, 2930, 22–32.

Oliver, P.M., Richards, S.J., Mumpuni & Rӧsler, H. (2016) The knight and the king: two new species of giant bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus, Gekkonidae, Squamata) from northern New Guinea, with comments on endemism in the North Papuan Mountains. Zoo Keys, 562, 105–130.

Oliver, P., Tjaturadi, B., Mumpuni, Krey, K. & Richards, S.J. (2008) A new species of large Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Melanesia. Zootaxa, 1894, 59–68.

Peters, W. (1871) Über neue Reptilien aus Ostafrika und Sarawak (Borneo), vorzüglich aus der Sammlung des Hrn. Marquis J. Doria zu Genua. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1871, 566–581.

Riyanto, A. (2012) Cyrtodactylus hikidai sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae): a new bent toed gecko from Mount Ranai, Bunguran Island, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 3583, 22–30.

Riyanto, A., Bauer, A.M. & Yudha, D.N. (2014) A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 3785 (4), 589–599.

Riyanto, A., Grismer, L.L. & Wood, P.L. Jr. (2015) Cyrtodactylus rosichonariefi sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae), a new swamp-dwelling bent-toed gecko from Bunguran Island (Great Natuna), Indonesia. Zootaxa, 3964 (1), 114–124.

Riyanto, A., Grismer, L.L. & Wood, P.L. Jr. (2015) The fourth Bent-toed Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 4059 (2), 351–363.

Riyanto, A., Kurniati, H. & Engilis, A. (2016) A new bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Mekongga Mountains, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 4109 (1), 59–72.

Rooij, N. de (1915) The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. I: Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 384 pp.

Rösler, H. & Glaw, F. (2008) A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Malaysia, including a literature survey of mensural and meristic data in the genus. Zootaxa, 1729, 8–22.

Rösler, H. & Kaiser, H. (2016) Male secondary sexual characteristics of the gecko Cyrtodactylus celatus Kathriner et al., 2014 from Timor Island (Squamata, Gekkonidae). Spixiana, 39, 125–129.

Smith, M.A. (1923) Notes on reptiles and batrachians from Siam and Indo-China (No. 2). Journal of Natural History Society of Siam, 6 (1), 47–53.

Spakman, W. & Hall, R. (2010) Surface deformation and slab-mantle interaction during Banda arc subduction rollback. Nature Geoscience, 3, 562–566.

Taylor, E.H. (1962) New oriental reptiles. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 43, 209–263.

Uetz, P. & Hošek, J. (Eds.) (2016) The Reptile Database. Available from: (accessed 23 February 2016)

Veevers, J.J. (2000) Change of tectono-stratigraphic regime in the Australian plate during the 99 Ma (mid-Cretaceous) and 43 Ma (mid-Eocene) swerves of the Pacific. Geology, 28, 47–50.–7613

Weber, M. (1890) Reptilia from the Malay Archipelago. I. Sauria, Crocodylidae, Chelonia. In Weber, M (Ed.), Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indie. Vol. I. E. J. Brill, Leiden, pp. 158–177.

Wood, P.L. Jr., Heinicke, M.P., Jackman, T.R. & Bauer, A.M. (2012) Phylogeny of bent-toed geckos (Cyrtodactylus) reveals a west to east pattern of diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 65, 992–1003.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand