Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Redescription and Range Extension of Microhyla sholigari Dutta & Ray (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from South West India 



Microhyla sholigari is an endangered frog described in the year 2000. The original description was based on non-adult types and lacked information on several morphological characters, call structure, genetic material and photographs of the animal in life. The absence of such information posed challenges in field identification of this species. Since the original description, there is one other reported sighting of this species from Kerala in 2001. We encountered specimens that we confer to this species based on morphological similarity to the subadult holotype, from several new localities within and outside the Western Ghats of Karnataka. We here redescribe the species based on additional adult vouchers, provide molecular data, describe the advertisement call and report a range extension. Based on its current distribution, we assess the threat status of the species and suggest listing it as Least Concern according to IUCN Red List criteria. Our paper bridges an important gap in the knowledge of the genus Microhyla in India and highlights the importance of systematic surveys in documenting and understanding amphibian diversity in the region.



Amphibia, IUCN Red List; range extension; Western Ghats, acoustics; morphology, integrative taxonomy

Full Text:



Beaupre, S.J., Jacobson, E.R., Lillywhite, H.B. & Zamudio, K.R. (2004) Guidelines for use of live Amphibians and Reptiles in Field and Laboratory Research. Available from: (accessed 5 March 2016)

Biju, S.D. (2001) A synopsis of frog fauna of the Western Ghats. Indian Society for Conservation Biology, Occasional Publication, Thiruvananthapuram, 24 pp.

Biju, S.D., Dutta, S.K., Bhuddhe, G.D., Vasudevan, K. & Srinivasulu, C. (2004) Microhyla sholigari. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T57893A11688938.

Bini, L.M., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., Rangel, T.F.L.V.B., Bastos, R.P. & Pinto, M.P. (2006) Challenging Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls: knowledge gradients and conservation planning in a biodiversity hotspot. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 475–482.

Boulenger, G. (1882) Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia: Ecaudata. Collection of the British Museum. Second Edition. Taylor and Francis, London, 256 pp.

Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., Loyola, R.D., Raia, P., Mooers, A.O. & Bini, L.M. (2013) Darwinian shortfalls in biodiversity conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 28, 689–695.

Dutta, S.K. & Ray, P. (2000) Microhyla sholigari, A new species of Microhylid frog (Anura: Microhylidae) from Karnataka, India. Hamadryad, 25, 38--–44.

Frost, D.R. (2016) Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available from: (accessed 28 January 2016)

Grosselet, O., Sensgupta, S., Gupta, A., Vauche, M. & Gupta, S. (2004) Microhyla heymonsi Vogt 1911 (Anura: Microhylidae) from mainland India, with bioacoustic analysis of its advertising call. Hamadryad, 29, 131–133.

Gururaja, K.V. (2015) In search of an elusive frog. Jungle Lodges and Resorts, Karnataka, India. Available from: (accessed 15 December 2015)

Gururaja, K.V., Dinesh, K.P., Priti, H. & Ravikanth, G. (2014) Mud-packing frog: a novel breeding behaviour and parental care in a stream dwelling new species of Nyctibatrachus (Amphibia, Anura, Nyctibatrachidae). Zootaxa, 3796 (1), 33-–61.

Heyer, W.R. (1971) Mating calls of some frogs from Thailand. Field Museum of Natural History.

Howlader, M.S., Nair, A., Gopalan, S.V. & Merila, J. (2015) A new species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Nilphamari, Bangladesh. PLoS ONE, 10 (3), e0119825.

IUCN (2001) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Categories and Criteria. Ver. 3.1. Available from: (accessed 15 December 2015)

Jerdon, T.C. (1853) Catalogue of reptiles inhabiting the Peninsula of India. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 22, 522–534.

Kanamadi, R., Hiremath, C. & Schneider, H. (1994) Courtship, amplexus and advertisement call of the frog, Microhyla rubra. Current Science, 66, 683–684.

Katoh, K., Misawa, K., Kuma, K.I. & Miyata, T. (2002) MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Research, 30, 3059–3066.

Kok, P.J.R. & Kalamandeen, M. (2008) Introduction to the taxonomy of the amphibians of Kaieteur National park, Guyana. ABC Taxa, 5, 1–278.

Kuramoto, M. & Joshy, S.H. (2006) Morphological and acoustic comparisons of Microhyla ornata, M. fissipes and M. okinavensis (Anura: Microhylidae). Current Herpetology, 25, 15–27.[15:maacom];2

Parker, H. (1934) A Monograph of the Frogs of the Family Microhylidae. Trustees of the British Museum, London, 208 pp.

Seshadri, K.S., Singal, R., Priti, H., Ravikanth, G., Vidisha, M.K., Saurabh, S., Pratik, M. & Gururaja, K.V. (2016) Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India. PLoS ONE, 11, e0149727.

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.

Vences, M., Nagy, Z.T., Sonet, G. & Verheyen, E. (2012) DNA barcoding Amphibians and Reptiles. In: Kress, W.J. & Erickson, D.L. (Eds.). DNA Barcodes: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, pp. 79–108.

Wijayathilaka, N., Garg, S., Senevirathne, G., Karunarathna, N., Biju, S.D. & Meegaskumbura, M. (2016) A new species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Sri Lanka: an integrative taxonomic approach. Zootaxa, 4066 (3), 331–342.

Wijayathilaka, N. & Meegasakumbura, M. (2016) An acoustic analysis of the genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka. PLoS ONE, 11 (7), e0159003.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand