Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Revision of the Pseudotropheus elongatus species group (Teleostei: Cichlidae) With Description of a New Genus and Seven New Species

SHAN LI, ADRIANUS F. KONINGS, JAY R., JR. STAUFFER

Abstract


Lake Malaŵi is known for its endemic haplochromine species flock, most notably the rock-dwelling cichlids known as mbuna. The group of mbuna referred to as the Pseudotropheus elongatus species group is currently comprised of Metriaclima spp., Tropheops spp., Cynotilapia spp., and Pseudotropheus spp. In this study, Chindongo, a new genus with the type species C. bellicosus, is described for additional species in this group. Chindongo is distinguished from other mbuna genera by 1) the presence of bicuspid teeth in the anterior portion of the outer row of both upper and lower jaw; 2) a moderately to steeply sloped vomer with a narrow rostral tip which makes an angle of between 53° and 68° with the parasphenoid; 3) a small mouth with the lower jaw slightly shorter than the upper; 4) a broad anterior dentigerous area on both premaxilla and dentary with three or more rows of teeth (usually 5–6 rows); 5) a flank melanin pattern consisting of vertical bars without horizontal elements at any stage of development. Chindongo bellicosus is distinguished by its color pattern and shallower body from the other species which we have transferred to Chindongo. We also describe six new elongate mbuna species and place them into three available genera, they include: Metriaclima flavicauda, M. usisyae, Tropheops kumwera, T. biriwera, T. kamtambo, and Cynotilapia chilundu.

 


Keywords


Pisces, mbuna, Lake Malaŵi, Metriaclima, Tropheops, Cynotilapia

Full Text:

PDF (6MB)

References


Barel, C.D.N., Van Oijen, M.J.P., Witte, F. & Witte-Maas, E.L.M. (1977) An introduction to the taxonomy and morphology of the haplochromine Cichlidae from Lake Victoria. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 27 (4), 333–389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/002829677X00199

Danley, P.D., Husemann, M., Ding, B., Dipietro, L.M., Beverly, E.J. & Peppe, D.J. (2012) The impact of the geologic history and paleoclimate on the diversification of East African cichlids. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology: Article ID 574851, 1–20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/574851

Fryer, G. (1956) New species of cichlid fishes from Lake Nyasa. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 53, 81–91.

Fryer, G. (1959) The trophic interrelationships and ecology of some littoral communities of Lake Nyasa with especial reference to the fishes, and a discussion of the evolution of a group of rock–frequenting Cichlidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 132 (2), 153–281.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1959.tb05521.x

Fryer, G. & Iles, T.D. (1972) Cichlid fishes of the great lakes of Africa. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh & TFH Publication, Neptune City, 641 pp.

Goldstein, H.M. (2009) Taxonomic review of the genus Tropheops (Cichlidae) with descriptions of new species from Lake Malaŵi, Africa. Master of Science Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 175 pp.

Günther, A. (1893) Second report on the reptiles, batrachians, and fishes transmitted to Mr. H. H. Johnston, C. B., from British Central Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1893, 616–628.

Humphries, J.M., Bookstein, F.L., Chernoff, B., Smith, G.R., Elder, R.L. & Poss, S.G. (1981) Multivariate discrimination by shape in relation to size. Systematic Zoology, 30 (3), 291–308.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2413251

Kassam, D., Seki, S., Rusuwa, B., Ambali, A.J.D. & Yamaoka, K. (2005) Genetic diversity within the genus Cynotilapia and its phylogenetic position among Lake Malaŵi’s mbuna cichlids. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4 (10), 1195–1202.

Knight, M.E. & Turner, G.F. (2004) Laboratory mating trials indicate incipient speciation by sexual selection among populations of the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra from Lake Malaŵi. Proceedings of the royal society B-Biological Sciences, 271 (1540), 675–680.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2003.2639

Kocher, T.D. (2004) Adaptive evolution and explosive speciation: the cichlid fish model. Nature Reviews Generics, 5 (4), 288–298.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrg1316

Konings, A.F. (1990) Descriptions of six new Malawi cichlids. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Magazine, 38 (11), 110–129.

Konings, A.F. (1994) Pseudotropheus demasoni sp. nov: a sexually monomorphic cichlid from the Tanzanian coast of Lake Malaŵi. Cichlids Yearbook, 4, 24–27.

Konings, A.F. (1995) Malaŵi cichlids in their natural habitat. second edition. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas, 303 pp.

Konings, A.F. & Stauffer, J.R. (2006) Review of Copadichromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) with the description of a new genus and six new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 17 (3), 233–246.

Konings, A.F. (2001) Malaŵi cichlids in their natural habitat. 3rd Edition. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas, 352 pp.

Konings, A. (2007) Malaŵi cichlids in their natural habitat. 4th Edition. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas, 424 pp.

Oliver, M.L. & Loiselle, P.V. (1972) A new genus and species of cichlid of the mbuna group (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malaŵi. Revue de Zoologie et de Botannique Africaines, 855, 309–320.

Oliver, M.K. (1984) Systematics of African cichlid fishes: determination of the most primitive taxon, and studies on the haplochromines of Lake Malaŵi (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ph.D dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, ix + 326 pp.

Oliver, M.K. & Arnegard, M.E. (2010) A new genus for Melanochromis labrosus, a problematic Lake Malaŵi cichlid with hypertrophied lips (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 21 (3), 209–232.

Reinthal, P.N. (1990) The feeding habits of a group of herbivorous rock-dwelling cichlid fishes (Cichlidae: Perciformes) from Lake Malaŵi, Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 27, 215–233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00001674

Ribbink, A.J., Marsh, B.A., Marsh, A.C., Ribbink, A.C. & Sharp, B.J. (1983) A preliminary survey of the cichlid fishes of rocky habitats in Lake Malaŵi. South African Journal of Zoology, 18 (3), 149–310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02541858.1983.11447831

Seegers, L. (1996) The identity of Pseudotropheus elongatus, with the description of P. longior from Mbamba Bay, Tanzania, and notes on Genyochromis mento (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, 7 (2), 97–110.

Seehausen, O. & Van Alphen, J.M. (1999) Can sympatric speciation by disruptive sexual explain rapid evolution of cichlid diversity in Lake Victoria? Ecology Letters, 2 (4), 262–271.

Stauffer, J.R. Jr. (1988) Three new rock-dwelling cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malaŵi, Africa. Copeia, 1988 (3), 663–668.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1445385

Stauffer, J.R. Jr. (1991) Description of a faculative cleanerfish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malaŵi, Africa. Copeia, 1, 141–147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1446257

Stauffer, J.R. Jr., Bowers, N.J., Kellogg, K.A. & McKaye, K.R. (1997) A revision of the blue-black Pseudotropheus zebra (Teleostei: Cichlidae) complex from Lake Malaŵi, Africa, with a description of a new genus and ten new species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 148, 189–230.

Stauffer, J.R. Jr. & Kellogg, K.A. (2002) Description of a new species in the Pseudotropheus williamsi Complex (Teleostei: Cichlidae), from Lake Malaŵi, Africa. Copeia, 1, 146–151.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2002)002[0146:DOANSI]2.0.CO;2

Stauffer, J.R. Jr. & Posner, I. (2006) An investigation of the utility of feeding angles among Lake Malaŵi rock-dwelling cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Copeia, 2006 (2), 289–292.

Stauffer, J.R. Jr., Black, K. & Konings, A.F. (2013) Descriptions of five new species of Metriaclima (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malaŵi, Africa. Zootaxa, 3647 (1), 101–136.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3647.1.6

Tawil, P. (2011) Description of a new cichlid species from Lake Malaŵi, with reexamination of Cynotilapia afra (Günther, 1983) and Microchromis zebroides Johnson, 1975. Cybium, 35 (3), 201–211.

Trewavas, E. (1935) A synopsis of the cichlid fishes of Lake Nyasa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 10, 16 (91), 65–118.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933508655026

Trewavas, E. (1984) Nouvel examen des genres et sous-genres du complexe Pseudotropheus-Melanochromis du lac Malawi. Revue française d'Aquariologie et Herpetologie, 10 (4), 97–106.

Van Oppen, M.J., Turner, G.F., Rico, C., Robinson, R.L., Deutsch, J.C., Genner, M.J. & Hewitt, G.M. (1998) Assortative mating among rock-dwelling cichlid fishes supports high estimates of species richness from Lake Malaŵi. Molecular Ecology, 7 (8), 991–1001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00417.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4168.2.9

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand