Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Description of a new species of crested newt, previously subsumed in Triturus ivanbureschi (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae)



Multilocus molecular data play a pivotal role in diagnosing cryptic species (i.e. genetically distinct but morphologically similar species). A multilocus phylogeographic survey has provided compelling evidence that Triturus ivanbureschi sensu lato comprises two distinct gene pools with restricted gene flow. We conclude that this taxon had better be treated as two distinct (albeit morphologically cryptic) species. The name T. ivanbureschi should be restricted to the western species, which is distributed in western Asiatic Turkey plus the south-eastern Balkan Peninsula. No name is as yet available for the eastern species, which is distributed in northern Asiatic Turkey. We propose the name T. anatolicus sp. nov. for the eastern species and provide a formal species description.


gene flow, introgression, phylogeny, Triturus anatolicus sp. nov., Triturus karelinii, Amphibia

Full Text:



Arntzen, J.W. (2003) Triturus cristatus Superspecies - Kammolch-Artenkreis (Triturus cristatus (Laurenti, 1768) - Nördlicher Kammolch, Triturus carnifex (Laurenti, 1768) - Italienischer Kammolch, Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903) - Donau-Kammolch, Triturus karelinii (Strauch, 1870) - Südlicher Kammolch). In: Grossenbacher, K. & Thiesmeier, B. (Eds.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Schwanzlurche IIA. Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim, pp. 421–514.

Arntzen, J.W. & Wielstra, B. (2010) Where to draw the line? A nuclear genetic perspective on proposed range boundaries of the crested newts Triturus karelinii and T. arntzeni. Amphibia-Reptilia, 31, 311–322.

Avise, J.C. (2000) Phylogeography: The history and formation of species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 447pp.

Balloux, F. (2010) The worm in the fruit of the mitochondrial DNA tree. Heredity, 104, 419–420.

Beheregaray, L. & Caccone, A. (2007) Cryptic biodiversity in a changing world. Journal of Biology, 6, 9.

Bickford, D., Lohman, D.J., Sodhi, N.S., Ng, P.K.L., Meier, R., Winker, K., Ingram K. & Das, I. (2007) Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 22, 148–155.

Chan, K.M.A. & Levin, S.A. (2005) Leaky prezygotic isolation and porous genomes: rapid introgression of maternally inherited DNA. Evolution, 59, 720–729.

Currat, M., Ruedi, M., Petit, R.J. & Excoffier, L. (2008) The hidden side of invasions: massive introgression by local genes. Evolution, 62, 1908–1920.

DeSalle, R. (2006) Species discovery versus species identification in DNA barcoding efforts: response to Rubinoff. Conservation Biology, 20, 1545–1547.

Edwards, S.V. (2009) Is a new and general theory of molecular systematics emerging? Evolution, 63, 1–19.

Ekblom, R. & Galindo, J. (2011) Applications of next generation sequencing in molecular ecology of non-model organisms. Heredity, 107, 1–15.

Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L. & deWaard, J.R. (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 270, 313–321.

Irwin, D.E. (2002) Phylogeographic breaks without geographic barriers to gene flow. Evolution, 56, 2383–2394.[2383:PBWGBT]2.0.CO;2

Ivanović, A., Üzüm, N., Wielstra, B., Olgun, K., Litvinchuk, S.N., Kalezić, M.L. & Arntzen, J.W. (2013) Is mitochondrial DNA divergence of Near Eastern crested newts (Triturus karelinii group) reflected by differentiation of skull shape? Zoologischer Anzeiger, 252, 269–277.

Moritz, C. & Cicero, C. (2004) DNA Barcoding: Promise and Pitfalls. PLoS Biology, 2, e354.

Pereira, R.J. & Wake, D.B. (2009) Genetic leakage after adaptive and nonadaptive divergence in the Ensatina eschscholtzii ring species. Evolution, 63, 2288–2301.

Petit, R.J. & Excoffier, L. (2009) Gene flow and species delimitation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24, 386–393.

Pfenninger, M. & Schwenk, K. (2007) Cryptic animal species are homogeneously distributed among taxa and biogeographical regions. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 121.

Pritchard, J.K., Stephens, M. & Donnelly, P. (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics, 155, 945–959.

Toews, D.P.L. & Brelsford, A. (2012) The biogeography of mitochondrial and nuclear discordance in animals. Molecular Ecology, 21, 3907–3930.

Twyford, A.D. & Ennos, R.A. (2012) Next-generation hybridization and introgression. Heredity, 108, 179–189.

Wallis, G.P. & Arntzen, J.W. (1989) Mitochondrial-DNA variation in the crested newt superspecies: limited cytoplasmic gene flow among species. Evolution, 43, 88–104.

Wielstra, B., Baird, A.B. & Arntzen, J.W. (2013a) A multimarker phylogeography of crested newts (Triturus cristatus superspecies) reveals cryptic species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 67, 167–175.

Wielstra, B., Duijm, E., Lagler, P., Lammers, Y., Meilink, W.R.M., Ziermann, J.M. & Arntzen, J.W. (2014a) Parallel tagged amplicon sequencing of transcriptome-based genetic markers for Triturus newts with the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform. Molecular Ecology Resources, 14, 1080–1089.

Wielstra, B., Espregueira Themudo, G., Güclü, Ö., Olgun, K., Poyarkov, N.A. & Arntzen, J.W. (2010) Cryptic crested newt diversity at the Eurasian transition: the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Near Eastern Triturus newts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 56, 888–896.

Wielstra, B., Litvinchuk, S.N., Naumov, B., Tzankov, N. & Arntzen, J.W. (2013b) A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa, 3682, 441–453.

Wielstra, B., Sillero, N., Vörös, J. & Arntzen, J.W. (2014b) The distribution of the crested and marbled newt species (Amphibia: Salamandridae: Triturus)—an addition to the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe. Amphibia-Reptilia, 35, 376–381.

Zilversmit, M., O'Grady, P. & DeSalle, R. (2002) Shallow genomics, phylogenetics, and evolution in the familiy Drosophilidae. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing, 7, 512–523.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand