Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A revision of the cis-andean species of the genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae)

FLÁVIO C.T. LIMA

Abstract


A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Guyana; Brycon gouldingi Lima, endemic from the rio Tocantins basin, Brazil; Brycon melanopterus (Cope), from the western and central rio Amazonas basin, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia; and Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, widespread in the the rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, and several guyanese river systems, in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. All species are redescribed and illustrated, and a key to the species is provided. Comments on the diagnosis of the genus Brycon, the biogeography of the cis-andean species, and their current conservation status, are presented.

 


Keywords


Pisces, taxonomy, conservation, biogeography, mimicry, Amazon basin, Orinoco basin, eastern Brazil

Full Text:

PDF (47MB)

References


Abe, K.T., Mariguela, T.C., Avelino, G.S., Foresti, F. & Oliveira, C. (2014) Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14 (152), 1–15.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-14-152

Abilhoa, V. & Duboc, L.F. (2004) Peixes. In: Mikich, S.B. & Bérnils, R.S. (Eds.), Livro vermelho da fauna ameaçada no estado do Paraná. Instituto Ambiental do Paraná, Curitiba, pp. 581–677.

Agassiz, L. & Agassiz, E.C. (1975) Viagem ao Brasil 18651866. Editora Itatiaia, Belo Horizonte, 323 pp.

Agostinho, A.A., Gomes, L.C., Suzuki, H.I. & Júlio, H.F. Jr. (2003) Migratory fishes of the upper Paraná River basin Brazil. In: Carolsfeld, J., Harvey, B., Ross, C. & Baer, A. (Eds.), Migratory fishes of South America: biology, fisheries and conservation status. World Fisheries Trust, World Bank, Ottawa, pp. 19–98.

Agostinho, A.A., Hahn, N.S., Gomes, L.C. & Bini, L.M. (1997) Estrutura trófica. In: Vazzoler, A.E.A.M., Agostinho, A.A. & Hahn, N.S. (Eds.), A planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: aspectos físicos, biológicos e socioeconômicos. Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, pp. 229–248.

Agostinho, A.A., Julio, H.F. Jr. & Petrere Jr., M. (1994) Itaipu reservoir (Brazil): impacts of the impoundment on the fish fauna and fisheries. In: Cowx, I.G. (Ed.), Rehabilitation of freshwater fisheries. Fishing New Books, Oxford, pp. 171–184

Agostinho, A.A., Júlio, H.F. Jr., Gomes, L.C., Bini, L.M. & Agostinho, C.S. (1997) Composição, abundância e distribuição espaço-temporal da ictiofauna. In: Vazzoler, A.E.A.M., Agostinho, A.A. & Hahn, N.S. (Eds.), A planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: aspectos físicos, biológicos e socioeconômicos. Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, pp. 179–208.

Agostinho, A.A. & Júlio Jr., H.F. (1999) Peixes da bacia do alto rio Paraná. In: R.H. Lowe-McConnell, Estudos ecológicos de comunidades de peixes tropicais. EDUSP, São Paulo, pp. 374–400.

Agostinho, A.A., Marques, E.E., Agostinho, C.S., Almeida, D.A., Oliveira, R.J. & Melo, J.R.B. (2007) Fish ladder of Lajeado Dam: migration or none-way routes? Neotropical Ichthyology, 5 (2), 121–130.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252007000200005

Agostinho, A.A., Zaniboni Filho, E. & Lima, F.C.T. (2008) Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1850). In: Machado, A.B.M., Drummond, G.M. & Paglia, A.P. (Eds.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Fundação Biodiversitas, Brasília, pp. 54–56.

Agostinho, C.S., Pereira, C.R., de Oliveira, R.J., Freitas, I.S. & Marques. E.E. (2007) Movements through a fish ladder: temporal patterns and motivations to move upstream. Neotropical Ichthyology, 5(2), 161–167.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252007000200010

Aguirre, A. (1945) A caça e a pesca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso. Ministério da Agricultura, Departamento Nacional da Produção Animal, Divisão de Caça e Pesca, Rio de Janeiro, 46 pp. + 10 pls.

Albrecht, M.P., Caramaschi, E.P. & Horn, M.H. (2009) Population responses of two omnivorous fish species to impoundment of a Brazilian tropical river. Hydrobiologia, 627(1), 181–193.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-009-9727-7

Albrecht, M.P., Souza, C.B., Pereira, J.R., Rosa, D.C.O., Iglesias-Rios, R. & Caramaschi, E.P. (2012) Uso de recursos alimentares e estrutura trófica da ictiofauna, antes e depois do represamento. In: Mazzoni, R., Caramaschi, E.P. & Iglesias-Rios, R. (Eds.), Usina hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa: 15 anos de estudos da ictiofauna do alto Tocantins. Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, pp. 167–210.

Almeida-Toledo, L.F., Bigoni, A.P., Bernardino, G., Foresti, F. & Toledo-Filho, S.A. (1996) Karyotype and NOR conservatism with heterochromatin reorganization in Neotropical Bryconids. Caryologia, 49 (1), 35–43.

Almirón, A., Casciotta, J., Ciotek, L. & Giorgis, P. (2008) Guía de los peces del Parque Nacional Pre-Delta. Administración de Parques Nacionales, Buenos Aires, 215 pp.

Alves, C.B.M. & Pompeu, P.S. (2001) A fauna de peixes da bacia do Rio das Velhas no final do século XX. In: Alves, C.B.M. & Pompeu, P.S. (Orgs.), Peixes do Rio das Velhas: passado e presente. SEGRAC, Belo Horizonte, pp. 165–187.

Alves, C.B.M. & Pompeu, P.S. (2005) Historical changes in the Rio das Velhas fish fauna—Brazil. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 45, 587–602.

Amaral Campos, A. (1950) Sobre a subfamília Bryconinae. Espécies existentes na coleção de peixes do departamento de zoologia de São Paulo. Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia (São Paulo), 9 (10), 137–143.

Angulo, A. & Gracian-Negrete, J.M. (2013) A new species of Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, with a key to the lower Mesoamerican species of the genus. Zootaxa, 3731 (2), 255–266.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3731.2.6

Antonio, R.R., Agostinho, A.A., Pelicice, F.M., Bailly, D., Okada, E.K. & Dias, J.H.P. (2007) Blockage of migration routes by dam construction: can migratory fish find alternative routes? Neotropical Ichthyology, 5 (2), 177–184.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252007000200012

Antunes, R.S.P., Gomes, V.N., Prioli, S.M.A.P., Prioli, R.A., Júlio, H.F. Jr., Prioli, L.M., Agostinho, C.S. & Prioli, A.J. (2010) Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from four hydrographic basins in Brazil. Genetics and Molecular Research, 9 (2), 674–684.

Araújo, F.G. (1996) Composição e estrutura da comunidade de peixes do médio e baixo rio Paraíba do Sul, RJ. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 56 (1), 111–126.

Araújo-Lima, C.A.R.M. & Goulding, M. (1997) So fruitful a fish. Ecology, conservation, and aquaculture of the Amazon’s tambaqui. Columbia University Press, New York, 191 pp.

Araújo-Lima, C.A.R.M. & Ruffino, M.L. (2003) Migratory fishes of the brazilian Amazon. In: Carosfeld, J., Harvey, B., Ross, C. & Baer, A. (Eds.), Migratory fishes of South America: biology, fisheries and conservation status. World Fisheries Trust/The World Bank/International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, pp.233–310.

Arias, J.A. (2006) Estado actual del conocimiento sobre el yamú, Brycon amazonicus. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 19(2), 125–133

Arrington, D.A. & Winemiller, K.O. (2003) Diel changeover on sandbank fish assemblages in a neotropical floodplain river. Journal of Fish Biology, 63, 442–459.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1095-8649.2003.00167.x

Azevedo, P.G., Melo, R.M.C. & Young, R.J. (2011) Feeding and social behavior of the piabanha, Brycon devillei (Castelnau, 1855) (Characidae: Bryconinae) in the wild, with a note on following behavior. Neotropical Ichthyology, 9 (4), 807–814.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252011005000046

Azpelicueta, M.M. & Garcia, J.O. (2000) A new species of Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) from Uruguay river basin in Argentina, with remarks on hook presence in Characidae. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 107(2), 245–257.

Baptista, G.M.M. (2008) Modelagem do fenômeno. In: Fonseca, F.O. (Org.), Águas Emendadas. Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Urbano e Meio Ambiente, Brasília, pp. 289–293.

Barrella, W., Beaumord, A.C. & Petrere Jr., M. (1994) Comparison between the fish communities of Manso River (MT) and Jacare Pepira River (SP), Brazil. Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 15 (2), 11–20.

Barriga S., R. (1991) Lista de vertebrados del Ecuador. Peces de agua dulce. Politecnica Biología, 16(3), 7–91.

Barriga S., R. (1994) Peces del Parque Nacional Yasuni. Politecnica Biología, 19 (2), 9–41.

Barroso, R.M., Hilsdorf, A.W.S., Moreira, H.L.M., Cabello, P.H. & Traub-Cseko, Y.M. (2005) Genetic diversity of wild and cultured populations of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819) (Characiforme, Characidae, Bryconiae) using microsatellites. Aquaculture, 247, 51–65.

Barthem, R.B. (1999) A pesca comercial no médio rio Solimões e sua interação com a Reserva Mamirauá. In: Queiroz, H.L. & Crampton, W.G.R. (Eds.), Estratégias para manejo de recursos pesqueiros em Mamirauá. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá, MCT-CNPq, Brasília, Pp.72–107.

Bartolette, R., Souza-Lima, R., Figueiredo, C.A.A., Moraes, D.F. Jr. & Caramaschi, E.P. (2012) Composição taxonômica da ictiofauna da área da UHE Serra da Mesa. In: Mazzoni, R., Caramaschi, E.P. & Iglesias-Rios, R. (Eds.), Usina hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa: 15 anos de estudos da ictiofauna do alto Tocantins. Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, pp. 53–90.

Baumgartner, G., Nakatani, K., Gomes, L.C., Bialetzki, A., Sanches, P.V. & Makrakis, M.C. (2008) Fish larvae from the upper Paraná River: do abiotic factors affect larval density? Neotropical Ichthyology, 6 (4), 551–558.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252008000400002

Bayley, P.B. (1988) Factors affecting growth rates of young tropical floodplain fishes: seasonality and density-dependence. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 21(2), 127–142.

Bayley, P.B. (1995) Understanding large river: floodplain ecosystems. BioScience, 45 (3), 153–158.

Bazzoli, N. (2003) Parâmetros reprodutivos de peixes de interesse comercial na região de Pirapora. In: Godinho, H.P. & Godinho, A.L. (Orgs.), Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais. Editora PUCMinas, Belo Horizonte, pp. 291–306.

Beaumord, A.C. & Petrere, M. Jr. (1994) Fish communities of Manso River, Chapada dos Guimaraes, MT, Brazil. Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 15 (2), 21–35.

Bejarano, I., Blanco, M.P. & Mojica, J.I. (2006) La comunidad íctica del río Mesay durante el periodo de aguas altas (Caqueta, Amazonia colombiana). Caldasia, 28 (2), 359–370.

Bemis, W.E., Hilton, E.J., Brown, B., Arrindell, R., Richmond, A.M., Little, C.D., Grande, L., Forey, P.L. & Nelson, G.J. (2004) Methods for preparing dry, partially articulated skeletons of Osteichthyans, with notes on making Ridewood dissections of the cranial skeleton. Copeia, 2004 (3), 603–609.

Benedito-Cecilio, E., Agostinho, A.A. & Carnelós-Machado Velho, R.C. (1997) Length-weight relationship of fishes caught in the Itaipu reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. NAGA, the ICLARM Quarterly, 20, 57–61.

Berg, C. (1895) Sobre peces de agua dulce nuevos ó poco conocidos de la República Argentina. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, 4(2a), 121–165.

Bergleiter, S. (1999) Zur ökologischen Struktur einer zentralamazonischen Fischzönose. Ethologische und morphologische Befunde zur Ressourcenteilung. Zoologica, Originalabhandlungen aus dem Gesamtgebiet der Zoologie, 149, 1–191.

Berkovitz, B.K.B. & Shellis, R.P. (1978) A longitudinal study of tooth succession in piranhas (Pisces: Characidae), with an analysis of the tooth replacement cycle. Journal of Zoology London, 184, 545–561.

Bernal Ramírez, J.H. & Cala, P. (1997) Composicion de la dieta alimenticia del yamu, Brycon siebenthalae (Pisces: Characidae), en la parte media del Rio Guayabero, sistema del alto rio Guaviare, Colombia. Dahlia, 2, 55–63.

Bertin, L. (1948) Catalogue des types de poissons du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. 3a. partie. Ostariophysaires (Characiniformes, Gymnotiformes). Imp. Colas, Bayeux, 49 pp.

Bertoni, A.W. (1939) Catálogos sistemáticos de los vertebrados del Paraguay. Revista de la Sociedad Cientifica del Paraguay, 4(4), 3–61.

Bessa, E., Carvalho, L.N., Sabino, J. & Tomazzelli, P. (2011) Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic. Neotropical Ichthyology, 9 (2), 351–354.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252011005000016

Bichuette, M.E. & Trajano, E. (2003) Epigean and subterranean ichthyofauna from the São Domingos karst area, Upper Tocantins River basin, Central Brazil. Journal of Fish Biology, 63, 1100–1121.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1095-8649.2003.00227.x

Bidegain, P., Bizerril, C.R.S.F. & Soffiatti, A. (2002) Lagoas do norte fluminenseperfil ambiental. SEMADS, Rio de Janeiro, 148 pp.

Bizerril, C.R.S.F. (1995) Estrutura quantitativa de comunidades de peixes em um rio costeiro do sudeste brasileiro. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia, 17(2), 57–80.

Bizerril, C.R.S.F. & Primo, P.B.S. (2001) Peixes de águas interiores do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Fundação de Estudos do Mar/Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Rio de Janeiro, 417 pp.

Blanco-Parra, M.P. & Bejarano-Rodríguez, I. (2006) Alimentación y reproducción de las principales espécies ícticas del río Mesay durante el período de “aguas altas”. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 54(3), 853–859.

Böhlke, E.B. (1984) Catalog of type specimens in the ichthyological collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Special Publication, 14, i–viii, 1–246.

Böhlke, J. (1958) Studies on fishes of the family Characidae—n° 14. A report on several extensive collections from Ecuador. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 110, 1–121, 6 pls.

Borges, G.A. (1986) Ecologia de três espécies do gênero Brycon Müller & Troschel, 1844 (Pisces-Characidae), no rio Negro-Amazonas, com ênfase na caracterização taxonômica e alimentação. M.Sc. Dissertation, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, 150 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. (1897a) On a collection of fishes from the Island of Marajo, Brazil. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (6)20, 294–299.

Boulenger, G.A. (1897b) Viaggio del Dott. Alfredo Borelli nel Chaco boliviano e nella Repubblica Argentina. III. Poissons. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparata della R. Universitá di Torino, 12 (279), 1–4.

Boulenger, G.A. (1898a.) Viaggio del Dr. Enrico Festa nell’Ecuador e regioni vicine. XII. Poissons de l’Equateur (première partie). Bolletino del Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino, 13 (329), 1–13.

Boulenger, G.A. (1898b.) A list of reptiles, batrachians, and fishes collected by Cav. Guido Boggiani in the northern Chaco. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria, Genova, 39 (2) 19, 125–127.

Boulenger, G.A. (1900) Viaggio del Dr. A. Borelli nel Matto Grosso en el Paraguay. Liste des poissons recueillis à Urucum et à Carandasiñho, près de Corumbá. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparata, Torino, 15 (370), 1–4.

Braum, E. (1983a) Beobachtungen über eine reversible Lippenextension und ihre Rolle bei der Notatmung von Brycon spec. (Pisces, Characidae) und Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Serrasalmidae). Amazoniana, 7(4), 355–374.

Braum, E. (1983b) The status of Brycon labiatus Steindachner 1880 (Pisces, Characoidei) and its synonym, Othonophanes labiatus (Steindachner, 1880). Amazoniana, 8(2), 265–271.

Britski, H.A. (1972) Peixes de água doce do estado de São Paulo—sistemática. In: Poluição e Piscicultura. Notas sobre poluição, ictiologia e piscicultura. Comissão Interestadual da bacia Paraná-Uruguai/Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP/Instituto de Pesca, São Paulo, pp. 79–108.

Britski, H.A., Sato, Y. & Rosa, A.B.S. (1988) Manual de identificação de peixes da região de Três Marias. Brasília, Câmara dos Deputados/CODEVASF, 115 p.

Britski, H.A., de Silimon, K. & Lopes, B.S. (2007) Peixes do Pantanal. Manual de identificação. Embrapa, Brasília, 230 p.

Britto, M.R. & Castro, R.M.C. (2002) New corydoradine catfish (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from the Upper Paraná and São Francisco: the sister group of Brochis and most of Corydoras species. Copeia, 2002 (4), 1006–1015.

Buckup, P.A. (1993) Phylogenetic interrelationships and reductive evolution in Neotropical characidiin fishes (Characiformes, Ostariophysi). Cladistics, 9, 305–341.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1993.tb00227.x

Buckup. P.A. (1998) Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). In: Malabarba, L.R., Reis, R.E., Vari, R.P., Lucena, Z.M.S. & Lucena, C.A.S. (Eds.), Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical freshwater fishes. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, pp. 123–144.

Bussing, W.A. (1993) Fish communities and environmental characteristics of a tropical rain forest river in Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 41(3), 791–809.

Bussing, W.A. (1998) Freshwater fishes of Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 46(suppl. 2), 1–468.

Cala, P. (1977) Los peces de la Orinoquia colombiana. Lozania, 24, 1–21.

Cala, P. (1986) Nuevos registros de peces para la Orinoquia colombiana. I. Los Rajiformes, Cluppeiformes, Characiformes, y Gynotiformes. Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnología, 4 (1–2), 89–99.

Calcagnotto, D., Schaefer, S.A. & de Salle, R. (2005) Relationships among characiform fishes inferred from analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 36, 135–153.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.004

Camargo, M. & Giarrizzo, T. (2009) Parâmetros biológicos. In: Camargo, M. & Ghilardi Jr., R. (Eds.), Entre a terra, as águas e os pescadores do médio rio Xinguuma abordagem ecológica. Belém, pp. 215–231.

Campana, S.E. (2001) Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validations methods. Journal of Fish Biology, 59, 197–242.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2001.tb00127.x

Caramaschi, E.P., Mazzoni, R. & Iglesias-Rios, R. (2012) Caracterização e dinâmica da área e métodos de amostragem. In: Mazzoni, R., Caramaschi, E.P. & Iglesias-Rios, R. (Eds.), Usina hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa: 15 anos de estudos da ictiofauna do alto Tocantins. Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, pp. 17–52.

Casciotta, J., Almirón, A. & Bechara, J. (2005) Peces del Iberáhabitat y diversidad. UNDP/Fundación Ecos/U.N.L.P./U.N.N.E., La Plata, 244 pp.

Casselman, J.M. (1990) Growth and relative size of calcified structures of fish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 119, 673–688.

Castelnau, F. L. (1855) Animaux nouveaux or rares recueillis pendant l'expédition dans les parties centrales de l'Amérique du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro a Lima, et de Lima au Para; exécutée par ordre du gouvernement Français pendant les années 1843 a 1847. Poissons. Bertrand Editéur, Paris, i–xii + 1–112, Pls. 1–50.

Castro, R.M.C. & Vari, R.P. (1990) Moojenichthys Miranda-Ribeiro (Pisces: Ostariophysi: Characidae), a phylogenetic reappraisal and redescription. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103 (3), 525–542.

Castro, R.M.C. & Vari, R.P. (2004) Detritivores of the South American fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes): a phylogenetic and revisionary study. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 622, 1–189.

Castro, R.M.C., Vari, R.P., Vieira, F. & Oliveira, C. (2004) Phylogenetic analysis and redescription of the genus Henochilus (Characiformes: Characidae). Copeia, 2004 (3), 496–506.

Chang, F. (1998) Fishes of the Tambopata-Candamo reserved zone, southeastern Peru. Revista Peruana de Biologia, 5(1), 17–27.

Chirichigno, N. (1963) Estudio de la fauna ictiológica de los esteros y parte baja de los rios del Departamento de Tumbes [Perú]. Servicio de Pesqueria, Serie de Divulgacion Cientifica, Ministerio de Agricultura, Peru, 22, 1–87.

Cione, A.L., Dahdul, W.M., Lundberg, J.G. & Machado-Allison, A. (2009) Megapiranha paranensis, a new genus and species of Serrasalmidae (Characiformes, Teleostei) from the upper Miocene of Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Zoology, 29(2), 350–358.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1671/039.029.0221

Cockerell, T.D.A. (1915) The scales of the South American characinid fishes. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 9, 92–113, pls. 23–28.

Cope, E.D. (1870) Contribution to the ichthyology of the Marañon. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 11, 559–570.

Cope, E. D. (1872) On the fishes of the Ambyiacu River. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 23, 250–294, pls. 3–16.

Correa, S.B. & Winemiller, K.O. (2014) Niche partioning among frugivorous fishes in response to flutuacting resources in the Amazonian floodplain forest. Ecology, 95 (1), 210–224.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-0393.1

Costi, C.G., Rodrigues, C.C.B., Filho, D.L.P. & Rodrigues, J.B.R. (1977) Estudo preliminar da ictiofauna do pólo Araguaia-Tocantins. Superintendência do Desenvolvimento da Pesca, Brasília, 171 pp.

Crampton, W.G.R. (1999) Os peixes da Reserva Mamirauá: diversidade e história natural na planície alagável da Amazônia. In: Queiroz, H.L. & Crampton, W.G.R. (Eds.), Estratégias para manejo de recursos pesqueiros em Mamirauá. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá, MCT-CNPq, Brasília, pp. 10–36.

Cuvier, G. (1819) Sur les poissons dus sous-genre Hydrocyon, sur deux nouvelles espèces de Chalceus, sur trois nouvelles espèces du Serrasalmes, et sur l’Argentina glossodonta de Forskahl, qui est l’Albula gonorhynchus de Bloch. Mémoires de Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 5, 351–379, pls. 26–28.

Cuvier, G. & Valenciennes, A. (1850) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome vingt-deucième. P. Bertrand éditeur, Paris, i–xx, 1–532 + 1–91, pls. 634–650.

Dahl, G. (1971) Los peces del norte de Colombia. Inderena, Bogotá, 371 pp.

de Queiroz, K. (2005) A unified concept of species and its consequences for the future of taxonomy. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 56, suppl.1 (18), 196–215.

Devincenzi, G.J. (1924) Peces del Uruguay. Anales del Museo National de Historia Natural de Montevideo, 2 (1), 97–293, pls. 14–23.

Devincenzi, G.J. & Teague, G. (1942) Ictiofauna del Río Uruguay medio. Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo, 2(4), 1–103, 5 pls.

Diaz-Sarmiento, J.A. & Alvarez-León, R. (2003) Migratory fishes of the Colombian Amazon. . In: Carosfeld, J., Harvey, B., Ross, C. & Baer, A. (Eds.), Migratory fishes of South America: biology, fisheries and conservation status. World Fisheries Trust, World Bank, Ottawa, pp. 333–344.

Dick, M. (1977) Stations of the Thayer expedition to Brazil, 1865–1866. Breviora, 444, 1–37.

Dumont-Neto, R., Pelli, A., Freitas, J.L., Costa, C.L., Freitas, A.E. & Barbosa, N.C. (1997) Reprodução induzida da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes 1903[sic]) durante a primeira maturação sexual, cultivada em cativeiro na Estação de pesquisa e desenvolvimento ambiental de Volta Grande—Cemig. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 24, 105–107.

Eigenmann, C.H. (1903) New genera of South American fresh-water fishes, and new names for some old genera. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 45, 144–148.

Eigenmann, C.H. (1910) Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America. Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 18961899, volume III, 2 (4), 375–511.

Eigenmann, C.H. (1912) The freshwater fishes of British Guiana, including a study of the ecological grouping of species, and the relation of the fauna of the plateau to that of the lowlands. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, 5 (1), i–xxii + 1–578, pls. 1–103.

Eigenmann, C.H. (1921) The American Characidae [Part 3]. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 43(3), 209–310, pls. 30–32, 40–55, 61–62, 64, 66, 69, 85, 87, 89, 92.

Eigenmann, C.H. (1922) The fishes of western South America, Part I. The fresh-water fishes of northwestern South America, including Colombia, Panama, and the Pacific slopes of Ecuador and Peru, together with an appendix upon the fishes of the Rio Meta in Colombia. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, 9(1), 1–346, pls. 1–38.

Eigenmann, C.H. & Allen, W.R. (1942) Fishes of western South America. I. The intercordilleran and Amazonian lowlands of Peru. II. The high pampas of Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile. With a revision of the Peruvian Gymnotidae, and of the genus Orestias. University of Kentucky Press, i–xv + 1–494, pls. 1–22.

Eigenmann, C.H. & Kennedy, C.H. (1903) On a collection of fishes from Paraguay, with a synopsis of the american genera of cichlids. Proceedings of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 55, 497–537.

Eigenmann, C.H. & Norris, A.A. (1900) Sobre alguns peixes de S. Paulo, Brasil. Revista do Museu Paulista, 4, 349–362.

Eigenmann, C.H. & Ogle, F. (1907) An annotated list of characin fishes in the United States National Museum and the Museum of Indiana University, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 33, 1–36.

Eschmeyer, W.N. (org.). (1998) Catalog of Fishes. Califórnia Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 2905 pp.

Faustino, F., Makino, L.C., Neumann, E. & Nakaghi, L.S.O. (2015) Morphological and morphometric aspects of early life stages of piabanha Brycon gouldingi (Characidae). Journal of Fish Biology, 86, 1491–1506.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12652

Fernández, J.M., Provenzano, F.R. & Lasso, C.A. (2006) Catálogo ilustrado de los peces de la cuenca del Río Cataniapo. Publicación Especial n°19, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas, Maracay, 272 pp.

Ferraz de Lima, J.A. (1987) A pesca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso (rio Cuiabá: importância dos peixes migradores). Acta Amazonica, 16/17 (número único), 87–94.

Ferreira, E.J.G. (1993) Composição, distribuição e aspectos ecológicos da ictiofauna de um trecho do rio Trombetas, na área de influência da futura UHE Cachoeira Porteira, estado do Pará, Brasil. Acta Amazonica, 23 (suplemento), 1–89.

Ferreira, E.J.G., Zuanon, J., Forsberg, B., Goulding, M. & Briglia-Ferreira, R. (2007) Rio Branco: peixes, ecologia e conservação de Roraima. Amazon Conservation Association (ACA)/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA)/Sociedade Civil Mamirauá, 201 pp.

Ferreira, E.J.G., Zuanon, J.A.S. & Santos, G.M. (1998) Peixes comerciais do médio Amazonas: região de Santarém, Pará. Edições IBAMA, Brasília, 211 p.

Fichberg, I., Oyakawa, O.T. & de Pinna, M.C.C. (2014) The end of an almost 70-year wait: a new species of Spatuloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins. Copeia, 2014 (2), 317–324.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CI-13-103

Fink, W.L. & Weitzman, S.H. (1974) The So-called Cheirodontin fishes of Central America with descriptions of two new species (Pisces: Characidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 172, 1–46.

Fowler, H.W. (1907) Further knowledge of some heterognathous fishes. Part II. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 58, 431–483.

Fowler, H.W. (1914) Fishes from the Rupununi River, British Guiana. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 66(2), 229–284.

Fowler, H.W. (1932) Zoological results of the Matto Grosso Expedition to Brazil in 1931. I. Fresh water fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 84, 343–377.

Fowler, H.W. (1939) A collection of fishes obtained by Mr. William C. Morrow in the Ucayali river basin, Peru. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 91, 219–289.

Fowler, H.W. (1941) A collection of fresh-water fishes obtained in eastern Brazil by Dr. Rodolpho von Ihering. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 93, 123–199

Fowler, H.W. (1943) Two new characins from eastern Ecuador. Notulae Naturae, 119, 1–5.

Fowler, H.W. (1950) Os peixes de água doce do Brasil (2° entrega). Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo, 6(1), 205–404.

Galvis, G., Mojica, J.I., Duque, S.R., Castellanos, C., Sánchez-Duarte, P., Arce, M., Gutiérrez, A., Jiménez, L.F., Santos, M., Vejarano, S., Arbeláez, F., Prieto, E. & Leiva, M. (2006) Peces del medio Amazonas. Región de Leticia. Conservación Internacional, serie de guías tropicales de campo, Bogotá, 546 pp.

Ganeco, L.N. & Nakaghi, L.S.O. (2003) Morfologia da micrópila e da superfície dos ovócitos de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus (Osteichthyes, Characidae), sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Acta Scienciarum, 25 (1), 227–231.

Ganeco, L.N., Nakaghi, L.S.O., Urninati, E.C., Dumont Neto, R. & Vasques, L.H. (2001) Análise morfológica do desenvolvimento ovocitário de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, durante o ciclo reprodutivo. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, São Paulo, 27 (2), 131–138.

Garman, S. (1890) On a genus and species of the characines (Henochilus wheatlandii, gen. n. et sp.n.). Bulletin Essex Institut, 22, 49–52.

Géry, J. (1962) Essai sur les affinités phylogénétiques des Agoniates et l’origine des Characidae, à propos de la description d’une forme nouvelle de l’Amazone péruvienne: Agoniates ladigesi. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 60, 265–284.

Géry, J. (1964) Poissons characoides nouveaux ou non signalés de l´Ilha do Bananal, Brésil. Vie et Milieu, Suppl. 17, 447–476, pls. 1–4.

Géry, J. (1972a) Poissons characoides des Guyanes. I. Generalités. II. Famille des Serrasalmidae. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 122, 250 pp. + 16 pls.

Géry, J. (1972b) Contribution à l’étude des poissons characoides de l’Équateur. Acta Humboldtiana, series Geologica, Palaeontologica et Biologica, 2, 1–110, 8 pls.

Géry, J. (1977) Characoids of the world. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, 672 pp.

Géry, J. & Mahnert, V. (1984) Poissons characoides (Ostariophysi) récoltés par Cl. Vaucher en Amazonie péruvienne. Archives de Sciences, Genève, 37 (2), 171–180.

Géry, J. & Mahnert, V. (1992) Notes sur quelques Brycon des bassins de l'Amazone, du Parana-Paraguay et du Sud-Est brésilien (Pisces, Characiformes, Characidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 99 (4), 793–819.

Géry, J. & de Rham, P. (1981) Un nouveau poisson characidé endémique du bassin du Rio Tumbès au nord du Pérou, Chilobrycon deuterodon n.g.n.sp. (Characoidei). Revue Française de Aquariologie, 8 (1), 7–12.

Godinho, A.L., Brito, M.F.G. & Godinho, H.P. (2003) Pesca nas corredeiras de Buritizeiro: da ilegalidade à gestão participativa. In: Godinho, H.P. & Godinho, A.L. (Orgs.), Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais. Editora PUCMinas, Belo Horizonte, pp. 347–360.

Godinho, A.L., Fonseca, M.T. & Araújo, L.M. (1994) The ecology of predator fish introductions: the case of rio Doce valley lakes. In: Pinto-Coelho, R.M., Giani, A. & von Sperling, E. (Eds.), Ecology and human impact on lakes and reservoirs in Minas Gerais with special reference to future development and management strategies. Segrac, pp. 77–83

Godinho, A.L. & Formagio, P.S. (1992) Efeitos da introdução de Cichla ocellaris e Pygocentrus sp. sobre a comunidade de peixes da lagoa Dom Helvécio, MG. In: Godinho, H.P. & Barbosa, P.M. (Eds.), Encontro Anual de Aqüicultura de Minas Gerais. Associação Mineira de Aqüicultura, Belo Horizonte, pp. 93–102.

Godinho, A.L. & Pompeu, P.S. (2003) A importância dos ribeirões para os peixes de piracema. In: Godinho, H.P. & Godinho, A.L. (Orgs.), Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais. Editora PUCMinas, Belo Horizonte, pp. 361–372.

Godinho, H.P., Godinho, A.L. & Vono, V. (1999) Peixes da bacia do rio Jequitinhonha. In: R.H. Lowe-McConnell, Estudos ecológicos de comunidades de peixes tropicais. EDUSP, São Paulo, pp. 414–423.

Godoy, M.P. (1975) Peixes do Brasil. Subordem Characoidei. Bacia do Rio Mogi Guassu. Ed. Franciscana, Piracicaba, vol.II, vi +217–398.

Godoy, M.P. (1986) Peixes e pesca do rio Paraná: área do futuro reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica de Ilha Grande. ELETROSUL, Florianópolis, 148 p.

Goeldi, E.A. (1898) Primeira contribuição para o conhecimento dos Peixes do valle do Amazonas e das Guyanas. Boletim do Museu Paraense, 2, 443–488, 1 pl.

Gonçalves, T.L., Bazzoli, N. & Brito, M.F.G. (2006) Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco River.

Gomes, A.P.P., Gontijo, P.B., Santos, T.R.M., Fragoso-Moura, E.N., Maia-Barbosa, P.M. & Barbosa, F.A.R. (2007) Efeitos de duas décadas de peixes exóticos na Lagoa Carioca, Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, MG. Anais do VIII Congresso de Ecologia do Brasil, 23 a 28 de Setembro de 2007, CaxambuMG, 1–2.

Gomiero, L.M. & Braga, F.M.S. (2007a) Reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, São Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 67 (3), 541–549.

Gomiero, L.M. & Braga, F.M.S. (2007b) Gonadossomatic relation and reproductive strategy of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819) in the Serra do Mar State Park—Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 67 (4), 727–733.

Gomiero, L.M., Briani, D.C. & Giasson, L.O.M. (2006) Vertebrados consumidos por Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characidae) em rios do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, SP. Biota Neotropica, 6 (3), 1–5.

Gomiero, L.M., Carmassi, A.L. & Braga, F.M.S. (2007) Crescimento e mortalidade de Brycon opalinus (Characiformes, Characidae) no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Mata Atlântica, estado de São Paulo. Biota Neotropica, 7 (1), 21–26.

Gomiero, L.M., Manzatto, A.G. & Braga, F.M.S. (2008) The role of riverine forests for food supply for the omnivorous fish Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819 (Characidae) in the Serra do Mar, southeast Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 68 (2), 321–328.

Gottsberger, G. (1978) Seed dispersal by fish in the inundated regions of Humaitá, Amazonia. Biotropica, 10 (3), 170–183.

Goulding, M. (1979) Ecologia da pesca do rio Madeira. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, 172 pp.

Goulding, M. (1980) The fishes and the forest. Explorations in amazonian natural history. University of California Press, Berkeley, 280 pp.

Goulding, M., Cañas, C., Barthem, R., Forsberg, B. & Ortega, H. (2003) Amazon headwaters: rivers, wildlife, and conservation in southeastern Peru. Asociación para la Conservación de la Cuenca Amazónica (ACCA)/Amazon Conservation Association, Lima, 198 pp.

Goulding, M., Carvalho, M.L. & Ferreira, E.F.G. (1988) Rio Negro, rich life in poor water. Amazonian diversity and foodchain ecology as seen through fish communities. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, 200 pp.

Graça, W.J. & Pavanelli, C.S. (2007) Peixes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná e áreas adjacentes. Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 241 pp.

Günther, A. (1860a) Third list of cold-blooded vertebrata collected by Mr. Fraser in Ecuador. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1860 (2), 233–240, pl. 10.

Günther, A. (1860b) Second list of cold blooded vertebrata collected by Mr. Fraser in the Andes of western Ecuador. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1859 (3), 402–420.

Günther, A. (1861) Account of the reptiles sent by Dr. Wucherer from Bahia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1861, 12–18.

Günther, A. (1863) Addition to Dr. Wucherer’s article on the ophidians of Bahia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1863, 56–58.

Günther, A. (1864) Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Siluridae, Characinidae, Haplochitonidae, Sternoptychidae, Scopelidae, Stomiatidae in the collection of the British Museum. London, i–xxii + 1–455.

Günther, A. (1868) Descriptions of freshwater fishes from Surinam and Brazil. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1868 (2), 229–247, pls. 20–22.

Günther, A. (1869) Descriptions of some species of fishes from the Peruvian Amazons. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1869 (2), 423–429.

Günther, A. (1880) A contribution to the knowledge of the fish-fauna of the Rio de la Plata. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 5 (6), 7–13.

Hahn, N.S., Andrian, I.F., Fugi, R. & Almeida, V.L.L. (1997) Ecologia trófica. In: Vazzoler, A.E.A.M., Agostinho, A.A. & Hahn, N.S. (Eds.), A planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: aspectos físicos, biológicos e socioeconômicos. Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, pp. 209–228.

Hardman, M., Page, L.M., Sabaj, M.H., Armbruster, J.W. & Knouft, J.H. (2002) A comparison of fish surveys made in 1908 and 1998 of the Potaro, Essequibo, Demerara, and coastal river drainages of Guyana. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 13 (3), 225–238.

Herzig-Straschil, B. (1997) Franz Steindachner (1834–1919) and other prime contributors to the ichthyological collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien. In: Pietsch, T.W. & Anderson, Jr., W.D. (Eds.), Collection building in ichthyology and herpetology. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication Number 3, pp. 101–108.

Higuchi, H. (1996) An updated list of ichthyological collecting stations of the Thayer Expedition to Brazil (1865–1866). Available from: http://www.mcz.harvard.edu/Departments/Ichthyology/docs/Higuchi_1996_Thayer_Formated_prelim.pdf (Accessed 20 Jan. 2017)

Hildebrand, S.F. (1938) A new catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Panama. Field Museum of Natural History Publications on Zoology Series, 22 (4), 219–359.

Hilsdorf, A.W.S., Azeredo-Espin, A.M.L., Krieger, M.H. & Krieger, J.E. (2002) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in wild and cultured populations of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819) (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae) from the Paraíba do Sul Basin, Brazil. Aquaculture, 214, 81–91.

Hilsdorf, A.W.S., Lima, F.C.T. & Matsumoto, C.K. (2008) Brycon insignis Steindachner (1877). In: Machado, A.B.M., Drummond, G.M. & Paglia, A.P. (Eds.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Fundação Biodiversitas, Brasília, pp. 48–50.

Hilsdorf, A.W.S., Lima, F.C.T. & Vieira, F. (2008) Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819). In: Machado, A.B.M., Drummond, G.M. & Paglia, A.P. (Eds.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Fundação Biodiversitas, Brasília, pp. 52–54.

Hilsdorf, A.W.S., Oliveira, C., Lima, F.C.T. & Matsumoto, C.K. (2008) A phylogenetic analysis of Brycon and Henochilus (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae) based on the mitochondrial gene 16S rRNA. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 31(1, suppl.), 366–371.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572008000200034

Hoeinghaus, D.J., Layman, C.A., Arrington, D.A. & Winemiller, K.O. (2003) Spatiotemporal variation in fish assemblage structure in tropical floodplain creeks. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 67, 379–387.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025818721158

Hoeinghaus, D.J., Winemiller, K.O. & Taphorn, D.C. (2004) Compositional change in fish assemblages along the Andean piedmont-Llanos floodplains gradient of the río Portuguesa, Venezuela. Neotropical Ichthyology, 2(2), 85–92.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252004000200005

Holly, M. (1929) Eine noch nicht beschriebene Characiniden-Species aus Brasilien. Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Wien, 66, 208–209.

Horn, M.H. (1997) Evidence for dispersal of fig seeds by the fruit-eating characid fish Brycon guatemalensis Regan in a Costa Rican tropical rain forest. Oecologia, 109, 259–264.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004420050081

Howes, G. J. (1982) Review of the genus Brycon (Teleostei: Characoidei). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 43(1), 1–47.

Huber, O. (1995) History of botanical exploration. In: Berry, P.E., Holst, B.K. & Yatskievych, K. (Eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Volume 1. Introduction. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp. 63–95.

Iglesias-Rios, R. (2012) Estrutura das comunidades de peixes, antes e depois do represamento. In: Mazzoni, R., Caramaschi, E.P. & Iglesias-Rios, R. (Eds.), Usina hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa: 15 anos de estudos da ictiofauna do alto Tocantins. Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, pp. 287–337.

Ihering, R. (1929) Da vida dos peixes. Melhoramentos, São Paulo, 149 pp.

International Comission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.

Javonillo, R., Malabarba, L.R., Weitzman, S.H. & Burns, J.R. (2010) Relationships among major lineages of characid fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes), based on molecular sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54, 498–511.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.026

Jégu, M., Keith, P. & Le Bail, P.-Y. (2003) Myloplus planquettei sp.n. (Teleostei, Characidae), une nouvelle espèce de grand Serrasalminae phytophage du bouclier guyanais. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 110(4), 833–843.

Jégu, M., Hubert, N. & Belmont-Jégu, E. (2004) Réhabilitation de Myloplus asterias (Müller & Troschel, 1844), espèce-type de Myloplus Gill, 1896 et validation du genre Myloplus Gill (Characidae: Serrasalminae). Cybium, 28 (2), 119–157.

Jégu, M. & Santos, G.M. (1988) Une nouvelle espèce du genre Mylesinus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae), M. paucisquamatus, décrite du bassin du rio Tocantins (Amazonie, Brésil). Cybium, 12 (4), 331–341.

Jégu, M. & Santos, G.M. (2002) Révision du statut de Myleus setiger Müller & Troschel, 1844 et de Myleus knerii (Steindachner, 1881) (Teleostei: Characidae: Serrasalminae) avec une description complémentaire des deux espèces. Cybium, 26 (1), 33–57.

Jégu, M., Santos, G.M. & Belmont-Jégu, E. (2002) Tometes makue n.sp. (Characidae: Serrasalminae), une nouvelle espèce du bouclier guyanaise décrite des bassins du rio Negro (Brésil) et de l’Orénoque (Venezuela). Cybium, 26 (4), 253–274.

Jégu, M., Santos, G.M., Keith, P. & Le Bail, P.-Y. (2002) Description complémentaire et réhabilitation de Tometes trilobatus Valenciennes, 1850, espèce-type de Tometes Valenciennes (Characidae: Serrasalminae). Cybium, 26 (2), 99–122.

Jégu, M., Tito de Morais, L. & Santos, G.M. (1992) Redescription des types d’Utiaritichthys sennaebragai Miranda Ribeiro, 1937 et description d’une nouvelle espèce du bassin Amazonien, U. longidorsalis (Characiformes, Serrasalminae). Cybium, 16(2), 105–120.

Jorge, J. (2006) Tietê, o rio que a cidade perdeu. São Paulo, 18901940. Alameda Casa Editorial, São Paulo, 232 pp.

Joron, M., Wynne, I.R., Lamas, G. & Mallet, J. (1999) Variable selection and the coexistence of multiple forms of the butterfly Heliconius numata. Evolutionary Ecology, 13, 721–754.

Junk, W.J., Soares, G.M. & Carvalho, F.M. (1983) Distribution of fishes in a lake of the Amazon floodplain near Manaus (Lago Camaleão), with special reference to extreme oxygen conditions. Amazoniana, 7(4), 397–431.

Kner, R. (1860) Zur Familie der Characinen. III Folge. Der Ichthyologischen Beiträge. Denkschriften der Östereichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 18, 9–62, pls. 1–8.

Kner, R. (1863) Eine Uebersicht der ichthyologischen Ausbeute des Herrn Professors Dr. Mor. Wagner in Central-Amerika. Sitzungsberichte Koninglich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenchaften, München, 2, 220–230.

Kner, R. & Steindachner, F. (1864) Neue Gattungen und Arten von Fischen aus Central-Amerika; gesammelt von Prof. Moritz Wagner. Abhandlungen der Koninglich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenchaften, München, 10, 1–61, pls. 1–6.

Knöpppel, H.A. (1970) Food of Central Amazonian fishes. Contribution to the nutrient-ecology of Amazonian rain-forest-streams. Amazoniana, 2 (3), 257–352.

Koerber, S. (2009) List of freshwater fishes from Argentina—update 11. Available from: http://www.pecescriollos.de/go/literature (Accessed 20 Jan. 2017)

Kottelat, M. (1988) Authorship, dates of publication, status and types of Spix and Agassiz´s Brazilian fishes. Spixiana, 11 (1), 69–93.

Kramer, D.L. (1978) Terrestrial group spawning of Brycon petrosus (Pisces: Characidae) in Panama. Copeia, 1978 (3), 536–537.

Kullander, S.O. & Lucena, C.A.S. (2006) A review of the species of Crenicichla (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Atlantic coastal rivers of southeastern Brazil from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul States, with descriptions of three new species. Neotropical Ichthyology, 4 (2), 127–146.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252006000200001

Lahille, F. (1895) Lista de los pescados recogidos en los alrededores de La Plata (Provincia de Buenos Aires) durante el año 1894 y conservados en las colecciones del Museo de La Plata. Revista del Museo de La Plata, 6, 267–276.

La Monte, F.R. (1935) Fishes from rio Jurua and rio Purus, brazilian Amazonas. American Museum Novitates, 784, 1–8.

Lasso, C.A. (1988) Inventario de la ictiofauna de nueve lagunas de inundacion del bajo Orinoco, Venezuela. Parte I. Batoidei-Clupeomorpha-Ostariophysi (Characiformes). Memoria, Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, 48 (130), 121–141.

Lasso, C.A. (1990) Los peces de La Gran Sabana, Alto Caroní, Venezuela. Memoria, Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, 49–50 (131–134), 209–285.

Lasso, C.A. (1992) Composicion y aspectos ecologicos de la ictiofauna del bajo rio Suapure, Serrania de los Pijiguaos (Escudo de Guayana), Venezuela. Memoria, Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, 52 (138), 5–56.

Lasso, C.A. (2005) Los peces de la Estación Biológica El Frío y Caño Guaritico (Estado Apure), Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela. Publicaciones del Comité Español del Programa Hombre y Biosfera—Red IberoMaB, Unesco, Madrid, 454 pp.

Lasso, C.A., Machado-Allison, A. & Hérnandez, R.P. (1990) Consideraciones zoogeograficas de los peces de La Gran Sabana (Alto Caroní) Venezuela, y sus relaciones com las cuencas vecinas. Memoria, Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, 49–50 (131–134), 109–129.

Lasso, C.A., Rial, A. & Lasso-Alcalá, O.M. (1999) Composicion y variabilidad espacio-temporal de las comunidades de peces en ambientes inundables de los Llanos de Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 19(2), 1–28.

Layman, C.A., Winemiller, K.O., Arrington, D.A. & Jepsen, D.B. (2005) Body size and trophic position in a diverse tropical food web. Ecology, 86 (9), 2530–2535.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/04-1098

Leite, R.G. (2004) A alimentação de juvenis de matrinchãs, Brycon amazonicum (Pisces, Characidae), em áreas inundadas da Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas, Brasil. Acta Amazonica, 34(4), 661–664.

Ligon, F.K., Dietrich, W.E. & Trush, W.J. (1995) Downstream ecological effects of dams. BioScience, 45 (3), 183–192.

Lilyestrom, C. & Taphorn, D.C. (1983) Aspectos sobre la biologia y conservacion de la palambra (Brycon whitei) Myers y Weitzman, 1960. Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 1(1), 53–59.

Lima, A.C. & Araújo-Lima, C.A.R.M. (2004) The distributions of larval and juvenile fishes in Amazonian rivers of different nutrient status. Freshwater Biology, 49, 787–800.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01228.x

Lima, F.C.T. (2003) Subfamily Bryconinae. In: Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O. & Ferraris, C.J. Jr. (Eds.), Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, pp. 174–181.

Lima, F.C.T. (2004) Brycon gouldingi, a new species from the rio Tocantins drainage, Brazil (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae), with a key for the species in the basin. Ichthyiological Exploration of Freshwaters, 15 (3), 279–287.

Lima, F.C.T., Albrecht, M.P., Pavanelli, C.S. & Vono, V. (2008a) Threatened fishes of the world: Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 83, 207–208.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-007-9319-1

Lima, F.C.T., Albrecht, M.P., Pavanelli, C.S., Vono, V. & Shibatta, O.A. (2008b) Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864. In: Machado, A.B.M., Drummond, G.M. & Paglia, A.P. (Eds.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Fundação Biodiversitas, Brasília, pp. 50–52.

Lima, F.C.T. & Castro, R.M.C. (2000) Brycon vermelha, a new species of characid fish from the Rio Mucuri, a coastal river of eastern Brazil (Ostariophysi: Characiformes). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 11 (2), 55–62.

Lima, F.C.T., Pires, T.H.S., Ohara, W.M., Jerep, F.C., Carvalho, F.R., Marinho , M.M.F.& Zuanon, J. A.S. (2013) Characidae. In: de Queiroz, L. J., Torrente-Vilara, G., Ohara, W.M., Pires, T.H.S., Zuanon, J.A.S. & Dória, C. (Orgs.), Peixes do rio Madeira, volume I, a ictiofauna do rio Madeira. Dialeto Latin American Documentary, São Paulo, pp. 213–395.

Lima, F.C.T., Ramos, L., Barreto, T., Cabalzar, A., Tenório, G., Barbosa, A., Tenório, F., Resende, A.S., Lopes, M.C. (2005) Peixes do alto Tiquié: ictiologia e conhecimento dos tuyuka e dos tukano. In: Cabalzar, A. (Org.), Peixe e gente no alto rio Tiquié. Conhecimentos tukano e tuyuka. Ictiologia, etnologia. Instituto Sociambiental, São Paulo, pp. 111–282.

Lima, F.C.T. & Ribeiro, A.C. (2011) Continental-scale tectonic controls of biogeography and ecology. In: Albert, J.S. & Reis, R.E. (Eds.), Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 145–164.

Liotta, J. (2005) Distribución geográfica de los peces de agues continentals de la Republica Argentina. ProBiota, serie documentos, 3, 701 pp.

Lopera, N., Ribeiro, R., Sirol, R., Povh, J., Gomes, P., Streit, D. Jr. & Vargas, L. (2008) Caracterización genética de lotes de Brycon orbignyanus utilizados en programas de repoblamiento. Rev.MVZ Córdoba, 13 (1), 1110–1119

López, H.L., Miquelarena, A.M. & Menni, R.C. (2003) Lista comentada de los peces continentales de la Argentina. Probiota, série técnica y didáctica, 5, 1–87.

López, H.L., Nadalin, D.O. & Ponte Gómez, J. (2009a) Peces continentales de la Argentina: Iconografia. Brycon orbignyanus. Probiota, série técnica y didáctica, 12, 1–31.

López, H.L., Nadalin, D.O. & Ponte Gómez, J. (2009b) Peces continentales de la Argentina: Bibliografia. Brycon orbignyanus. Probiota, série técnica y didáctica, 13, 1–9.

Lowe-McConnell, R.H. (1964) The fishes of the Rupununi savanna district of British Guiana, Pt. 1. Groupings of fish species and effects of seasonal cycles on the fish. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology), 45, 103–144.

Lowe-McConnell, R.H. (1991) Natural history of fishes in Araguaia and Xingu Amazonian tributaries, Serra do Roncador, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Ichthyiological Exploration of Freshwaters, 2(1), 63–82.

Lundberg, J.G., Marshall, L.G., Guerrero, J., Horton, B., Malabarba, M.C.S.L. & Wesselingh, F. (1998) The stage for neotropical fish diversification: a history of tropical South American rivers. In: Malabarba, L.R., Reis, R.E., Vari, R.P., Lucena, Z.M. & Lucena, C.A.S. (Eds.), Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes. Edipucrs Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, pp. 13–68.

Lütken, C.F. (1875a) Characinae novae Brasiliae centralis a clarissimo J. Reinhardt in província Minas-Geraes circa oppidulum Lagoa Santa in lacu ejusdem nominis, flumine Rio das Velhas et rivulis affluentibus collectae, secundum caracteres essentiales breviter descriptae. Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn), 1874 (3), 127–143.

Lütken, C.F. (1875b) Velhas-Flodens Fiske. Et Bidrag til Brasiliens Ichthyologi: efter Professor J. Reinhardts Indsamlinger og Optegnelser. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk Afdeling, 5 12 (2): 121–253, + I–XXI, pls. 1–5.

Lütken, C.F. (2001) Peixes do rio das Velhas: uma contribuição para a ictiologia do Brasil, de acordo com as coleções e descrições do Professor Johannes Theodor Reinhardt. In: Alves, C.B.M. & Pompeu, P.S. (Orgs.), Peixes do rio das Velhas: passado e presente. SEGRAC, Belo Horizonte, pp. 23–164.

Luz-Agostinho K.D.G., Bini, L.M., Fugi, R., Agostinho, A.A. & Júlio Jr., H.F. (2006) Food spectrum and trophic structure of the ichthyofauna of Corumbá reservoir, Paraná river Basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthylogy, 4(1), 61–68.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252006000100005

Machado, A.B.M., Fonseca, G.A.B., Machado, R.B., Aguiar, L.M.S. & Lins, L.V. (1998) Livro vermelho das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da fauna de Minas Gerais. Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, 608 pp.

Machado, C.E.M. & Abreu, H.C.F. (1952) Notas preliminares sobre a caça e a pesca no estado de São Paulo—I. A pesca no vale do Paraíba. Boletim de Indústria Animal, 13, 145–160.

Machado-Allison, A. (1983) Estudios sobre la sistematica de la subfamilia Serrasalminae (Teleostei, Characidae). Parte II. Discusion sobre la condicion monofiletica de la subfamilia. Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 11 (4), 145–195.

Machado-Allison, A. (1985) Estudios sobre la subfamília Serrasalminae. Parte III: sobre el estatus genérico y relaciones filogenéticas de los géneros Pygopristis, Pygocentrus, Pristobrycon y Serrasalmus. Acta Biologica Venezuelica,12(1), 19–42.

Machado-Allison, A. (1986) Osteología comparada del neurocrâneo y branquicráneo en los géneros de la subfamilia Serrasalminae (Teleostei—Characidae). Acta Biologica Venezuelica Suplemento, 12 (2), 1–75.

Machado-Allison, A., Buckup, P.A., Chernoff, B. & Royero., R. (1993) Las especies del genero Bryconops Kner en Venezuela (Teleostei, Characiformes). Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 14 (3), 1–20.

Machado-Allison, A., Chernoff, B., Silvera, C., Bonilla, A., López-Rojas, H., Lasso, C.A., Provenzano, F., Marcano, C. & Machado-Aranda, D. (1999) Inventario de los peces de la cuenca del rio Caura, estado Bolivar, Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 19 (4), 61–72.

Machado-Allison, A, Lasso, C. & Royero, R. (1993) Inventario preliminar y aspectos ecologicos de los peces de los rios rios Aguaro y Guariquito (Parque Nacional), Estado Guarico, Venezuela. Memoria, Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, 53 (139), 55–81.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4222.1.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand