Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A new species of Mud Snake (Serpentes, Homalopsidae, Gyiophis Murphy & Voris, 2014) from Myanmar with a first molecular phylogenetic assessment of the genus

EVAN S.H. QUAH, L. LEE GRISMER, PERRY L., JR. WOOD, MYINT KYAW THURA, THAW ZIN, HTET KYAW, NGWE LWIN, MARTA S. GRISMER, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH

Abstract


A newly discovered species of homalopsid snake from the genus Gyiophis Murphy & Voris is described from the lowlands of Mawlamyine District in Mon state, southeastern Myanmar. Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is presumed to be closely related to G. maculosa Blanford and G. vorisi Murphy based on the similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from G. maculosa by the shape of its first three dorsal scale rows that are square, ventral scale pattern that lacks a central spot, and a faint stripe on dorsal scale rows 1–4. It can be further distinguished from G. vorisi by its lower number of ventral scales (129 vs. 142–152), lower number of subcaudals (30/29 vs. 41–58), narrow rostral scale, and having more rows of spots on the dorsum (four vs. three). A preliminary molecular analysis using 1050 base pairs of cytochrome b (cytb) recovered G. salweenensis sp. nov. as the sister species to the Chinese Mud Snake (Myrrophis chinensis). G. maculosa and G. vorisi were unavailable for the analysis. The discovery of G. salweenensis sp. nov. highlights the need for more surveys into the herpetological diversity of eastern Myanmar which remains very much underestimated.

 


Keywords


Reptilia, phylogeny, Enhydris, homalopsid, conservation, endemic biodiversity, Burma

Full Text:

PDF (6MB)

References


Bauer, A.M. (2002) Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Myanmar. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 53, 73–86.

Bauer, A.M. (2003) Descriptions of seven new Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) with a key to the species of Myanmar (Burma). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 54 (25), 463–498.

Blandford, W.T. (1879) Notes on reptiles. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 8, 216–217.

Blyth, E. (1855) Collections presented by Capt. Beddome and Mr. Theobald. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 24, 187.

Boie, H. (1827) Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien, 1. Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis van Oken, 20, 508–566.

Boulenger, G.A. (1888) An account of the Reptilia obtained in Burma, north of Tenasserim, by M. L. Fea, of the Genova Civic Museum. Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale di Genova, 2 (6), 593–604.

Burbrink, F.T., Lawson, R. & Slowinski, J.B. (2000) Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography of the polytypic North American rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta): a critique of the subspecies concept. Evolution, 54, 2107–2118.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb01253.x

Duméril, A.M.C., Bibron, G. & Duméril, A.H.A. (1854) Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, xii + 756 pp. [pp. i–xii + 781–1536]

Eydoux, F. & Gervais, P. (1837) Voyage de la Favourite. Reptiles. Magasin de Zoologie Journal destine á établir une correspondence entre les Zoologistes de tous les pays, et á leur faciliter les moyens de publiler les espéces nouvelles ou peu connues qu’ils possédent; par F. E. Guérin, 3, 1–10.

Girard, C. (1858) Descriptions of some new reptiles, collected by the U. S. Exploring Expedition, under the command of Captain Charles Wilkes, USN. Third part. Including the species of ophidians exotic to North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1857, 181–182.

Gray, J.E. (1842) Monographic synopsis of the water snakes, or the family Hydridae. Zoological Miscellany, 2, 59–68.

Grismer, L.L., Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul, A.M.S., Muin, M. A., Wood, P.L. Jr. & Azizah, S.M.N. (2014) A diminutive new species of cave-dwelling Wolf Snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Boie, 1826) from Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa, 3815 (1), 51–67.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3815.1.3

Günther, A. (1858) Catalogue of Colubrine snakes of the British Museum. Printed by order of the Trustees, London, xvi + 281 pp.

Gyi, K.K. (1970) A revision of colubrid snakes of the subfamily Homalopsinae. University of Kansas Publications. Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, 20, 47–223.

Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Ronquist, F. (2001) MrBayes: Bayesian Inference of Phylogenetic Trees. Bioinformatics, 17, 754–755. [Oxford]
https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754

Jan, G. (1865) Enumerazione sistematica degli Ofidi appartenenti al gruppo Potamophilidae. Archivo per la Zoologia, l’Anatomia e la Fisiologia, 3, 201–265.

Kearse, M., Moir, R., Wilson, A., Stones-Havas, S., Cheung, M., Sturrock, S., Buxton, S., Cooper, A., Markowitz, S., Duran, C., Thierer, T., Ashton, B., Mentjes, P. & Drummond, A. (2012) Geneious basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics, 28 (12), 1647–1649.
https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199

Kumar, A.B., Sanders, K.L., George, S. & Murphy, J.C. (2012) The status of Eurostus dussumierii and Hypsirhina chinensis (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes): with comments on the origin of salt tolerance in homalopsid snakes. Systematics and Biodiversity, 10 (4), 479–489.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2012.751940

Lácèpede, B.G.E. (1801) Sur un nouveau genre de serpent. Bulletin des Sciences de la Société Philomathique de Paris, 2, 169.

Lee, J.L., Thura, M.K., Mulcahy, D.G. & Zug, G. R. (2015) Three Colubrid Snakes New to Myanmar. Herpetology Notes, 8, 217–220.

Lim, K.K.P. & D’Rozario, V. (2009) The rainbow mud snake, Enhydris enhydris (Schneider) [Reptilia: Squamata: Homalopsidae] in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2, 9–12.

Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ, 824 pp.

Maddison, D.R. & Maddison, W.P. (2015) Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version3.04. Available from: http://mesquiteproject.org (accessed 15 February 2017)

Mahony, S. (2009) Taxonomic status of Cyrtodactylus khasiensis tamaiensis (Smith, 1940) and description of a new species allied to C. chrysopylos Bauer, 2003 from Myanmar (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Hamadryad, 34 (1), 62–74.

McMahan, C.D. & Zug, G.R. (2007) Burmese Hemidactylus (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae): geographic variation in the morphology of Hemidactylus bowringii in Myanmar and Yunnan, China. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 58 (24), 485–509.

Mertens, R. (1959) Eine neue Wassernatter aus West-Pakistan. Senckenbergiana biologica, 40, 117–120.

Minh, Q., Nguyen, M.A.T. & von Haeseler, A. (2013) Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 1188–1195.
https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst024

Murphy, J.C. (2007a) Homalopsid snakes, evolution in the mud. Krieger Publishing, Malabar, 260 pp.

Murphy, J.C. (2007b) A review of Enhydris maculosa (Blanford, 1879) and the description of a related species (Serpentes, Homalopsidae). Hamadryad, 31 (2), 281–287.

Murphy, J.C. & Voris, H.K. (2014) A checklist and key to the homalopsid snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the description of new genera. Fieldiana, Life and Earth Sciences, 8, 1–43.
https://doi.org/10.3158/2158-5520-14.8.1

Murphy, J.C., Voris, H.K. & Karns, D.R. (2012a) The dog-faced water snakes, a revision of the genus Cerberus Cuvier, (Squamata, Serpentes, Homalopsidae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa, 3484, 1–34.

Murphy, J.C., Voris, H.K., Murthy, B.H.C.K., Traub, J. & Cumberbatch, C. (2012b) The masked water snakes of the genus Homalopsis Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1822 (Squamata, Serpentes, Homalopsidae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa, 3208, 1–26.

Nylander, J., Olsson, U., Alström, P. & Sanmartín, I. (2008) Accounting for Phylogenetic Uncertainty in Biogeography: A Bayesian Approach to Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis of the Thrushes (Aves: Turdus). Systematic Biology, 57, 257–268.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150802044003

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference under Mixed Models. Bioinformatics, 19, 1572–1574. [Oxford]
https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

Schlegel, H. (1837) Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Générale. J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum, La Haye, xxviii + 251 pp. & 606 pp. + xvi (Partie Descriptive).

Schneider, J.G. (1799) Historiae amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus primus, continens Ranas, Clamitas, Bufones, Salamandras et Hydros in genera et species descriptos notisque suis distinctos. Friederici Frommann, Jenae, 264 pp.

Slowinski, J.B., Pawar, S.S., Win, H., Thin, T., Gyi, S.W., Oo, S.L. & Tun, H. (2001) A new Lycodon (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Northeast India and Myanmar (Burma). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 52, 397–405.

Slowinski, J.B. & Wüster, W. (2000) A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma). Herpetologica, 56 (2), 257–270.

Smith, M.A. (1943) The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London, 583 pp.

Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. (2014) A field guide to the snakes of Borneo (second edition). Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 310 pp.

Trifinopoulos, J., Nguyen, L.T., von Haeseler, A. & Minh, B.Q. (2016) W-iq-tree: a fast online phylogenetic tool for maximum likelihood analysis. Nucleic Acids Research, 44, 232–235. [W232–W235]
https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw256

Tweedie, M.W.F. (1946) A new snake from the Malay Peninsula. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 13 (98), 142–144.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222934608654536

Uetz, P., Freed, P. & Hošek, J. (2016) The Reptile Database. Available from: http://www.reptile-database.org (accessed 27 October 2016)

Vogel, G. (2015) A New Montane Species of the Genus Pareas Wagler, 1830 (Squamata: Pareatidae) from Northern Myanmar. Taprobanica, 7 (1), 1–7.

Voris, H.K. & Karns, D.R. (1996) Habitat utilization, movements, and activity patterns of Enhydris plumbea (Serpentes: Homalopsinae) in a rice paddy wetland in Borneo, Herpetological Natural History, 4, 111–126.

Wall, F. & Evans, G.H. (1901) Notes on Ophidia collected in Burma from May to December, 1899. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 13, 343–354.

Wilcox, T.P., Zwickl, D.J., Heath, T.A. & Hillis, D.M. (2002) Phylogenetic relationships of the Dwarf Boas and a comparison of Bayesian and bootstrap measures of phylogenetic support. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25, 361–371.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00244-0

Zug, G.R., Brown, H.H.K., Schulte, J.A.II & Vindum, J.V. (2006) Systematics of the garden lizards, Calotes versicolor group (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), in Myanmar: Central dry zone populations. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 57 (2), 35–68.

Zug, G.R., Gotte, S.W. & Jacobs, J.F. (2011) Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 124 (2), 112–136.
https://doi.org/10.2988/10-34.1

Zug, G.R., Vindum, J.V. & Koo, M.S. (2007) Burmese Hemidactylus (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae): taxonomic notes on tropical Asian Hemidactylus. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 58 (19), 387–405.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4238.4.5

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand