A reassessment of apheloriine millipede phylogeny: additional taxa, Bayesian inference, and direct optimization (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae)

PAUL E. MAREK, JASON E. BOND

Abstract


Millipedes in the tribe Apheloriini occur throughout the eastern United States, predominately in the deciduous forests of the Appalachian Mountains. Herein we present a reassessment of apheloriine millipede phylogeny using mitochondrial DNA sequences and an additional 29 exemplar taxa (including 15 undescribed species and all of the species in the genus Brachoria, except one). In this study, first we check the results of the previous phylogeny of the tribe (Marek and Bond, 2006) with different alignment and phylogenetic techniques (direct optimization and maximum likelihood), and second reconstruct a new phylogeny evaluating it in the same way with Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and direct optimization. Using this updated and expanded phylogeny, we tested historical classifications with Bayes factor and Shimodaira-Hasegawa hypothesis testing, consistently finding very strong evidence against their implied phylogenetic hypotheses. Lastly, using the new phylogeny as a foundation, we make taxonomic modifications and provide an updated species list of Apheloriini (106 species/17 genera).

Keywords


Myriapoda, Diplopoda, taxonomy, systematics

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1610.1.2

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