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Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae)



A phylogenetic analysis of sequences from 503 species of hylid frogs and four outgroup taxa resulted in 16,128 aligned sites of 19 genes. The molecular data were subjected to a maximum likelihood analysis that resulted in a new phylogenetic tree of treefrogs. A conservative new classification based on the tree has (1) three families composing an unranked taxon, Arboranae, (2) nine subfamilies (five resurrected, one new), and (3) six resurrected generic names and five new generic names. Using the results of a maximum likelihood timetree, times of divergence were determined. For the most part these times of divergence correlated well with historical geologic events. The arboranan frogs originated in South America in the Late Mesozoic or Early Cenozoic. The family Pelodryadidae diverged from its South American relative, Phyllomedusidae, in the Eocene and invaded Australia via Antarctica. There were two dispersals from South America to North America in the Paleogene. One lineage was the ancestral stock of Acris and its relatives, whereas the other lineage, subfamily Hylinae, differentiated into a myriad of genera in Middle America.


Anura, Hylidae, phylogeny, new classification, new genera (Callimedusa, Colomascirtus, Julianus, Rheohyla, Sarcohyla), resurrected genera (Dryophytes, Dryopsophus, Hyliola, Hylomantis, Ololygon, Pithecopus), new subfamily (Scinaxinae), Amphibia

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