Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Spider diversity and endemism in a South American hotspot: 20 new species of Carapoia (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Brazil’s Atlantic Forest

BERNHARD A. HUBER

Abstract


The Atlantic Forest along the eastern South American coast is widely recognized as a hotspot with extreme levels of diversity, endemism, and threat. A megatransect study (2003–2015) focusing on pholcid spiders and covering 48 localities across a large part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest resulted in 132 morphospecies, of which 81% were new to science. The present paper deals with the species of Carapoia González-Sponga, 1998 collected during this campaign. The endemism level is 100%, i.e. all 26 species of Carapoia in the Atlantic Forest are not known from (and not likely to occur) anywhere else. While few species (all of them with non-overlapping ranges) occur in the most southern and northern regions, the central region (between Rio Doce and Rio Paraguaçu; largely equivalent to what has been called the ‘Bahia refuge’) is characterized by high diversity and up to five species per locality. The following species are newly described (from South to North): C. voltavelha (Santa Catarina); C. macacu, C. divisa (Rio de Janeiro); C. nairae, C. capixaba, C. mirim, C. patafina (Espírito Santo); C. pau, C. gracilis, C. zumbii, C. dandarae, C. marceloi, C. viridis, C. jiboia, C. carvalhoi, C. carybei (Bahia); C. alagoas (Alagoas); C. saltinho, C. abdita (Pernambuco); C. septentrionalis (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Norte). New records and amendments are given for most previously described Atlantic Forest species.

 


Keywords


Araneae, Atlantic Forest, Brazil, Carapoia, taxonomy, distribution ranges, endemism

Full Text:

PDF (128MB)

References


Carnaval, A.C. & Moritz, C. (2008) Historical climate modelling predicts patterns of current biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 1187–1201.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2007.01870.x

Dimitrov, D., Astrin, J.J. & Huber, B.A. (2013) Pholcid spider molecular systematics revisited, with new insights into the biogeography and the evolution of the group. Cladistics, 29, 132–146.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00419.x

Ferreira, J., Aragao, L.E.O.C., Barlow, J., Barreto, P., Berenguer, E., Bustamante, M., Gardner, T.A., Lees, A.C., Lima, A., Louzada, J., Pardini, R., Parry, L., Peres, C.A., Pompeu, P.S., Tabarelli, M. & Zuanon, J. (2014) Brazil's environmental leadership at risk. Science, 346 (6210), 706–707.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1260194

Fonseca, G.A.B. (1985) The vanishing Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biological Conservation, 34, 17–34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(85)90055-2

Fonseca, G.A.B., Rylands, A., Paglia, A. & Mittermeier, R.A. (2004) Atlantic Forest. In: Mittermeier, R.A., Robles Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux, J. & Da Fonseca, G.A.B. (Eds.), Hotspots revisited: Earth's biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. CEMEX/Agrupación Sierra Madre, Mexico City, pp 84–88.

Galindo-Leal, C. & Câmara, I.G. (2003) The Atlantic Forest of South America. Biodiversity Status, Threats, and Outlook. Island Press, Washington, 488 pp.

González-Sponga, M.A. (1998) Arácnidos de Venezuela. Cuatro nuevos géneros y cuatro nuevas especies de la familia Pholcidae Koch, 1850 (Araneae). Memoria, Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales, La Salle, 57 (148), 17–31.

Hoffmeister, C.H. & Ferrari, A. (2016) Areas of endemism of arthropods in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil): an approach based on a metaconsensus criterion using endemicity analysis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119, 126–144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bij.12802

Huber, B.A. (2000) New World pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae): a revision at generic level. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 254, 1–348.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2000)254<0001:nwpsap>2.0.co;2

Huber, B.A. (2005) Revision and cladistic analysis of the spider genus Carapoia González-Sponga (Araneae: Pholcidae), with descriptions of new species from Brazil’s Atlantic forest. Invertebrate Systematics, 19, 541–556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IS05038

Huber, B.A. (2011) Revision and cladistic analysis of Pholcus and closely related taxa (Araneae, Pholcidae). Bonner zoologische Monographien, 58, 1–509. Avaliable from: http://www.pholcidae.de/PDFs/Huber_2011_BZM_low.pdf (Accessed 19 Oct. 2016)

Huber, B.A. (2015) Small scale endemism in Brazil's Atlantic Forest: 14 new species of Mesabolivar (Araneae, Pholcidae), each known from a single locality. Zootaxa, 3942 (1), 1–60.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3942.1.1

Huber, B.A. & Rheims, C.A. (2011) Diversity and endemism of pholcid spiders in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest, with descriptions of four new species of the Atlantic Forest endemic genus Tupigea (Araneae: Pholcidae). Journal of Natural History, 45, 275–301.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2010.524319

Huber, B.A., Rheims, C.A. & Brescovit, A.D. (2005a) Speciation without changes in genital shape: a case study on Brazilian pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 243, 273–279.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2004.12.001

Huber, B.A., Rheims, C.A. & Brescovit, A.D. (2005b) Two new species of litter-dwelling Metagonia spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae) document both rapid and slow genital evolution. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 86, 33–40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0001-7272.2005.00184.x

Joly, C. A., Metzger, J. P. & Tabarelli, M. (2014) Experiences from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: ecological findings and conservation initiatives. New Phytologist, 204, 459–473.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.12989

Machado, É.O., Brescovit, A.D., Candiani, D.F. & Huber, B.A. (2007a) Three new species of Mesabolivar (Aranea, Pholcidae) from leaf litter in urban environments in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Iheringia, 97, 168–176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007000200006

Machado, É.O., Brescovit, A.D. & Francisco, R.C. (2007b) Three new ground dweller Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1998 (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Zootaxa, 1560, 55–61.

Machado, É.O., Laborda, A., Simó, M. & Brescovit, A.D. (2013) Contributions to the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Mesabolivar in southern South America (Araneae: Pholcidae). Zootaxa, 3682 (3), 401–411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3682.3.1

Mittermeier, R.A., Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Constable, I.D., Rylands, A.B. & Valle, C. (1982) Conservation of primates in the Atlantic forest region of eastern Brazil. International Zoo Yearbook, 22, 2–17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.1982.tb02004.x

Mittermeier, R.A., Robles-Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, C.G., Lamoreux, J. & Fonseca, G.A.B. (2004) Hotspots revisited: Earth's biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. CEMEX/Agrupación Sierra Madre, Mexico City. 392 pp.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., Fonseca, G.A.B. & Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35002501

Pinto-da-Rocha, R., da Silva, M.B. & Bragagnolo, C. (2005) Faunistic similarity and historic biogeography of the harvestmen of southern and southeastern Atlantic rain forest of Brazil. Journal of Arachnology, 33 (2), 290–299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1636/04-114.1

Ranta, P., Blom, T.O.M., Niemela, J., Joensuu, E. & Siitonen, M. (1998) The fragmented Atlantic rain forest of Brazil: size, shape and distribution of forest fragments. Biodiversity & Conservation, 7 (3), 385–403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008885813543

Ribeiro, M.C., Metzger, J.P., Martensen, A.C., Ponzoni, F.J. & Hirota, M.M. (2009) The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: how much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, 142, 1141–1153.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.021

Ribeiro, M.C., Martensen, A.C., Metzger, J.P., Tabarelli, M., Scarano, F. & Fortin, M.-J. (2011) The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: a shrinking biodiversity hotspot. In: Zachos, F.E. & Habel, J.C. (Eds.), Biodiversity Hotspots. Springer, Berlin, pp. 405–434.

Silva, J.M.C. & Casteleti, C.H.M. (2003) Status of the biodiversity of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. In: Galindo-Leal, C. & Câmara, I.G. (Eds.), The Atlantic Forest of South America: Biodiversity Status, Threats, and Outlook. CABS and Island Press, Washington, pp. 43–59.

Soares-Filho, B. et al. (2014) Cracking Brazil’s forest code. Science, 344 (6182), 363–364.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1246663

Tabarelli, M., Pinto, L.P., Silva, J.M.C., Hirota, M. & Bedê, L. (2005) Challenges and opportunities for biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Conservation Biology, 19, 695–700.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00694.x

Tabarelli, M., Aguiar, A.V., Ribeiro, M.C., Metzger, J.P. & Peres, C.A. (2010) Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation, 143 (10), 2328–2340.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.02.005




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4177.1.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand