Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Cryptic diversity in the Azorean beetle genus Tarphius Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae): An integrative taxonomic approach with description of four new species

PAULO A. V. BORGES, ISABEL R. AMORIM, SOFIA TERZOPOULOU, FRANÇOIS RIGAL, BRENT C. EMERSON, ARTUR R.M. SERRANO

Abstract


Recent findings based on molecular data support the occurrence in the Azores of several independently evolving lineages of the beetle genus Tarphius Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae Solier, 1834) and higher species richness masked by cryptic diversity, needing formal taxonomic description. All Tarphius from the Azores are revised using an integrative taxonomic approach, using evidence from morphology, morphometrics and molecular data to delimit species. Our results reveal that Azorean Tarphius comprise at least five phyletic lineages, two of which share a similar morphology, despite being divergent at the molecular level. A total of four new species are described grouped into two complexes: i) two new species in the “complex tornvalli” with the new taxa Tarphius relictus sp. nov. (Terceira) and Tarphius furtadoi sp. nov. (São Jorge, Faial and Pico) and; ii) two new species in the “complex azoricus-wollastoni-depressus” with the new taxa Tarphius gabrielae sp. nov. (Pico) and Tarphius floresensis sp. nov. (Flores). Descriptions, photographs of holotypes and morphological details, and remarks on diagnostic features comparing similar species are presented. Additional information on the distribution and conservation status of the 12 described species in the archipelago is also provided.

 


Keywords


Coleoptera, Azores, biodiversity, conservation, Macaronesia, radiation, Zopheridae

Full Text:

PDF (22MB)

References


Amorim, I.R. (2005) Colonization and diversification on oceanic islands: forest Tarphius and cave-dwelling Trechus beetles of the Azores. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 282 pp.

Amorim, I., Emerson, B.C, Borges, P.A.V. & Wayne, R.K. (2012) Phylogeography and molecular phylogeny of Macaronesian island Tarphius (Coleoptera: Zopheridae): why so few species in the Azores? Journal of Biogeography, 39, 1583–1595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02721.x

Anderson, M.J. (2001) A new method for non‐parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology, 26, 32–46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.pp.x

Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & Garcia, A. (Eds.) (2010) Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias. Hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2009. Gobierno de Canarias, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 577 pp.

Benjamini, Y. & Yekutieli, D. (2001) The control of the false discovery rate in multiple testing under dependency. Annals of Statistics, 29, 1165–1188.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1214/aos/1013699998

Borges, P.A.V. (1990) A checklist of Coleoptera from the Azores with some systematic and biogeographic comments. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal, 42, 87–136.

Borges, P.A.V. (1991) Two new species of Tarphius Erichson, 1848 (Coleoptera, Colydiidae) from the Azores. Bocagiana, 143, 1–11.

Borges, P.A.V. (1992) Biogeography of the Azorean Coleoptera. Museu Municipal do Funchal (História Natural), 44, 5–76.

Borges, P.A.V. & Hortal, J. (2009) Time, area and isolation: factors driving the diversification of Azorean arthropods. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 178–191.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01980.x

Borges, P.A.V., Aguiar, C., Amaral, J., Amorim, I.R., André, G., Arraiol, A., Baz, A., Dinis, F., Enghoff, H., Gaspar, C., Ilharco, F., Mahnert, V., Melo, C., Pereira, F., Quartau, J.A., Ribeiro, S., Ribes, J., Serrano, A.R.M., Sousa, A.B., Strassen, R.Z., Vieira, L., Vieira, V., Vitorino, A. & Wunderlich,J. (2005a) Ranking protected areas in the Azores using standardized sampling of soil epigean arthropods. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 2029–2060.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10531-004-4283-y

Borges, P.A.V., Aguiar, A.M.F., Boieiro, M., Carles-Tolrá, M. & Serrano, A.R.M. (2008) List of Arthropods (Arthropoda) In: Borges, P.A.V., Abreu, C., Aguiar, A.M.F., Carvalho, P., Jardim, R., Melo, I., Oliveira, P., Sérgio, C., Serrano, A.R.M. & Vieira, P. (Eds.), A list of the terrestrial fungi, flora and fauna of Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos. Direcção Regional do Ambiente da Madeira and Universidade dos Açores, Funchal and Angra do Heroísmo, pp. 271–356.

Borges, P.A.V., Azevedo, E.B., Borba, A., Dinis, F.O., Gabriel, R. & Silva, E. (2009) Ilhas Oceânicas. In: Pereira, H.M., Domingos, T. & Vicente, L. (Eds.), Portugal Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Escolar Editora, Lisboa, pp. 461–508.

Borges, P.A.V., Vieira, V., Dinis, F., Jarroca, S., Aguiar, C., Amaral, J., Aarvik, L., Ashmole, P., Ashmole, M., Amorim, I.R., André, G., Argente, M.C., Arraiol, A., Cabrera, A., Diaz, S., Enghoff, H., Gaspar, C., Mendonça, E.P., Gisbert, H.M., Gonçalves, P., Lopes, D.H., Melo, C., Mota, J.A., Oliveira, O., Oromí, P., Pereira, F., Pombo, D.T., Quartau, J.A., Ribeiro, S.P., Rodrigues, A.C., Santos, A.M.C., Serrano, A.R.M., Simões, A.M., Soares, A.O., Sousa, A.B., Vieira, L., Vitorino, A. & Wunderlich, J. (2005b) List of arthropods (Arthropoda) In: Borges, P.A.V., Cunha, R., Gabriel, R., Martins, A.M.F., Silva, L. & Vieira, V. (Eds.), A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores. Direcção Regional de Ambiente and Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Angra do Heroísmo and Ponta Delgada, pp. 163–221.

Borges, P.A.V. & Wunderlich, J. (2008) Spider biodiversity patterns and their conservation in the Azorean archipelago, with description of new taxa. Systematics and Biodiversity, 6, 249–282.

Carine, M.A. & Schaefer, H. (2010) The Azores diversity enigma: why are there so few Azorean endemic flowering plants and why are they so widespread?. Journal of Biogeography, 37, 77–89.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02181.x

Cardoso, P., Lobo, J.M., Aranda, S.C., Dinis, F., Gaspar, C. & Borges, P.A.V. (2009) A spatial scale assessment of habitat effects on arthropod communities of an oceanic island. Acta Oecologica, 35, 590–597.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2009.05.005

Dajoz, R. (1977) Coléoptères: Colydiidae et Anommatidae paléarctiques. Masson, Paris, 260 pp.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb01018.x

Emerson, B.C. & Oromí, P. (2005) Diversification of the forest beetle genus Tarphius on the Canary Islands, and the evolutionary origins of island endemics. Evolution, 59, 586–598.

Emerson, B.C., Oromí, P. & Hewitt, G.M. (2000) Tracking colonization and diversification of insect lineages on islands: mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Tarphius canariensis (Coleoptera: Colydiidae) on the Canary Islands. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 267, 2199–205.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1098/rspb.2000.1269

Franz, H. (1967) Revision der Tarphius: Arten Europas, Nordwestafrikas und der Kanarischen Inseln (Coleopt., Colydiidae). Eos, 43, 62–81.

Gaspar, C., Borges, P.A.V. & Gaston, K.J. (2008) Diversity and distribution of arthropods in native forests of the Azores archipelago. Arquipélago Life and marine Sciences, 25, 1–30.

Gillerfors, G. (1985) Two new species of the genus Tarphius Erichson from the Azores and redescription of Tarphius wollastoni Crotch (Coleoptera,Colydiidae) Bocagiana, 85, 1–7.

Gillerfors, G. (1986a) Two new species of Tarphius Erichson (Coleoptera, Colydiidae) and a new species of Mniophilosoma Wollaston (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) from the Azores. Bocagiana, 98, 1–10.

Gillerfors, G. (1986b) Contribution to the coleopterous fauna of the Azores. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal, 38, 16–27.

Israelson, G. (1984) Coleoptera from the Azores. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal, 36, 142–161.

Lobo, J.M. & Borges, P.A.V. (2010) The provisional status of arthropod inventories in the Macaronesian islands. In: Serrano, A.R.M., Borges, P.A.V., Boieiro, M. & Oromí, P. (Eds.), Terrestrial arthropods of Macaronesia—Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution. Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia, Lisboa, pp. 33–47.

López, H., Hernández-Teixidor, D., Macías- Hernández, N., Juan, C. & Oromí, P. (2013) A taxonomic revision and species delimitation of the genus Purpuraria Enderlein, 1929 (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae) using an integrative approach. Journal Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 51, 173–186.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/jzs.12023

Machado, A. (2012) Two new Tarphius species from Macaronesia (Coleoptera, Zopheridae). Journal of Natural History, 46, 637–643.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2012.654477

Maddison, W. & Maddison, D. (2005) MacClade: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution. v4.08. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Mayr, E. (1942) Systematics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New York, 315 pp.

Meijer, S.S., Whittaker, R.J. & Borges, P.A.V. (2011) The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores): unmanaged plantations favour endemic beetles. Journal of Insect Conservation, 15, 505–522.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10841-010-9330-2

Oromí, P., Serrano, A.R.M. & Borges, P.A.V. (2010) Coleoptera (Coordination) In: Borges, P.A.V., Costa, A., Cunha, R., Gabriel, R., Gonçalves, V., Martins, A.F., Melo, I., Parente, M., Raposeiro, P., Rodrigues, P., Santos, R.S., Silva, L., Vieira, P. & Vieira, V. (Eds.), A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores. Princípia, Cascais, pp. 222–232.
https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn083

Posada, D. (2008) jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25, 1253–1256.

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics, 19, 1572–1574.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

Schaefer, H., Moura, M., Maciel, M.G.B., Silva, L., Rumsey, F.J. & Carine, M.A. (2011) The Linnean shortfall in oceanic island biogeography: a case study in the Azores. Journal of Biogeography, 38, 1345–1355.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02494.x

Serrano, A.R.M., Amorim, I.R. & Borges, P.A.V. (2013) A New Species of Tarphius Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae) from North Africa and Notes on an Iberian Species. Zootaxa, 3615 (5), 493–500.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3613.5.5

Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Flook, P. (1994) Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87, 651–701.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/87.6.651

Ślipiński, S.A. (1985) New and little known species of Colydiidae (Coleoptera) from Asia, Madagascar and Comoro Islands. Annales Zoologici, 39, 181–195.

Ślipiński, S.A. & Schuh R. (2008) Zopheridae. In: Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (Eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleopter. Vol. 5. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, pp. 78–87.

Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics, 22, 2688–2690.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446

Stamatakis, A., Hoover, P. & Rougemont, J. (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML web servers. Systematic Biology, 57, 758–771.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/10635150802429642

Terzopoulou, S., Rigal, F., Whittaker, R.J., Borges, P.A.V. & Triantis, K.A. (2015) Drivers of extinction: the case of Azorean beetles. Biology Letters, 11, 1–4.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1098/rsbl.2015.0273

Triantis, K.A., Borges, P.A.V., Ladle, R.J., Hortal, J., Cardoso, P., Gaspar, C., Dinis, F., Mendonça, E., Silveira, L.M.A., Gabriel, R., Melo, C., Santos, A.M.C., Amorim, I.R., Ribeiro, S.P., Serrano, A.R.M., Quartau, J.A. & Whittaker, R.J. (2010) Extinction debt on oceanic islands. Ecography, 33, 285–294.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06203.x

Triantis, K.A., Hortal, J., Amorim, I., Cardoso, P., Santos, A.M.C., Gabriel, R. & Borges, P.A.V. (2012) Resolving the Azorean knot: a response to Carine & Schaefer (2010) Journal of Biogeography, 39, 1179–1184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02623.x

Villesen, P. (2007) FaBox: an online toolbox for FASTA sequences. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 965–968.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01821.x

Whiting, M.F. (2002) Mecoptera is paraphyletic: multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera. Zoologica Scripta, 31, 93–104.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1046/j.0300-3256.2001.00095.x

Yu, Y., Harris, A.J., Blair, C. & He, X.J. (2015) RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies): a tool for historical biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 87, 46–49.
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.008




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4236.3.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand