Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs <p><strong>Zoosymposia</strong> is a rapid journal for peer-reviewed papers (reviews or original papers) on special topics/themes in zoology. It is a sister series of <a href="https://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/">Zootaxa</a><strong> </strong>and is designed to allow volumes of collected papers covering a wide range of topics (e.g. ecology, conservation ...) outside the scope of <a href="https://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/">Zootaxa</a>. </p> en-US zhangz@landcareresearch.co.nz (ZHI-QIANG ZHANG) zed@mapress.com (Evo W.) Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 <p><strong>Acarological Frontiers: Proceedings of the XVI International Congress of Acarology (1–5 Dec. 2022, Auckland, New Zealand)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.1 <p>Cover</p> ZHI-QIANG ZHANG, QING-HAI FAN, ALLEN C.G. HEATH, MARIA A. MINOR Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.1 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Acarological Frontiers: Proceedings of the XVI International Congress of Acarology (1–5 Dec. 2022, Auckland, New Zealand)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.2 <p>Table of Contents</p> ZHI-QIANG ZHANG, QING-HAI FAN, ALLEN C.G. HEATH, MARIA A. MINOR Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.2 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Preface to the Proceedings of the XVI International Congress of Acarology</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.3 <p>Preface</p> ZHI-QIANG ZHANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.3 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The XVI International Congress of Acarology: welcome address by the President</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.4 <p>Editorial</p> ZHI-QIANG ZHANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.4 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>How mites surprise us</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.5 <p>It truly is an honor to be included among the recipients of the James Allen McMurtry Award, bestowed by the Systematic &amp; Applied Acarology Society. I am grateful to Dr. Zhi-Qiang Zhang and the selection committee, and especially to Dr. Maria Minor, who nominated me, wrote the associated biography with Dr. Valerie Behan-Pelletier (Minor &amp; Behan-Pelletier 2022), and recorded my oral presentation. The award was unexpected, since my career as a soil biologist seems rather unrelated to Jim’s field of biological control. But while acarologists occasionally have surprised me, mites do it constantly. One need not look far. Even our follicle mites, which certainly surprised our mid-19<sup>th</sup> century ancestors by their form and presence, continue to surprise us today: they have the lowest number of protein-coding genes known in arthropods, according to Smith <em>et al.</em> (2022). Having been asked by Dr. Zhang to offer some reflections on my half-century in acarology, I can think of no better premise than to give some examples of the numerous times and ways in which my focal group—oribatid mites—surprised, even astonished me.</p> ROY A. NORTON Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.5 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Our life companions: the human follicular mite <em>Demodex folliculorum</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.6 <p>We carry them in our skin pores through our entire life, from birth to death.&nbsp; We offer them shelter and in return, they tidy-up our pores.&nbsp; We go on with our busy day life and they sleep.&nbsp; They wake up when we go to sleep and while we are deeply dreaming, they move around, visit other pores and mates, and reproduce.&nbsp; Despite being our ‘very own’ life companions, until recently, we knew very little about their struggle.</p> M. ALEJANDRA PEROTTI, HENK R. BRAIG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.6 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Grand challenges in feather mite biology</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.7 <p>In the 26 years since Gaud and Atyeo (1996) published their seminal work “<em>Feather Mites of the World</em>”, remarkable progress has been made in increasing the number of described feather mite species and host-mite records. Advances in molecular genetic methods are shedding light on relationships both among higher taxa and within species. Nevertheless, there are aspects of these research areas that need further study, as well as many other important areas of feather mite biology that have been almost unexplored since the works of V.B. Dubinin in the 1950’s (<em>e.g.</em>, Dubinin, 1951). In this presentation I outline what I feel are desirable targets for future feather mite studies, some of which will be more challenging to achieve than others.</p> HEATHER C. PROCTOR Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.7 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>What have we learned from the first 600 mitochondrial genomes of Acari?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.8 <p>Mitochondrial genomes have been remarkably instructive about the evolutionary-history (phylogeny), population-genetics and phylogeography of Acari, particularly the ticks. At present we have entire mt genomes for 125 of the 896+ species of ticks (316 mt genomes in total), and for 146 of the thousands of other species of Acari (296 mt genomes in total). Total number of mt genomes available for the Acari is 612 [we aim to have mt genomes for 400+ species of ticks and other Acari in time for the XVII International Congress of Acarology]. It has never been easier to sequence entire mt genomes. Any lab with basic wet-lab capability can do this by using commercial sequencing companies. In 2021, Barker &amp; Kelava precipitated the Tick Mitochondrial Genome Network with a YouTube Channel of the monthly meetings [https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCnBhfhYxjC4rsJmVpBwHT0g/featured]. This is a worthwhile resource for people wanting to join our enterprise. We study mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes, like the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), to address phylogenetic questions and questions about species-level taxonomy of ticks and other mites.</p> STEPHEN C. BARKER, SAMUEL KELAVA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.8 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The phylogeny of acariform mites: what brought us here and perspectives</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.9 <p>Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of DNA sequence data from acariform mites. However, compared to Hexapoda, a clade to which the mite diversity rivals, the amount of acariform molecular data estimated in cells in supermatrix alignments (Fig. 1) is lagging behind by approximately one decade, since insect datasets reached 10<sup>7</sup> cells in 2010 (reviewed in Kjer <em>et al.</em> 2016).</p> ALMIR R. PEPATO, SAMUEL G. DOS S. COSTA, PAVEL B. KLIMOV Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.9 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Endosymbionts manipulation of the reproduction and development of spider mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.10 <p>The spider mite, <em>Tetranychus truncatus</em>, is a polyphagous agricultural pest harboring various endosymbionts, such as <em>Wolbachia</em> and <em>Spiroplasma</em>. How they interact with each other in the same host is not clear. How temperature impacts the host and their interaction with endosymbionts remains largely unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the bacterial communities of <em>Tetranychus truncatus</em> and the molecular mechanism underlying <em>Wolbachia</em> regulation of host genes. This keynote speech will review and reveal new developments and discoveries on endosymbionts from this spider mite in our laboratory.</p> XIAO-YUE HONG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.10 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Plant, pest and predator interplay: Tomato trichomes effects on <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> and its promising predatory mite, the phytoseiid <em>Typhlodromus recki</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.11 <p>Trichomes are well-known efficient defense mechanisms used by tomato plants against herbivores and also can impact natural enemies. The system has been studied for years for this economically important crop, creating a pretty good baseline of knowledge of these complex processes. On cultivated tomato and wild relatives <em>Solanum</em> species, a high diversity of glandular and non-glandular trichomes exists, with different densities and locations on the plants depending on varieties/species.</p> LOU TABARY, DENISE NAVIA, MARIE-STÉPHANE TIXIER, PHILIPPE AUGER, ALAIN MIGEON, MARIA NAVAJAS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.11 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Searching for genes that make plants susceptible to spider mites as a target for resistance breeding</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.12 <p>Herbivorous mites must have to overcome several barriers that are produced by plants to prevent herbivores from obtaining food and successfully colonize them. How this interaction plays out is determined by a set of complex molecular mechanisms that trigger physiological changes in plants to deter mites, and in mites to withstand deterrence and together these determine their degree of compatibility. We demonstrated that spider mites secrete specialized salivary proteins into plants that suppress plant defenses and therefore play a decisive role in the plant-mite interaction. To these proteins we refer as effectors (Villarroel <em>et al</em>. 2016; Jonckheere <em>et al</em>. 2016). Elucidating how effectors suppress plant defenses can aid plant resistance breeding and help to better understand plant-herbivore co-evolution.</p> JUAN MANUEL ALBA, JOSEPHINE BLAAZER, JIE LIU, CARLOS VILLARROEL, THOMAS VAN LEEUWEN, WANNES DERMAUW, MERIJN KANT Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.12 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Why does <em>Tetranychus</em> <em>evansi</em> not threaten solanaceous vegetables in Japan?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.13 <p>The tomato red spider mite, <em>Tetranychus evansi</em>, was first found in Japan in Osaka and Kyoto, in 2001 (Ehara and Ohashi 2002). Since then, it has spread rapidly throughout southwest Japan from Kanto district (central Japan) to Okinawa (southernmost end of Japan) on solanaceous vegetables such as tomato and eggplant as well as solanaceous weeds such as <em>Solanum carolinensis</em> and <em>S. nigrum</em>. Although <em>T. evansi </em>frequently invades commercial fields of solanaceous vegetables, this species does not establish and is never an important pest nor a target of pest control. On the other hand, it is still a severe pest in southern Europe and Africa. Why does <em>T. evansi </em>not threaten solanaceous vegetables in Japan?</p> TETSUO GOTOH, TAKASHI KAIDZUKA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.13 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The advent of the mite omics era and integration of multiple technological approaches to mite control</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.14 <p>Current food production involves not just the fundamental need to provide calories and proteins but full nutrition status under specific safety standards. Vegetable production, especially tomatoes, grown under highly intensive conditions and with cosmetic quality standards are exceedingly targeted by and susceptible to pests. Mites are mostly diminutive in size. Their widespread distribution and invasiveness (as new species) are often neglected, and they are commonly mistaken for similar known species, compounded by a limited understanding of their diverse biology and multitrophic interactions, resulting in pronounced crop losses due to late action.</p> JOSE CARLOS VERLE RODRIGUES, STEVEN E MASSEY Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.14 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Resistant genotypes and biological control for the integrated management of&nbsp;<em>Tetranychus evansi</em>&nbsp;(Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomato</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.15 <p>The tomato red spider mite, <em>Tetranychus evansi</em> Baker &amp; Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an invasive tomato pest in several countries, with the potential to reduce yield by up to 90% in Africa. Due to the high biotic potential of the pest, the management focused on the use of synthetic pesticides is often not efficient or unsustainable over time, requiring the integration with other control methods. Previous studies found in wild genotypes expressive source of resistance (glandular trichomes) that could be explored to increase resistance level of varieties of interest to this pest. Furthermore, <em>Phytoseiulus longipes</em> Evans (Phytoseiidae), found in South America, proved to be a promising predatory mite of <em>T. evansi</em>. However, the incorporation of this predatory mite into IPM programs requires detailed knowledge of its interactions with other management practices.</p> PATRICE JACOB SAVI, GILBERTO JOSÉ DE MORAES, DANIEL JÚNIOR DE ANDRADE Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.15 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Towards RNAi-mediated pest mite management: Ingestion, cellular uptake, and intracellular processing of long dsRNAs</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.16 <p>Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a trigger of RNAi-mediated sequence-specific gene silencing is a promising next-generation pesticide that could enable selective pest control ultimately at the species level. The discovery that orally administrated dsRNA induces RNAi in the two-spotted mite, <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), has led to a dramatic increase in research toward the development of RNAi-based biopesticides for spider mites.</p> TAKESHI SUZUKI, YUKA ARAI, NAOKI TAKEDA, FATEN ABDELSALAM HAMDI, NOURELDIN ABUELFADL GHAZY Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.16 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Population genomics of avian feather mites with contrasting host specificities</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.17 <p>Host specificity is a key element to our understanding of symbiont diversification and is driven by multiple macro- and microevolutionary processes. Broad scale (e.g., species-level) studies can uncover relevant processes such as cospeciation and host-switching that shape host-symbiont evolutionary histories.</p> ALIX E. MATTHEWS, THAN J. BOVES, ANDREW D. SWEET, ELIZABETH M. AMES, LESLEY P. BULLUCK, ERIK I. JOHNSON, MATTHEW JOHNSON, KATIE L. PERCY, DOUGLAS W. RAYBUCK, WENDY M. SCHELSKY, CHRISTOPHER M. TONRA, CATHERINE B. VIVERETTE, ASELA J. WIJERATNE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.17 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>A probabilistic model predicting host specificity and host range expansion in mites parasitic on mammals</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.18 <p>The emergence of new mammalian diseases through the switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts has significant wildlife, livestock, and human health impacts, however, new host switches are notoriously difficult to predict. The factors influencing the host switches are not fully understood because complete unbiased large-scale datasets of host-parasite relationships are lacking. Building a large-scale model to identify these factors and predict potential host switching (host range expansion) could hold substantial benefits from theoretical and applied perspectives (e.g., disease emergence prediction). Here we analyzed a large, curated database of host-parasite relationships of 1906 species of acariform mites forming permanent associations with 1235 species of mammals, including humans, and built a probabilistic predictive model of host-specificity for these mites. There was a total of 3,125 unique host-parasite records.</p> PAVEL B. KLIMOV, LUIZ G. A. PEDROSO, QIXIN HE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.18 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Bat wing mites associated with phyllostomid bats: A coevolutive journey</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.19 <p>Spinturnicid mites of the genus <em>Periglischrus </em>Kolenati are permanent hematophagous ectoparasites, associated with phyllostomid bats in the Americas. The entire life cycle of these mites occurs on their hosts. The mites can be transmitted across host individuals via mother to offspring vertical transmission, during copulation or inter-individual contact at bat roosting sites where they form gregarious colonies.</p> JUAN B. MORALES-MALACARA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.19 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Morphometric analysis of the bat wing mite <em>Periglischrus ojastii</em> (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) related to different yellow-shouldered bat host species and its distribution</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.20 <p>Mammals host a broad diversity of parasite lineages that radiated along with them over their evolutionary history, showing in some cases a co-phylogenetic relationship. Understanding patterns of parasite diversification could provide insights into the processes of co-evolution more broadly. Spinturnicid mites of the genus <em>Periglischrus</em> provide an interesting study model since they are specific to phyllostomid bats. Currently, this mite genus has 26 species that range from monoxeny, stenoxeny to, in a few cases oligoxeny. <em>Periglischrus ojastii</em> is one oligoxenous mite that is associated with the Yellow-shouldered bats (<em>Sturnira</em>), which are abundant and widespread in the Neotropics and diversified during the Pliocene. This study aimed to evaluate the morphometric and geometric variation on <em>Periglischrus ojastii</em> associated with the diversification and distribution of its host bat species of the genus <em>Sturnira</em>, as possible evidence of co-evolution.</p> NAOMI VÁZQUEZ-XICOTÉNCATL, JUAN B. MORALES-MALACARA, GABRIELA CASTAÑO-MENESES Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.20 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Host specificity varies widely in dispersal-limited symbionts</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.21 <p>A fundamental aspect of symbiotic relationships is host specificity, ranging from extreme specialists associated with only a single host species to generalists associated with many different species. Although symbionts with limited dispersal abilities are typically host specialists, some are known to associate with multiple hosts, but our understanding of the causes and consequences of this variation is limited.</p> ALIX E. MATTHEWS, ASELA J. WIJERATNE, ANDREW D. SWEET, FABIO A. HERNANDES, DAVID P.L. TOEWS, THAN J. BOVES Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.21 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Congruent co-evolution of the feather mite genus <em>Trouessartia</em> (Acariformes: Trouessartiidae) and endemic Malagasy warblers (Passeriformes: Bernieridae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.22 <p>The feather mite genus <em>Trouessartia </em>(Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae), with 145 known species, is the second most species-rich genus of feather mites. Species of <em>Trouessartia</em> are mostly associated with passerines (oscines and suboscines), with a few associations with woodpeckers. On hosts, the mites inhabit flight feathers, most commonly occurring on the secondaries and rectrices.</p> S.V. MIRONOV, P.B. KLIMOV, N.L. BLOCK, B.M. OCONNOR Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.22 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Multifunctionality of soil food webs</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.23 <p>Soil food webs regulate functioning, ensure stability and support biodiversity both below and above ground. Structure of feeding interactions in soil food webs is shaped by complex size and spatial organization of soil life, and diverse adaptations of soil-dwelling consumers. Strengths of the feeding interactions between consumers and their resources can be quantitatively expressed in ‘energy fluxes’, reflecting trophic functions such as herbivory, microbivory, or predation. Multiple energy fluxes support multiple trophic-related functions and thus support multiple functions at the ecosystem level. I will show how we can use traits of soil consumers to reconstruct network topology of soil food webs and quantify energy fluxes along their resource, size, and spatial dimensions (Potapov 2022). I will then introduce “trophic multifunctionality” <em>i.e</em>. simultaneous support of multiple trophic functions by the food web (analogous to ecosystem multifunctionality) as an approach to calculate a number of quantitative food-web indicators and compare them across systems. With further validation, trait and energy flux approaches would allow to embrace functioning of soil communities from microorganisms to large animals and in perspective use this knowledge to actively manage soil functioning.</p> ANTON M. POTAPOV Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.23 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Ecosystem services of soil predatory mites depend on a functional soil food web</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.24 <p>Species of soil predatory mites feed on a diverse diet making them excellent candidates for conservation biological control programs. Free living nematodes (FLNs) are commonly found in soils at all trophic levels and serve as prey for many soil predatory mites (SPMs) in a functional soil food web. Here we present highlights of two case studies and the preliminary results of one ongoing study, all with the common aim of improving the conservation of soil predatory mites for the control of soil pests. In the first study, we used <em>Macrocheles embersoni</em> for housefly control (Azevedo <em>et al.</em>, 2019), in the second, <em>Stratiolaelaps scimitus</em> for the control of the root knot nematode (RKN) <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> (Azevedo <em>et al.</em>, 2020), and in the third, we use frass of black soldier fly <em>Hermetia illucens</em> as an organic amendment for harnessing the local soil food web for the control of RKN. In the first two studies, complementing the diet of predatory mites with the FLN <em>Rhabditella axei</em> in their culture medium resulted in higher predator abundance and better biological control, compared to the negative control and the release of predators without FLNs and microbiota. In the third study the effect of the soil amendment on soil biota and RKN control differed among soils. We expect that soil amendments alter biocontrol efficacy, and that these effects are dependent on the biodiversity of soil biota as well as abiotic soil properties, and that caring for soils is a pre-requisite for successful conservation biological control.</p> DIANA RUEDA-RAMÍREZ, LILIANE RUESS, HOD CASTEL, SHIRA GAL, SHIRI FREILICH, ERIC PALEVSKY Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.24 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>soil mites for the biological control of pests in Brazil</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.25 <p><em>Stratiolaelaps scimitus</em> (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is presently the only predatory mite commercialized for the biological control of soil pests in Brazil. It is conceived that other potentially useful species are present in the country, waiting to be discovered for use. Considerable efforts have been dedicated in the last five years to determine the predominant predatory mites from the different Brazilian major ecological regions (biomes), within a project financed by the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (Biota/ Fapesp), which includes mostly evaluations of the biodiversity. Members of this project are professional acarologists, post-doctorate, graduate and undergraduate students dedicated to the collection, identification and preliminary evaluation of the potential of collected mites as biological control agents of representatives of pest nematodes, thrips, fungus-gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae), phytophagous mites, the house-fly and the stable-fly. It has been determined that the predominant groups of predatory mites in soils of agroecosystems belong to the Ascidae, followed by the Laelapidae. This is different from soils of areas of natural vegetation, where the predominant families are the Rhodacaridae, followed by the Ascidae. The reason for this difference in composition of predatory mites should help in determining the convenience to change agricultural practices in order to favor certain beneficial species and hence reduce pest problems. The potential of representative species as biological control agents is under investigation, with promising results. Reduction of up to 90% of the house fly and up to 70% of the stable fly population levels were estimated, with localized field releases of <em>Macrocheles</em> <em>embersoni</em> or <em>Macrocheles</em> <em>muscaedomesticae</em> (Macrochelidae). Over 60% reduction in population level of the soybean cyst nematode, <em>Heterodera glycines</em>, one of the most harmful and difficult pests to control in soybean, has been estimated in soils of pots with soybean plants, with releases of <em>Protogamasellopsis zaheri</em> (Rhodacaridae) and <em>S</em>.<em> scimitus</em>. About 45% reduction in population level of the root-knot nematode <em>Meloidogyne incognita </em>was estimated in soils of pots with tomato plants, with releases of the same predator as well as of the free-living nematode <em>Rhabditella axei</em>. It is suggested that provisioning and or conserving alternative food sources for the predatory mites, such as free-living nematodes, could further improve natural biological control. The efficacy of other predator species is under investigation.</p> RAPHAEL DE CAMPOS CASTILHO, GILBERTO JOSÉ DE MORAES Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.25 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Combined application of <em>Stratiolaelaps scimitus</em> and <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> granules for control of soil-dwelling stage of <em>Frankliniella occidentalis</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.26 <p>Western flower thrips, <em>Frankliniella occidentalis</em> (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a pest of global importance in agricultural and horticultural crops. <em>F. occidentalis</em> populations comprise of all different life stages (egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adults) under natural conditions. This thrips species typically pupates and spends about one-third of their life cycle in the soil. Their cryptic habit and high reproductive rate make them difficult to control. Compared to attempts to control thrips on the foliage, there is a new idea to control thrips when their pupal stage is still underground, thereby interrupting the thrips life cycle before they have the chance to emerge as adults.</p> SHENGYONG WU, WEINAN SUN, XINGRUI ZHANG, XUENONG XU, ZHONGREN LEI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.26 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>At last: A catalogue of free-living and arthropod-associated Laelapidae, with generic concepts and a key to genera</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.27 <p>We present a summary of a long-awaited catalogue of species of Laelapidae that are free-living predators or associated with arthropods (Moraes <em>et al</em>., 2022). This primarily includes taxa previously treated as Hypoaspidinae, Melittiphinae and Iphiopsidinae.</p> GILBERTO JOSÉ DE MORAES, GRAZIELLE FURTADO MOREIRA, RENATA ANGÉLICA PRADO FREIRE, FRÉDÉRIC BEAULIEU, HANS KLOMPEN, BRUCE HALLIDAY Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.27 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Restoring management practices in Tuscan organic vineyards and impact on soil mesostigmatid mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.28 <p>Soil fauna actively contributes to drive crucial processes of energy and nutrient cycling in agricultural systems, to influence the quality of crops and pest incidence. Soil tillage can be absolutely considered as one of the most influential agricultural manipulations of soil structure and has a profound influence on soil biology and its provision of ecosystem services. Understanding the effects of different tillage intensities is of interest not only to the scientific community but also to farmers, practitioners, policymakers, and agricultural consultants. As the long-term evidence in degraded vineyard soils, EU and FAO highly recommend inter-row practices basing on sustainable managements and good agronomic practices (GAPs) to re-install soil functionality.&nbsp;In this study, we aimed at evaluating effects of different GAP practices that can improve soil recovering on some soil quality indicators, with emphasis to edaphic mesostigmatid mites.</p> ELENA GAGNARLI, EDOARDO A. COSTANTINI, SIMONE PRIORI, GIUSEPPE VALBOA, SERGIO PELLEGRINI, NADIA VIGNOZZI, ALESSANDRO E. AGNELLI, DONATELLA GOGGIOLI, SILVIA GUIDI, SILVIA LANDI, GIADA D’ERRICO, SAURO SIMONI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.28 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The impact of 12 years of biological control on soil microbiome and microfauna composition and functions in tea plantations</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.29 <p>Synthetic pesticides were introduced to China in the 1940s and have become essential to increasing crop yield. They are now commonly applied across all agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about how the long-term pesticide use is affecting belowground communities and what impact pesticide residues are having on soil health. We investigated how pest management practice influence soil biota and overall yield. Soil samples were compared across tea farms that had different levels of pest management strategies: biocontrol, pesticide use, unmanaged over 12 years. DNA was extracted from the bulk soil underneath the canopy and subjected to 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA genes, ITS amplicon sequencing, qPCR quantification of the community and functional genes involved in the N-cycle. Additionally, the abundance and diversity of soil mites were recorded using traditional methods. The results highlighted that there were significant differences in edaphic properties including total nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH, phosphorus and levels of several pesticides across all treatments. Overall, there were distinct microbial communities associated with each treatment and diversity patterns were significantly influenced by management strategies. Across all gene regions, there was variation in the relative abundance of dominant taxa across treatment. Management influenced the abundance of N-cycling genes with an increased abundance of <em>amoA </em>and <em>nirK</em> in biocontrol and unmanaged farms. Interestingly, we found an increased abundance of fungal pathotrophs in the pesticide treatment. We also found that mite compositions and densities were different across all management strategies. The overall mite density and that of Rhodacaroidea were highest in the pesticide treatment and lowest in the unmanaged farm soil. This work aims to improve our understanding of pest management strategies from a soil biota point of view, to enhance soil health and to promote sustainable tea productions.</p> GONGYU LIN, ITUMELENG MOROENYANE, HUAYUAN SHANGGUAN, XIN SUN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.29 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Trophic links between soil predatory mites and nematodes as a key component of conservation biocontrol</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.30 <p>Biological control is an important ecosystem service for soil and plant health and has been successfully exploited, especially through augmentative biological control programs, for above-ground agricultural pest control often using predatory mites of Mesostigmata. Similar success has not been achieved for below-ground systems. Predatory mites are an important part of soil food webs, in which they have a regulatory impact. While this is mediated by the predator on the prey, recent studies suggest that biocontrol efficiency can be enhanced in the mid to long term for generalist predators by the presence of complementary prey. In below-ground systems, nematodes are an important food source and numerous species of predatory mites in soil may prefer them. Thus, nematodes are a viable and accessible alternative prey for these natural enemies. Our aim was to review the studies on mite-nematode trophic interactions and how these interactions affect the regulatory activity of predatory mites in soil. We found ca. 170 publications reporting a predator-prey interaction. The majority of the studies were conducted in the laboratory (149 studies), but important correlations between nematode and mite densities have been observed in greenhouses and in the open field. Most reports involved free-living nematodes (FLN), followed by plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) and finally animal-parasitic nematodes (APN). These reports are for Astigmatina, Endeostigmata, Prostigmata, Oribatida (non-Astigmatina) and Mesostigmata, the latter group being the one in which most nematophagous species are known. The family with the most reports of nematophagy is Ascidae (46 species), followed by Macrochelidae and Laelapidae (both with 30 species). In many cases, a positive effect on reproductive parameters and developmental times of mite species has been observed with a nematode-based diet, especially FLN. Although still scarce, studies on species of Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Parasitidae and Rhodacaridae have shown that supplementing FLN in the diet can favor reproduction and development, even though preference may change at different stages of development. Also, recent studies have shown that some organic amendments can increase the density and diversity of mites, FLN or both, enhancing top down forces by predatory mites in the soil food web. Although some steps have been taken, future studies should focus on transferring laboratory research to field and semi-field conditions. For this, a multidisciplinary approach is essential.</p> DIANA RUEDA-RAMÍREZ, ERIC PALEVSKY, LILIANE RUESS Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.30 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Plant mite bioinvasions as a rising challenge to crop protection</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.31 <p>Crop protection confronts several defies often related to globalisation, one of which is the introduction of new pests from one region, or even from one continent to another, often resulting from movements of humans and commodities. Together with environmental modifications linked to climate change, which might also favor bioinvasions, these are some of the key challenges agriculture increasingly has to face.</p> MARIA NAVAJAS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.31 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Modelling and predicting transport of Acari on the plant import pathway</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.32 <p>Acari, as with other small arthropods, are most commonly introduced to new areas as contaminants of agricultural trade. The biosecurity risk of such trade is managed by national and regional biosecurity systems, a chief aim of which is to prevent the introduction of agricultural and environmental pests. However, agricultural contaminants are introduced unintentionally, can occur on any product in a wide range of places, and are often very small in size, which makes them inherently difficult to study, understand, and manage.</p> DAVINA L. SACCAGGI, JOHN R. U. WILSON, ANDREW P. ROBINSON, JOHN S. TERBLANCHE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.32 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Phytophagous mite invasions in Latin America and Europe—lessons learnt from the last three decades</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.33 <p>Phytophagous mites are among those arthropods that can become invasive pests severely affecting host plants in both agricultural systems and natural environments. In addition to the direct damages caused by high populations they can act as vectors of major plant pathogens, especially viruses.</p> DENISE NAVIA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.33 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The banana rust mite, <em>Phyllocoptruta musae</em> Keifer (Eriophyidae), an invasive mite in the Caribbean presenting an unusual sexual behavior</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.34 <p>The banana rust mite, <em>Phyllocoptruta musae</em> Keifer, 1955 (Eriophyidae), was observed for the first time in the Caribbean in 2020, in Dominican Republic, in the Línea Noroeste region, Valverde and Monte Cristi provinces, infesting <em>Musa acuminata </em>plantations (Gran Enano and Williams hybrids) (Gómez-Moya <em>et al.,</em> 2021). This eriophyid mite was described from Queensland, Australia on <em>Musa</em> x <em>paradisiaca</em> L. (Keifer, 1955). In the Eastern Hemisphere, besides Australia <em>P. musae</em> had been reported from China, in the autonomous region of Guangxi Zhuang; on Hainan Island, and in Thailand (Li <em>et al.,</em> 2007; Tan <em>et al.,</em> 2014; Chandrapatya <em>et al</em>., 2016; Amrine &amp; de Lillo, personnal communication). In Australia infestations were reported causing fruit spotting (Keifer, 1955).</p> CRISTINA A. GÓMEZ-MOYA, CARLOS H. W. FLECHTMANN, RENATA SANTOS DE MENDONÇA, PARMENIO TAVERAS, ANDREA O. FELIZ LEBRÓN, RAÚL T. VILLANUEVA, DENISE NAVIA Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.34 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The invasive Lewis spider mite,&nbsp;<em>Eotetranychus lewisi</em>&nbsp;(Acari: Tetranychidae), in Europe—current status and associated risk</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.35 <p>Invasive pests and pathogens are an undesirable consequence of international trade and travel, and often result in significant ecological and economic impacts. In Europe, the number of spider mites (Tetranychidae) is steadily increasing with the arrival of introduced species, most of which have the status of pests. During the last decades two invasive species have occasionally caused major damage to crops in Europe, namely <em>Tetranychus evansi</em> and <em>Oligonychus perseae</em>.</p> PEDRO NAVES, PHILIPPE AUGER, ALAIN MIGEON, DENISE NAVIA, ANTÓNIO AGUIAR, MÁRCIA SANTOS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.35 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Response to an incursion of tomato red spider mite <em>Tetranychus evansi</em> in New Zealand</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.36 <p>The tomato red spider mite (TRSM), <em>Tetranychus evansi</em> Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) was first detected from black nightshade <em>Solanum nigrum</em> (Solanaceae) near Auckland Airport on 21 May 2020 (Ministry for Primary Industries. 2020a, b; Fan <em>et al.</em> 2021). A preliminary investigation revealed more mites within 0.5 km away from the original site. Subsequently, two more sites were found positive for TRSM, one was approximately 20 km north east of the original site and the other about 9 km east of the original site. The analysis of DNA sequences of the detected mites indicated that the TRSM in Auckland belonged to the Lineage I, indicating that there was a single incursion. A response was initiated, and a delimiting survey was carried out, targeting the areas along the State Highway One including the nearby agricultural production farms between Auckland and Whangarei, and Auckland and Hamilton. A total of 541 site searches were carried out and TRSM was detected in eight sites covering an area of 91.4 km<sup>2</sup> across the Auckland region.</p> QING-HAI FAN, DONGMEI LI, SHERLY GEORGE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.36 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Revisiting <em>Brevipalpus californicus</em>: a species complex under review and its potential role in the transmission of dichorhaviruses</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.37 <p><em>Brevipalpus</em>-transmitted viruses (BTVs) cause economically important diseases such as citrus leprosis, widespread in Latin America, and coffee ringspot, found mainly in Brazil. One BTV, the orchid fleck virus, has a worldwide distribution infecting orchids.</p> ALINE DANIELE TASSI, RONALD OCHOA, PEDRO LUIS RAMOS-GONZÁLEZ, ELLIOT W. KITAJIMA, JULIANA FREITAS-ASTÚA, DANIEL CARRILLO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.37 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Resistance management for mites vectoring citrus leprosis in Brazil</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.38 <p>Citrus leprosis is the most important viral disease affecting Brazilian citrus orchards. The disease is caused by the cilevirus citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) and transmitted by flat mites <em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Citrus leprosis can reduce yield by causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and drying of branches of citrus trees.</p> DANIEL JÚNIOR DE ANDRADE, CLAUDIANE MARTINS DA ROCHA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.38 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of weather and predators on the population <em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in south Florida hibiscus hedges</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.39 <p>Citrus leprosis diseased caused by citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) is considered one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. The putative vectors (<em>Brevipalpus</em> spp.) are present in the major citrus producing states in the U.S.A. Recently, Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2) Hibiscus strain, a virus with a high degree of homology with CiLV, was found infecting hibiscus in Florida and Hawaii. Hibiscus is an important ornamental plant generating over $21 billion (2010–2015) for the Florida nursery industry. We studied the presence of the CiLV-C2 vector <em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> on hibiscus hedges located in south Florida to determine if hibiscus could be a reservoir for leprosis vectors and if predators and environmental conditions affect the population dynamics of the vector. For two years, samples were taken monthly from 3 hibiscus hedges. All <em>Brevipalpus</em> mites and known predatory mites were counted from three locations in the canopy (top, middle and bottom). Weather data was collected from local weather stations. <em>Brevipalpus</em> mites were always found on hibiscus but in very low numbers. The populations of <em>B. yothersi</em> were similar in all areas of the canopy but were different at the three locations. Humidity and precipitation did not explain changes in <em>B. yothersi</em> populations. <em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> growth rate increased with temperature with a predicted peak at 26.1°C. Predators populations increased with increases in <em>B. yothersi</em> population. Hibiscus hedges appear to serve as a reservoir for predators. Higher temperatures that could occur with climate change could lead to an exponential increase in the abundance of <em>B. yothersi.</em></p> AMY L. RODA, C. TERI ALLEN, DANIEL CARRILLO, GÖSTA NACHMAN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.39 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Interactions between pesticides and predatory mites and their effects on the integrated control of <em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> in citrus</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.40 <p><em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is an important mite species inhabiting citrus crops. This mite is the vector of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), which causes leprosis disease.</p> JAQUELINE FRANCIOSI DELLA VECHIA, DANIEL JUNIOR DE ANDRADE, AMY L. RODA, DANIEL CARRILLO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.40 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Biocontrol of <em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> in Florida</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.41 <p><em>Brevipalpus yothersi</em> is the main vector of Cileviruses (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) that cause citrus leprosis disease in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and other places in South and Central America. This mite is also present in Florida, where it was recently found vectoring a strain of Citrus leprosis virus 2 (CiLV-C2H) that infects hibiscus. Management of <em>B. yothersi</em> has been focused on chemical control, however, reports of <em>B. yothersi</em> resistance to acaricides indicate the need for an integrated pest management approach.</p> DANIEL CARRILLO, POLIANE SA ARGOLO, JAQUELINE F. DELLA VECHIA, DANIEL JUNIOR DE ANDRADE, ALEXANDRA M. REVYNTHI, ISMAIL DÖKER, AMY L. RODA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.41 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Phoretic mites associated with ambrosia beetles in Florida avocados</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.42 <p>Ambrosia beetles spend most of their life inside galleries built on host trees. They use the xylem as a substrate for farming symbiotic fungi, carried in specialized sac-like structures called mycangia. Most of their symbionts offer no threat to plants. However, some of these symbionts are phytopathogens that infect avocado (<em>Persea americana</em>) and other plants in the family Lauraceae. <em>Raffaelea lauricola</em> is a fungal pathogen vectored by several species of ambrosia beetles in the United States. It is the causal agent of laurel wilt, a deadly disease affecting avocado and forest ecosystems in Florida. The cryptic living habits of the ambrosia beetles make their management challenging. Conventional insecticide and fungicide applications have not been successful so far. This system requires novel IPM strategies.</p> MARIELLE M. BERTO, PAUL E. KENDRA, DANIEL CARRILLO Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.42 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong><em>Brevipalpus</em> (Tenuipalpidae) and orchid fleck virus (OFV) in South Africa: what do we know?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.43 <p>Certain species of <em>Brevipalpus </em>(Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) are able to transmit viruses of the citrus leprosis complex, a serious non-systemic disease of citrus. This disease is endemic to Central and South America, and is characterised by necrotic lesions with chlorotic halos on twigs, leaves and fruit. Citrus leprosis is caused by two types of RNA viruses: cytoplasmic (CL-C) and nuclear (CL-N). In South Africa, CL-N symptoms were detected in 2018 in citrus orchards in the Sundays River Valley (SRV) of the Eastern Cape (Fig 1), and found to be associated with trees testing positive for orchid fleck virus (OFV) (Cook <em>et al.</em> 2019). Mites from this site identified as <em>B. californicus s.l.</em> tested positive for OFV. It is assumed that the entry pathway of OFV virus into South Africa was via the trade of orchid pot plants, and that it was then transmitted to citrus by viruliferous <em>B. californicus</em>. This is the first CL virus-vector association and putative transmission from orchids to citrus identified in South Africa.</p> DAVINA L. SACCAGGI, WAYNE KIRKMAN, GLYNNIS COOK, EDWARD A. UECKERMANN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.43 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Impacts of continental invasion of <em>Raoiella indica</em> in the Americas</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.44 <p>The invasion of the Red Palm Mite (RPM),&nbsp;<em>Raoiella indica</em>, in the western hemisphere, is probably the most extensive, fastest, and better-documented plant pest arthropod invasion in recent decades. RPM was initially detected in the Lesser Caribbean Antilles, and it rapidly spread hooping through the islands and reaching continental areas in North, Central and South America.</p> JOSE CARLOS VERLE RODRIGUES, RONALD OCHOA, DANIEL CARRILLO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.44 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Eriophyoid mites under the lens of different microscopy techniques</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.45 <p>Eriophyoid mites, also known as bud, gall, or rust mites, impact nearly all crops of economic importance, including food crops, timber, and ornamental plants. Currently, they are divided into three families (Phytoptidae, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae) with an estimated one million species, of which just over 5600 have been described.</p> RONALD OCHOA, MARCELLO DEGIOSA, JOHN HAMMOND, ALEXANDRA REVYNTHI, JOSEPH MOWERY, CAL WELBOURN, DANIEL CARRILLO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.45 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The lychee erinose mite (<em>Aceria litchii</em>): pest status and management in Florida</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.46 <p>The lychee erinose mite (LEM) (<em>Aceria litchii</em>) is an important pest of lychee. This minute mite prefers to feed on young new flush, causing the formation of hypertrophic trichomes, known as erinea. In Brazil, LEM has been reported to cause 80% yield reduction.</p> ALEXANDRA M. REVYNTHI, LIVIA M. S. ATAIDE, MARIA-ALEJANDRA CANON, JAQUELINE F. DELLA VECHIA, DANIEL J. ANDRADE, PAUL E. KENDRA, NURHAYAT TABANCA, JOHN HAMMOND, RONALD OCHOA, DANIEL CARRILLO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.46 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Spit it out: extraction of saliva from the lychee erinose mite (<em>Aceria litchi</em> (Keifer) Acari: Eriophyidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.47 <p>The Lychee Erinose Mite (LEM) (<em>Aceria litchii</em> (Keifer)) is a gall-making eriophyid that feeds exclusively on lychee trees (<em>Litchi chinensis</em>&nbsp;Sonnerat), inducing the development of open leaf galls called erinea. Erinea are structures formed of hypertrophic leaf trichomes where LEM seeks refuge, feeds and reproduces.</p> MARCELLO DE GIOSA, LIVIA M. S. ATAIDE, RONALD OCHOA, ENRICO DE LILLO, DANIEL CARRILLO, ALEXANDRA M. REVYNTHI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.47 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The lychee erinose mite (<em>Aceria litchii</em>), in the Context of the Mite-Plant Interaction</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.48 <p>The lychee erinose mite (LEM), <em>Aceria litchii</em>, is a serious pest of lychee. This tiny mite induces the formation of erinea, which are open galls with hypertrophic trichomes. Erinea can form on leaves, flowers, fruit, and other plant structures, hampering plant growth and yield. Four distinct types of erinea can be observed: light white (stage 01), white (stage 02), amber (stage 03), and dark erinea (stage 04). To date, it is unknown how and why <em>A. litchii</em> induces the formation of erinea on lychee plants.</p> LIVIA M. S. ATAIDE, JAQUELINE F. DELLA VECHIA, PAUL E. KENDRA, RONALD OCHOA, JOHN HAMMOND, DANIEL CARRILLO, ALEXANDRA M. REVYNTHI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.48 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Phenology and effects of relative humidity and temperature on <em>Phyllocoptes</em> <em>fructiphilus</em>*</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.49 <p>Rose rosette disease (RRD) is a serious rose disease in North America. RRD is caused by rose rosette virus transmitted by <em>Phyllocoptes fructiphilus</em> (Acari: Eriophyidae).</p> SHIMAT V. JOSEPH, ALEJANDRA MONTERROSA, MATHEWS L. PARET, RONALD OCHOA, ANDREW ULSAMER Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.49 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Population density of eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) on raspberry (<em>Rubus idaeus</em>) and their association with leaf blotch symptoms</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.50 <p>Red raspberry, <em>Rubus idaeus, </em>is known to be infested by at least six species of eriophyid mites. Among them, the raspberry leaf and bud mite, <em>Phyllocoptes gracilis</em>, (Figure 1, A–B) is the only known vector of a raspberry virus, namely the raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV) (Dong<em> et al.</em> 2016; McGavin<em> et al.</em> 2012; Tan<em> et al.</em> 2022). Raspberry leaf blotch (Figure 1, C), a leaf disorder displaying as leaf chlorosis, distortion and patchy necrosis, yellowing and thinning on lateral branches, has been attributed to the feeding of <em>P. gracilis</em> until RLBV was also found to be associated with these symptoms (McGavin<em> et al.</em> 2012). Previous sampling of eriophyid mites was often based on the presence of the leaf blotch symptom, and there is a reasonable doubt if the symptom was caused by RLBV infection or mite infestation. It could also be hypothesized that eriophyid mites are attracted to RLBV-infected plants as viruses could make host plants more attractive to vectors (Donnelly &amp; Gilligan 2020; Shi<em> et al.</em> 2019). It is therefore important to improve the detection of both mites and RLBV to efficiently manage the virus. In addition, knowledge on the dominant infestation area of eriophyid mites on raspberry canes is essential to develop an effective pest management approach. Gordon and Taylor (1976) reported that <em>P. gracilis </em>on primocanes during late summer (mid-August) was dominantly found on the upper leaves, due to the presence of predatory mites on the lower and middle leaves. But mite behavior on floricanes is also important to study if the goal is to prevent mite migration and RLBV transmission to primocanes. This study aimed to investigate the population density of eriophyid mites on raspberry floricanes and the association of eriophyid mites, RLBV, and leaf blotch symptoms.</p> JIUNN LUH TAN, NINA TRANDEM, ROSTISLAV ZEMEK, ZHIBO HAMBORG, BIJAYA SAPKOTA, DAG-RAGNAR BLYSTAD, JANA FRÁNOVÁ Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.50 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Global mite diversity is in crisis: what can we do about it?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.51 <p>Since the 1970’s, biodiversity, conservation and ecology journals have published increasing numbers of reports of major, widespread losses of the diversity and abundance of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, mostly insects, especially in tropical regions. Mites make a major contribution to global ecosystem services and ecological functioning. Reports on diversity and abundance losses among mites, including ticks, have appeared more recently. The huge problems of population decline and direct extinction among free-living invertebrate species across the world are compounded by the host dependency of enormous numbers of other invertebrate species, which puts them at serious risk of secondary endangerment and co-extinction. They include huge numbers of mite species in symbiotic relationships, including phoretic and parasitic relationships, and the highly host-specific, phytophagous eriophyoids. The destruction and degradation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and habitats across the world, especially for agricultural expansion and intensification, are the major causes of biodiversity loss, with climate change, pollution, overexploitation, invasive species and pesticide use among other contributors. Measures and activities that would substantially contribute to saving the great majority of the world’s remaining biodiversity include the protection of all remaining areas of natural and semi-natural habitat, especially the subtropical and tropical forests, with the 36 global biodiversity hotspots an absolute priority; habitat restoration with local species; higher global soil carbon levels; rapid transition from fossil fuel use to renewable energy sources to stop climate change; minimization of pollution; universal education and social justice; a lower human population; and sustainable use of global resources. The rapid implementation of these and other practical measures at the local, national and global scales is essential to ensure the long term survival of the vast majority of biodiversity, including mite species.</p> GREGORY T. SULLIVAN, SEBAHAT K. OZMAN-SULLIVAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.51 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Mite conservation: which species should we care about—and should we care at all?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.52 <p>The enormous diversity of mites, some of which depend upon a single host species, coupled with threatened species and environments, means that some must be endangered or even extinct. But how do we identify an endangered mite species, recognise which species are at greater risk of extinction, and determine how they can be incorporated in conservation efforts?</p> OWEN D. SEEMAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.52 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Water mites (Acariformes, Hydrachnidia) of Siberia: DNA-based species identification for global climate change monitoring programs</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.53 <p>Water mites (Hydrachnidia) are good model organisms for the assessment and long-term monitoring of the biological impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes in freshwater ecosystems, including those related to global climate change. There are approximately 7,500 species, 485 genera and 56 families. Water mite communities can be affected by pollution and variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen level, conductivity and carbonate concentrations. Due to the complex interactions of water mites with other members of the macroinvertebrate fauna and their habitats, water mite assemblages can rapidly respond to perturbances in the interconnected ecological networks of aquatic communities, and therefore are particularly suitable for early warning systems that monitor water quality. However, monitoring programs using water mites as bioindicators may be impeded by difficulties associated with species identification. Siberia is a crucial region for biodiversity conservation and climatic research by being a major carbon sink due to the large amounts of carbon preserved in permafrost and sequestered by vast boreal forests and peatbogs, and is also a key region for climate change research. There are several reference sites in the Arctic tundra, forest and grassland areas allocated for long-term monitoring of climatically active gases, as well as assessment of the impact of climate change on animal and plant communities.</p> PAVEL B. KLIMOV, VITALY A. STOLBOV, DENIS V. KAZAKOV, MARIA O. FILIMONOVA, SERGEY D. SHEYKIN, ANDREY V. TOLSTIKOV Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.53 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Extinct species of feather mite from the last two native Crested Ibises, <em>Nipponia nippon</em> (Temminck) (Pelecaniformes: Threskiornithidae) in Japan</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.54 <p>Currently, in the Red List of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (Hereinafter referred to as RL-MOE) (version 2020), the only terrestrial arthropod other than insects that are classified as Extinct (EX) is the feather mite, <em>Compressalges nipponiae</em> Dubinin (Caudiferidae) (Waki &amp; Shimano, 2022). The feather mite <em>C. nipponiae</em> is a monoxenous ectoparasite of the Crested Ibis<em> Nipponia nippon</em> (Temminck) (original Japanese pronunciation is “Nippon”). The mite species was originally sampled from the Crested Ibis collected at Lake Khanka (Russia) in the 1950s and was described as new species in the papers by Dubinin (1950). The species is not found on birds other than the Crested Ibis, suggesting that it is highly host specific.</p> SATOSHI SHIMANO, TSUKASA WAKI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.54 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>A new species of <em>Hannemania</em> (Trombidiformes: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitizing the endemic and endangered frog, <em>Atelognathus reverberii</em> (Anura: Batrachylidae) from Argentinian Patagonia</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.55 <p>Chigger mites of the genus <em>Hannemania</em> Oudemans 1911 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) are subcutaneous parasites of amphibians. To date, 28 species have been reported from the Americas and Oceania. In Argentina, only six species have been recorded: <em>H. achalai </em>Alzuet &amp; Mauri 1987, <em>H. argentina</em> Lahille 1927, <em>H. edwardsi</em> Sambon 1928, <em>H. hobdayi </em>Sambon 1928, <em>H. minor</em> Alzuet &amp; Mauri 1987 and,<em> H. samboni</em> Ewing 1931. Those species were recorded parasitizing frogs of the genera <em>Bufo</em> Garsault (Bufonidae), <em>Hypsiboas</em> Wagler (Hylidae), <em>Leptodactylus</em> Fitzinger (Leptodactylidae), <em>Nannophryne</em> Günther (Bufonidae), <em>Odontophrynus</em> Reinhardt &amp; Lütken (Odontophrynidae) and,<em> Pleurodema</em> Tschudi (Leptodactylidae). Most of these records are from the northern, northeastern and Andean regions in Argentina. In Argentinean Patagonia, the Meseta de Somuncurá is a protected natural area of great biological interest due to the strong endemism of fauna and flora (at least 14 endemic species). Only, <em>H. hobdayi </em>and <em>H. samboni</em> have been described from Argentinean Patagonia. The endemic Laguna Raimunda frog, <em>Atelognathus reverberii</em> (Cei) (Anura: Batrachylidae), is an endangered species with a distribution in the semi-permanent volcanic clay lagoons of Meseta de Somuncurá. The ecological characteristics of <em>A. reverberii</em> populations make it vulnerable to habitat degradation and parasitic diseases. This study aimed to describe a potentially new species of <em>Hannemania</em> collected as a parasite of <em>A. reverberii</em> in Meseta de Somuncurá, Río Negro, Argentina. A sample of 11 mites was cleared in lactophenol solution, slide-mounted in Hoyer’s medium, and observed using an optical microscope with Phase contrast and DIC. The mites have a palpal formula that differs from those of the previously described <em>Hannemania</em> species from Argentina and the rest of South America. They also differ from the related species in the number of eupathidia on the genu of leg I (σ) and the number and arrangement of dorsal opisthosomal setae. We consider that the species morphological differences and geographic isolation are sufficient to propose a novel species of the genus <em>Hannemania</em>. Herein, we present the first record of <em>Hannemania</em> parasitizing <em>A. reverberii</em>. As this amphibian is considered endangered, this novel species of <em>Hannemania</em> is probably threatened. This study contributes to the knowledge of this parasitic mite. In future studies, it will be necessary to consider molecular data of Argentinian <em>Hannemania</em> species to achieve a better understanding of the systematics of the genus.</p> MARIO ESPINOZA-CARNIGLIA, FERNANDO C. JACINAVICIUS, RICARDO BASSINI-SILVA, MARIA CAROLINA SILVA-DE LA FUENTE, NICOLÁS KASS, MARTÍN MONTES, LUCILA MORENO, MARCELA LARESCHI Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.55 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Unveiling the diet of predatory mites through DNA metabarcoding—can abiotic factors affect prey detectability?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.56 <p>Despite the importance of predatory mites as biological control agents, the way that generalist species can maintain in agrosystems, the alternative prey they can feed on, the way they choose to eat one prey, or another are poorly known. For some phytoseiid predatory mite species, prey consumption has been characterized by lab tests (Cavalcante <em>et al</em>., 2015, 2017; Juan-Blasco <em>et al</em>., 2012; Oliveira <em>et al.</em>, 2007). However, those approaches are sometimes difficult to perform, very time consuming and do not totally reflect interactions occurring in field conditions. New technologies that allow determining the diet of predatory mites in situ are highly desirable to supporting biological control programs. A promising avenue for deciphering the diet of predatory mites is offered by DNA metabarcoding. Although this approach has been used in the study of insects (Hosseini <em>et al</em>., 2008; Kaunisto <em>et al</em>., 2017; Paula <em>et al</em>., 2022), only starts to be applied to microarthropod biological control agents, as predatory mites (Navia <em>et al.</em>, 2019). DNA metabarcoding was successfully applied to identify prey species of phytoseiid mites using group-specific primers. However, biotic and abiotic factors can affect the detectability of predatory mite preys through metabarcoding, as previously showed for studies using traditional molecular methods (=PCR Multiplex and Sanger sequencing) (Pérez-Sayas <em>et al</em>., 2015). This information is relevant to understanding the limits of using the methodology, to guide sample collection procedures, and to assure the correct interpretation of the results.</p> ISIS CAROLINA S. DE OLIVEIRA, JEAN-FRANÇOIS MARTIN, MARIE-STÉPHANE TIXIER, DEBORA PIRES PAULA, DENISE NAVIA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.56 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>A new interpretation of the functional morphology of <em>Uroactinia</em> sp. (Uropodina: Uroactinidae) using advanced microscopic techniques</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.57 <p>Chelicerae of most Parasitiform mites have retained the same general set of plesiomorphic structures and functions. For mesostigmatid mites this represents grabbing, cutting, piercing and, in the males of some groups, transferring sperm (Di Palma 2009).</p> ORLANDO COMBITA-HEREDIA, HANS KLOMPEN, ALEJANDRO RICO-GUEVARA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.57 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Polishing Michael’s Shoe: The structure and variability in the genital chamber of Uropodina</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.58 <p>Primary and secondary sexual characters of Mesostigmata are often used in species descriptions and phylogenetic analyses. The use of these characters has been focused almost exclusively on external structures such as the male chelicera and genital plates, while internal structures have only been utilized for lightly sclerotized species.</p> JEREMY C.B. NAREDO, IAN BRACKETT, ORLANDO COMBITA-HEREDIA, MORGAN ADAMS, HANS KLOMPEN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.58 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Adding dimensions to acarology: synchrotron based micro-CT scan and 3D models to study internal morphology in Mesostigmata</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.59 <p>Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-mCT) is a noninvasive technique that has the potential to reduce our knowledge gap on the internal morphology of mites. This technique allows for the creation of three-dimensional representations of organisms and is particularly relevant to taxonomy, evolution, systematics, ecology, and biodiversity.</p> ORLANDO COMBITA-HEREDIA, HANS KLOMPEN, ALEJANDRO RICO-GUEVARA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.59 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Phylogenetics of Acari and their cousins reshuffled by ultraconserved elements (UCE’s): can beauty emerge from chaos?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.60 <p>Determining the chelicerate tree of life has been the subject of much research, with deep phylogenetic divergences and high evolutionary rates complicating both morphological and molecular approaches (Noah <em>et al.</em>, 2020; Ontano <em>et al.</em>, 2021; Sharma <em>et al.</em>, 2021; Ballesteros <em>et al.</em>, 2022). Within Acari, similar challenges exist—even the basic question of whether Acari is mono- or diphyletic remains unresolved (Pepato &amp; Klimov, 2015; Lozano-Fernandez <em>et al.</em>, 2019; Van Dam <em>et al.</em>, 2019; Ontano <em>et al.</em>, 2021). Several recent molecular studies have attempted to resolve these issues using large multi-gene datasets (Pepato <em>et al.</em>, 2022; Klimov <em>et al.</em>, 2018), mitochondrial genomes (Ban <em>et al.</em>, 2022), and transcriptomes (Lozano-Fernandez <em>et al.</em>, 2019). Ultraconserved elements (Faircloth <em>et al.</em>, 2012) have recently shown great promise for constructing phylogenies for both deeply- and shallowly-diverged taxa (Zhang <em>et al.</em>, 2019), including for Chelicerata (Starrett <em>et al.</em>, 2017) and for Arrenuridae within Acari (Shoop, 2019), but have not yet been used across the Acari.</p> FRÉDÉRIC BEAULIEU, MONICA YOUNG, MARLA SCHWARZFELD, WAYNE KNEE, PAVEL KLIMOV, BARRY OCONNOR, MATTHEW SHAW, OWEN SEEMAN, HANS KLOMPEN, IAN SMITH, JULIE CHAPADOS, JACKSON EYRES, ROBIN RICHTER, JEREMY DETTMAN, EVERT E. LINDQUIST Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.60 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Phylogenomic resolution of the eriophyoid position among Acari and symbiotic bacteria of the gall‑inducing mite <em>Fragariocoptes setiger</em> (Eriophyoidea)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.61 <p>Eriophyoid mites are ancient and widely distributed microscopic plant symbionts, with 4,400 nominal species. Some eriophyoid mites can induce galls in their plant hosts, but the mechanism of gall induction is not well understood. One hypothesis suggests that associated bacteria may enhance the production of phytohormones by gall-inducing arthropods. The phylogenetic position of Eriophyoidea is also a contentious issue.</p> PAVEL B. KLIMOV, PHILIPP E. CHETVERIKOV, SAMUEL J. BOLTON, ANDREY V. TOLSTIKOV Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.61 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Genotypes of the red velvet mite, <em>Balaustium murorum</em> (Trombidiformes, Erythraeidae) in the Northern Hemisphere and estimation of the migration process to Japan</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.62 <p><em>Balaustium murorum</em> is considered to be widely distributed in the western part of the Palearctic region of Eurasia and has recently been reported for redescription and ecological information (<em>e.g.</em>, Wohltmann 2000; Mąkol 2010). Since <em>B. murorum</em> has been widely reported in Japan since the 1980s, it has been considered to be an introduced species from Europe (M. Shiba, personal communication).</p> SATOSHI SHIMANO, SHIMPEI F. HIRUTA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.62 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Host plants contribute to the global pattern and diversification of herbivorous eriophyoid mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.63 <p>Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) comprise approximately 5000 named species, leading to the most species-rich superfamily in the Acari. They are strictly herbivorous with a high level of host specificity, reflecting 89% of these mites attack only one or two congeneric host species (Yin <em>et al.</em>, 2022).</p> XIAO-FENG XUE, LIANG-FEI YAO, YUE YIN, NI LI, YUE HU, ZI-KAI SHAO, QI ZHANG, JING-TAO SUN, XIAO-YUE HONG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.63 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Kinship mediates the expression of alternative reproductive tactics in competing spider mite males</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.64 <p>Owing to its fitness implications, the degree of genetic relatedness within and between the sexes is a highly significant determinant in mate competition, mate choice and mating success. The role of kinship in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) has been rarely investigated. Here we scrutinized kinship effects on male ARTs in two-spotted spider mites <em>Tetranychus urticae</em>.</p> PETER SCHAUSBERGER, THI HANH NGUYEN, MUSTAFA ALTINTAS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.64 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of social environments and female life history traits on sex allocation in a spider mite</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.65 <p>Sex allocation in spider mites (<em>Tetranychus </em>sp.) is of interest to many researchers. They are haplodiploid species where the mated females can lay fertile and infertile eggs that develop to daughters and sons, respectively. Females tend to fertilise larger eggs (Macke <em>et al.</em> 2011) and adjust the offspring sex ratio under various social environments (e.g., population size and density) (e.g., Weerawansha <em>et al.</em> 2022a, 2022b, 2022c).</p> NUWAN WEERAWANSHA, QIAO WANG, XIONG ZHAO HE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.65 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The lifestyle of a spider mite in psyllid galls: only parasitic?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.66 <p>Insect and mite galls provide a secondary habitat for arthropods and are sites driving community diversity. Nevertheless, the role of galls on the lifestyle of mites inhabiting them is scarcely investigated. We previously reported that a population of <em>Eotetranychus asiaticus</em> Ehara colonises leaf galls made by the psyllid <em>Trioza cinnamomi</em> (Boselli) larvae on Japanese cinnamon<em> Cinnamomum yabunikkei</em> H. Ohba (Lauraceae) (Saito <em>et al.</em>, 2016).</p> KATSURA ITO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.66 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Diets shape the bacterial communities of three predatory mites in Phytoseiidae</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.67 <p>Microbial communities can affect host ecology and evolution by host deterministic selection or stochastic processes from diets. Host deterministic selection is generally considered as a strong force in shaping the microbial structures, while host diets basically define the major sources of microbial colonizers.</p> BO ZHANG, HONG YAN, XUENONG XU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.67 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Biology of <em>Macrocheles merdarius</em> (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.68 <p>Macrocheles is the largest genus in the family Macrochelidae which contains some species that act as biological control agents of pests on crops.</p> KARINA ARAÚJO DOS ANJOS, LUCIANA MORITA KATIKI, FERNANDA CALVO DUARTE, LETÍCIA HENRIQUE DE AZEVEDO, MÁRCIA CRISTINA MENDES Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.68 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Evaluation of prey stage preference of the phytoseiid predator, <em>Neoseiulus longispinosus</em> (Evans) to the spider mite pest, <em>Tetranychus macfarlanei</em> Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.69 <p><em>Tetranychus macfarlanei</em> Baker and Pritchard is considered as a major spider mite pest infesting various agricultural crops across the globe. It is a highly polyphagous species, inducing heavy yield loss annually, thereby affecting the agriculture sector drastically. As an eco-friendly pest management strategy, biological control using phytoseiid predators is gaining significant attention all over the world during the past few decades. Evaluation of predatory potential and prey stage preference provides valuable information on the efficacy of the predatory species in controlling the pest population. Considering this, a comparative evaluation of the feeding preference of a phytoseiid predator, <em>Neoseiulus longispinosus </em>(Evans), was made on different life stages of <em>T. macfarlanei</em> under laboratory conditions of 30±2<sup>0</sup>C and 70±5% RH. The experimental arena used for the feeding experiments consisted of mulberry leaf discs (2 cm<sup>2</sup>) uniformly arranged over 2% semi-solidified agarose medium placed inside a glass Petri dish. The results revealed that the feeding preference of the adult predator towards the prey stages after 24 hours of experiment followed a decreasing sequence of egg (68%)&gt; nymph (13.3%)&gt; larva (6.6%). The predator nymph also followed a similar order of preference with respective consumption rates of 22%, 6.6% and 6.6% on the egg, larva and nymph of the prey mite, indicating that both the nymphs and the adult females of the predator displayed a significant preference to feed on the eggs of <em>T. macfarlanei</em>. Both predatory life stages showed no preference to the adult females of <em>T. macfarlanei.</em> Statistical analysis using ANOVA revealed a significant variation (p &lt; 0.05) in the feeding preference of the predatory life stages towards the varied prey stages. Thus, the results of the study clearly showed the bio-control potential of <em>N. longispinosus</em> against <em>T. macfarlanei</em>.</p> DEVASIA JYOTHIS, NERAVATHU RAMANI Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.69 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Diet experiences early in life mold individual foraging niches and personalities of omnivorous predatory mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.70 <p>The theory of individual niche specialization posits that members of local groups should diversify in their realized individual diet niches to alleviate inter-individual food competition and ensuing conflicts (Bolnick et al. 2003). Here we tested the hypothesis that early life experiences co-shape individual specialization in diet niches and animal personality expression in the omnivorous plant-inhabiting predatory mite <em>Amblyseius swirskii</em>.</p> THI HANH NGUYEN, PETER SCHAUSBERGER Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.70 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Intraguild predation between two predatory mites <em>Neoseiulus cucumeris</em> Oudemans (Phytoseiidae) and <em>Blattisocius dentriticus</em> Berlese (Blattisociidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.71 <p>Different species not only can compete with each other for food and space but also prey on competitors. Intraguild predation is where individuals prey on other competing species. Nevertheless, intraguild predation may cause adverse influence between biocontrol agents targeting the same pest. The generalist predator <em>Blattisocius dentriticus </em>recently invaded and excluded our culture of <em>Neoseiulus cucumeris</em>. Additionally, the presence of <em>B. dentriticus </em>females’ cues has prolonged the development time and consumption of <em>N. cucumeris</em> males (Gu <em>et al.</em>, 2022). Therefore, the potential for intraguild predation between the two predatory mites, <em>N. cucumeris</em> and <em>B. dentriticus</em>, was investigated. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a no-choice test and a population test in the presence of their shared prey, <em>Tyrophagus putrescentiae </em>Schrank. Like other phytoseiid species, intraguild predation between <em>N. cucumeris</em> and <em>B. dentriticus </em>is mutual though they are asymmetric in size. <em>Blattisocius dentriticus</em> was larger than <em>N. cucumeris</em>, based on their dorsal shield lengths of the same sex and life stage, and superior than <em>N. cucumeris</em> in intraguild predation. In the no-choice test, <em>B. dentriticus</em> adults consumed <em>N. cucumeris</em> at all life stages, while <em>N. cucumeris</em> adults (i.e. females) preyed only on immature<em> B. dentriticus</em>. Body size was found to be a major factor affecting the direction of intraguild predation: intraguild predators were larger than intraguild prey they consumed. In the population experiment, <em>B. dentriticus </em>eliminated <em>N. cucumeris</em> despite the different starting populations of the two species. Our laboratory study suggests that <em>B. dentriticus</em> may adversely impact <em>N. cucumeris</em> through direct (i.e. intraguild predation) and indirect interactions.</p> XINYAO GU, KESHI ZHANG, ZHI-QIANG ZHANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.71 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Dosage-dependent and prey stage-specific non-consumptive effects of predators on prey: interactions between <em>Neoseiulus cucumeris</em> and <em>Tyrophagus putrescentiae</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.72 <p>Predators can affect prey both directly through consumption and indirectly through non-consumptive effects such as predation risk. The latter has been less studied than consumptive effects in predator-prey interactions, although many studies have shown that non-consumptive effects could significantly affect various life history traits of the prey (Clinchy <em>et al.</em> 2013; Gurr <em>et al.</em> 2017; Hawlena &amp; Schmitz 2010; Hermann &amp; Thaler 2014; McCauley <em>et al.</em> 2011; Peckarsky <em>et al.</em> 2002; Skelhorn <em>et al.</em> 2011; Stoks 2001; Zanette <em>et al.</em> 2011), such as development, reproduction and lifespan in mite prey-predator systems (Choh &amp; Takabayashi 2010; Freinschlag &amp; Schausberger 2016; Grostal &amp; Dicke 1999; Li &amp; Zhang 2019; Ristyadi <em>et al.</em> 2022; Škaloudová <em>et al.</em> 2007; Wei &amp; Zhang 2019, 2022). Most published studies examined the short-term effects of predation risk on prey immature development, reproduction and behaviour (e.g. Abrams &amp; Rowe 1996; Choh <em>et al.</em> 2010; Majchrzak <em>et al.</em> 2022; Oku <em>et al.</em> 2003; Oliveira &amp; Moraes 2021; Rocha <em>et al.</em> 2020; Saavedra <em>et al.</em> 2022; Warkentin 1995). In this study, we examined the effects of predation risk on short-term as well as long-term traits such as fecundity and lifespan. In addition, we also compared the effects of exposure to predation risks for long versus short duration.</p> XIAOYING WEI, ZHI-QIANG ZHANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.72 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of factitious prey on the biology and growth rate of the predatory mites <em>Neoseiulus californicus</em> (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.73 <p><em>Neoseiulus californicus</em> (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is being used on a commercial scale to control <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> Koch in open fields and greenhouses (Schausberger and Walzer 2001; Sato <em>et al.</em> 2007; Rezaie <em>et al.</em> 2017). To reduce the cost of rearing, phytoseiid mites are often cultured using factitious prey. To find out the most suitable factitious prey species for rearing <em>N. californicus</em> in this study, the development and reproduction of the predatory mite were assessed when fed on four factitious prey species: <em>Carpoglyphus lactis, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Rhizoglyphus robini</em> and the natural prey <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> (control). &nbsp;The results showed that <em>N. californicus</em> could survival on all prey species, however, their populations could increase when fed on <em>C. lactis, L. destructor</em>, and <em>T. urticae</em>. &nbsp;The life cycles of <em>N. californicus</em> fed on <em>C. lactis</em> and <em>L. destructor</em> (5.13 and 5.17 days respectively) were significantly shorter than those fed on <em>T. urticae</em> (5.89 days). The total number of eggs per female <em>N. californicus</em> fed on <em>L. destructor</em> was the highest (51.48 eggs/female), intermediate on <em>T. urticae</em> (45.11 eggs/female) and the lowest on <em>C. lactis</em> (38.68 eggs/female). When fed on <em>L. destructor</em> and <em>T. urticae</em>, the sex ratios (% female) in the 2<sup>nd</sup> generation of <em>N. californicus</em> reached approx. 70%—significantly higher than those predators fed on <em>C. lactis</em> (58.65%). The intrinsic rate of increase of <em>N. californicus</em> fed on <em>L. destructor</em> (0.338) was significantly higher than those females fed on <em>C. lactis</em> (0.304) and <em>T. urticae</em> (0.314). In conclusion, the factitious prey <em>L. destructor</em> is the best food source for mass rearing the predatory mite <em>N. californicus</em>.</p> NGUYEN DUC TUNG, NGUYEN THI ANH, XIAO-DUAN FANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.73 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effect of age and density on dispersal probability and distance in <em>Tetranychus ludeni</em> Zacher</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.74 <p>Dispersal strategies of species can affect its invasion success. Investigation into the dispersal strategies of invasive species in relation to different factors facilitates our understanding of the invasion mechanisms and provides knowledge for population management and invasion evaluation.</p> PENG ZHOU, XIONG ZHAO HE, CHEN CHEN, QIAO WANG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.74 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Early life experience of intraguild predation risk shifts the personalities of predatory mites along the shy-bold axis</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.75 <p>Animal personalities are defined as within-individual consistency and consistent among-individual variation in behavior across time and contexts (Biro &amp; Stamps 2008). Typical categories of behavioral traits used to characterize animal personalities are activity, aggressiveness, boldness, exploration, and sociability (Reale <em>et al.</em> 2007).</p> PETER SCHAUSBERGER, THI HANH NGUYEN, MUSTAFA ALTINTAS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.75 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Spider mite mothers control their sneaker sons’ reproductive behavior depending on operational sex ratio</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.76 <p>Males often fight with conspecific males for access to females. However, in many species, males may also adopt alternative tactics, such as sneaking or female mimicking, to get access to females by deceiving fighting rival males.</p> YUKIE SATO, MARTIJN EGAS, PETER SCHAUSBERGER Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.76 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Kin discrimination in cannibalism by a predatory mite, <em>Amblyseius herbicolus</em> (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.77 <p>Kin recognition has been widely observed across the animal kingdom. Individuals discriminate and treat conspecifics differently in relation to their genetic relatedness to increase their inclusive fitness (i.e. their own reproductive success and that of their relatives) and to avoid adverse influences from inbreeding. Although most studies on kin recognition have focused on group-living species, this behaviour can also be adaptive in solitary species.</p> KESHI ZHANG, ZHI-QIANG ZHANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.77 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Alteration of population size during oviposition influences reproductive performance in a haplodiploid mite</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.78 <p>Animals are sensitive to changes in social environments and may adjust their life history traits accordingly. Population size, for example in spider mites, is one of the key socio-environmental factors that affect female reproductive performance, including fecundity, egg size, and offspring sex ratio.</p> NUWAN WEERAWANSHA, QIAO WANG, XIONG ZHAO HE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.78 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Avoidance of ant chemical traces by spider mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.79 <p>Because of the strong predation pressure exerted by ants, small arthropods have developed various strategies of avoiding ant predation (Way 1963; Jennings 1971; Akino <em>et al.</em> 1999; Otsuki &amp; Yano 2014). Spider mites become easy prey for ants when they leave their protective webs (Otsuki &amp; Yano 2014; Adachi &amp; Yano 2017); therefore, the ability to avoid traces of ongoing ant activity should confer a selective advantage to mites.</p> SHUICHI YANO, MAYU KONISHI, TOSHIHARU AKINO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.79 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Comparison of dispersal behavior in <em>Amblyseius swirskii</em> and <em>Amblydromalus limonicus</em> (Acari: Phytoseiidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.80 <p>Thrips and whiteflies are important pests of many agricultural crops around the world. To reduce the use of chemical pesticides, biological control programs have been developed.</p> CHISATO YAMADA, SATOSHI YAMANAKA, MINORI SEKIGUCHI, NORIHIDE HINOMOTO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.80 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Development, reproduction and thermotolerance evaluation of high temperature adapted stain of <em>Neoseiulus barkeri</em> under no selective pressure</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.81 <p><em>Neoseiulus barkeri</em> is a generalist biological control agent of multiple insect pests (Hao <em>et al.</em>, 2021). Its development, reproduction and predation ability were negatively affected by short-term heat treatment (Li <em>et al.</em>, 2021), further affecting its biocontrol efficiency. We established a high-temperature adapted strain (HTAS) of <em>N. barkeri</em> through long-term heat hardening and acclimation. However, whether the temperature tolerance of HTAS of <em>N. barkeri</em> will change when the selective pressure is removed remains unknown.</p> WENQIANG CHU, HAITAO CHEN, LINA GENG, YIYIN CHEN, XUANLIANG LI, WENJIE JIANG, YAYING LI, HUAI LIU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.81 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Learning behavior of <em>Neoseiulus californicus</em> from astigmatid to spider mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.82 <p><em>Oulenziella bakeri</em> is often used as an alternative prey for the mass rearing of <em>Neoseiulus californicus</em> in China. Long-term alternative prey feeding experience may cause a decline in the predatory capacity of phytoseiid mites toward their target prey. Learning behavior of predatory mites can help them adapt to the changes from preying on thrips to preying on spider mites (Rahmani <em>et al</em>., 2010), but there are few studies on the learning behavior of predatory mites from astigmatid mites to spider mites. Here, we compared the attack latency, prey preference, and functional response of <em>N. californicus</em> toward <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> among the “natural prey strains” (feeding only on <em>T. urticae</em>), “alternative prey strains” (feeding only on <em>O. bakeri</em>), and “learning behavior treatment” (alternative prey strains experienced in attacking but not feeding on <em>T. urticae</em>). The results showed that the attack latency of “alternative prey strain” of <em>N. californicus</em> on <em>T. urticae</em> was significantly longer than that of “natural prey strain” and “learning behavior treatment”. The “alternative prey strain” showed no obvious predatory preference between the protonymphs of <em>T. urticae</em> and <em>O. baker</em>. There were no significant differences in the capture rate and handling time among the three treatments. Our results indicated that the long-term rearing on alternative prey mainly prolonged the attack latency of <em>N. californicus</em> to the target prey and changed its prey preference, while learning behavior could help alternative prey strain of <em>N. californicus</em> to shorten the attack latency and restore its prey preference toward target prey (Zhu <em>et al.,</em> 2022).</p> JIA-YUN ZHU, FENG XIAO, JIAN-FENG LIU, RONG XIAO Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.82 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effect of temperature on interspecific competition between <em>Eotetranychus sexmaculatus</em> Riley and <em>Oligonychus biharensis</em> Hirst (Acari: Tetranychidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.83 <p>Natural rubber is an important tropical crop.<em> Eotetranychus sexmaculatus</em> Riley has been an important phytophagous mite on rubber trees since the 1980s (Liu <em>et al</em>. 2022). In recent years, <em>Oligonychus biharensis</em> Hirst as presented an increasing trend of damage to rubber trees and has become another crucial phytophagous mite. These two spider mite species both inhabit and damage the leaves. They occur separately or together in the field and have high-overlapped ecological niches. Therefore, we hypothesized that interspecific competition existed between them, and their coexistence might inhibit the population growth of one or both species to obtain food and spatial resources (Li<em> et al</em>. 2018). Additionally, the outbreaks of these two spider mite species have often been found with high temperature and drought stresses. Therefore, focusing on whether there is competition between the two species of spider mites and how temperature affects them, the population dynamics of <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> and <em>O. biharensis </em>(female: male=1:1), and their mixed populations were assessed at 27, 30, and 33°C. For each treatment, 30 pairs of spider mites were used. There are five starting densities of <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> and <em>O. biharensis </em>individuals: 30 vs. 0, 0 vs. 30, 10 vs. 20, 15 vs. 15, and 20 vs. 10, respectively. The virgin male and female adult mites were picked and transferred onto the rubber leaves (96 cm<sup>2</sup>). These mites were reared in climate chambers with different temperatures and the leaves were replaced regularly. The numbers of each mite stage were recorded every 5 days. The experiments ended when one of the spider mite species was extinct in the mixed populations. The results showed interspecific competition existed between <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> and <em>O. biharensis</em>. Either pure population of two spider mites was greater in numbers than the mixed populations. The populations of <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> were significantly suppressed by <em>O. biharensis</em>. The mean and peak values of the innate capacity of increase (r<sub>m</sub>) were greater in <em>O. biharensis</em> than <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> in all treatments, indicating that <em>O. biharensis</em> was more competitive than <em>E. sexmaculatus</em>. Additionally, <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> was rapidly replaced by <em>O. biharensis</em> with the increased temperature, regardless of their starting densities. At 33°C, the highest interspecific competition coefficients were obtained (0.5695 and 0.6188, respectively) when the mixed populations of <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> and <em>O. biharensis</em> were 10 vs. 20 and 20 vs. 10. In conclusion, <em>O. biharensis</em> was more competitive than <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> at all tested temperatures, regardless of their starting densities.</p> LIJIU ZHENG, YUEGUAN FU, YA LIU, YULUN LIN, JUNYU CHEN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.83 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Occurrence of parthenogenesis in a soil predatory mite <em>Lasioseius japonicus</em> Ehara (Acari: Blattisociidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.84 <p>Soil predatory mites are natural enemies of several important insect and acarine pests (Navarro-Campos <em>et al</em>., 2012; Saito and Brownbridge, 2016). Among them, members of the family Blattisociidae are considered great biological control agents against phytophagous pests (Zhang and Xie, 2021). <em>Lasioseius japonicus</em> belongs to the family Blattisociidae, with a high potential in controlling insect and mite pests. Yan <em>et al.</em> (2019) collected this mite from a laboratory colony of <em>Athetis lepigone</em> (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Shandong Agricultural University. <em>L. japonicus</em> can prey on eggs of <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>, <em>Sitotroga cerealella</em>, <em>Musca domestica</em>, <em>Bradysia cellarum</em>, <em>Tyrophagus putrescentiae</em>, and larvae of <em>B. cellarum</em> and <em>T. putrescentiae </em>(Li, 2019; Zhang <em>et al</em>., 2020).</p> YANYING TAN, NA ZHANG, ZHITONG ZHU, YI YAN, LIXIA XIE Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.84 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Status of lifespan in laelapid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.85 <p>In the Mesostigmata, Laelapidae is a family diverse in ecology and morphology (Babaeian <em>et al</em>., 2019; Moraes <em>et al</em>., 2022; Zhang <em>et al</em>., 2022). It is distributed all over the world (Keum <em>et al</em>., 2017; Joharchi &amp; Halliday 2021), and has many habitats, including soil, the body surface of vertebrates or in their nests, arthropods and parasitic on mammals (Moreira &amp; Moraes 2015; Nemati <em>et al</em>., 2018; Zhang, 2019; Attasopa <em>et al</em>., 2021). Laelapidae has 146 genera and more than 1500 species, including many predatory and parasitic species (Zhang <em>et al</em>., 2022). Some laelapid mites can prey on nematodes, thrips pupae, astigmatic mites, fungus gnat larvae, housefly eggs, mealybug and so on (Carrillo <em>et al</em>., 2015; Ajvad <em>et al</em>., 2018; Pérez-Rodríguez <em>et al</em>., 2018; Castro-López <em>et al</em>., 2021).</p> NA ZHANG, YANYING TAN, HAOLING WANG, YI YAN, LIXIA XIE Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.85 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Tick richness may be correlated with abundance of a specific host</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.86 <p>Ticks are important vectors of several zoonoses such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and Japanese spotted fever (JSF), which have been increasing and expanding from west to east in Japan. Since there are no vaccines or treatments for SFTS and TBE and it is difficult to treat JSF in time, tick vector control is necessary. Given that a variety of tick species are involved in the transmission processes, host-animal control might be most effective.</p> KIMIKO OKABE, HAYATO IIJIMA, TAKUYA FURUKAWA, YUYA WATARI, KAORI MORISHIMA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.86 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Mechanical devices for off-host tick surveillance</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.87 <p>Standard methods for collecting off-host ticks—flags, drags and leggings—expose the investigator to hazards and are typically less efficient for detection of larvae compared to adults. The potential for using mechanical devices such as vacuums and robots was explored. A vacuum device made by reversing the tube on a leaf blower was tested in a pasture known to be infested with cattle fever ticks. For comparison the same pasture was sampled using leggings and by scratch inspection of the infested cattle. Detection of larvae was markedly episodic by both methods reflecting life cycle periodicity. There was a lag of about 3 weeks between detection of larvae in the pasture and adult ticks on the cattle. Over a year of sampling the vacuum collected greater numbers of larval ticks, but the leggings detected clusters of ticks with somewhat greater frequency.</p> DONALD B THOMAS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.87 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Expression profiles of <em>vitellogenin-1</em> in <em>Babesia</em> <em>ovata</em>-infected <em>Haemaphysalis</em> <em>longicornis</em> ticks</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.88 <p>Ticks are hematophagous arthropods and have a remarkable ability to transmit various parasites. <em>Babesia ovata</em>, a protozoan parasite that causes babesiosis in cattle, is transmitted from parent to offspring in <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em>. Although transovarial transmission is demonstrated experimentally, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of tick-<em>Babesia</em> in that phenomenon.</p> NARIKO SATO, HIROSHI SUZUKI, RIKA UMEMIYA-SHIRAFUJI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.88 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>DNA methylation as a possible mechanism responsible for <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em> response to low temperature stress</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.89 <p>Abiotic stress is an important factor that can influence the survival and development of ticks. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that has been implicated in the adaptation of plants and insects to abiotic stress, but its role in the response of ticks to abiotic stress remains unclear. Herein, we explore the DNA methylation profile of the tick, <em>Haemaphysalis</em> <em>longicornis </em>exposed to low-temperature stress using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS).</p> CHUKS FIDELIS NWANADE, ZI-HAO WANG, RU-WEI BAI, RUO-TONG WANG, TIAN-AI ZHANG, JING-ZE LIU, ZHI-JUN YU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.89 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The relationship between <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em> and sika deer abundance on Tsushima Islands, Japan</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.90 <p>Tick-borne diseases such as Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS) are of concern as new issues in public health and conservation medicine.&nbsp; The SFTS virus especially is a fatal infection for feline animals. The emergence of STFS has been reported in China, Japan, South Korea, and Vietnam. Tsushima Islands, located between Kyushu Island of Japan and South Korea, are known as the habitat of the endangered Tsushima leopard cat (<em>Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus</em>). The Ministry of the Environment of Japan reported the first case of SFTS infection in the free-ranging Tsushima leopard cat in 2022. Here, we report our investigation of the tick fauna on Tsushima Islands and its comparison with the abundance of Tsushima sika deer (<em>Cervus nippon pulchellus</em>). The flagging method was used at five collection sites on Tsushima islands in May 2022. We collected 131 ticks of three species, <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis </em>(127 individuals), <em>H. formosensis</em> (3) and <em>Amblyomma testudinarium</em> (1), among which <em>H. longicornis</em> was the dominant species. The abundance of <em>H. longicornis</em> increased with increased Deer Impact Score, which represents relative deer density based on five deer signs (bark stripping on <em>Cryptomeria japonica</em> or <em>Chamaecyparis obtusa</em> trees, browsing marks on the understory vegetation, deer fecal pellets, deer tracks, and deer trails). This study indicated that deer abundance may be an important factor in determining <em>H. longicornis</em> abundance. Notably, <em>H. longicornis</em> is known to serve as vector for several tick-borne pathogens, including SFTS virus. The relationships between ticks and wildlife hosts are expected to provide essential information from the perspectives of vector control, disease risk prediction, and conservation of rare species.</p> KEI K. SUZUKI, KANDAI DOI, KAORI MORISHIMA, HIROMI YAMAGAWA, TAIKI MORI, YUYA WATARI, KIMIKO OKABE Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.90 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Establishment of the Tick Biobank and its application to vector biology research</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.91 <p>In the past decades, omics data including genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes of ticks of medical and veterinary importance have become available worldwide as web-based resources. Additionally, laboratory colonies and cell lines of these ticks have been established and now become essential tools for the research advancement of ticks and tick-borne diseases.</p> RIKA UMEMIYA-SHIRAFUJI, NARIKO SATO, NAOAKI YOKOYAMA, XUENAN XUAN, HIROSHI SUZUKI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.91 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Multi-omics analysis shed light on the mechanisms of tick reproductive inhibition by antibiotics</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.92 <p>Ticks are vector pests and their biology and control are of worldwide concern. Microbiota play an important role in tick physiology, and antibiotic treatments are mostly used to explore the interactions between ticks and symbiotic microorganisms. In addition to altering the host microbial community, antibiotics also exhibit toxic effects on the host. In the tick <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em>, the engorged female ticks showed reproductive disruption after microinjection of tetracycline, as evidenced by prolonged oviposition time, reduced reproductive efficiency and hatchability, and abnormal oocyte development.</p> YAN-KAI ZHANG, SI-SI LI, XIAO-YU ZHANG, KAI-LI CHEN, CHEN YANG, JING-ZE LIU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.92 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Modelling the potential distribution of ticks in China: past trends and future changes</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.93 <p>Ticks are known as vectors of various pathogens causing zoonotic diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. While China is known to have recorded more than 100 tick species over the country, knowledge of the pattern and determinants of ticks’ potential distribution under climate change remains very limited, hindering the development of preventing and controlling the risk of tick-borne diseases.</p> XIN YANG, SEN LI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.93 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Morphological changes of the male reproductive system in <em>Hyalomma asiaticum</em> at different developmental stages</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.94 <p><em>Hyalomma asiaticum</em> is considered as the vector tick species which can carry and transmit <em>Theileria annulata</em>, <em>Anaplasma marginale</em> and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus to humans and animals, causing a great risk to animal husbandry and posing a threat to public health as well as economic losses. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and changes of the male reproductive system for this species at different developmental stages.</p> YI-MAN SHAN, YUN-FENG HOU, XIN-YU HU, JING-ZE LIU, FANG WANG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.94 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Detection of Dabieshan tick virus in Hebei Province of China by Small RNA Sequencing</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.95 <p>Ticks are important haematophagous ectoparasites. Tick-borne viruses are increasingly recognized as important threats to the health of human and livestock. In the present study, the viruses were detected in tick samples of <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em> collected from Chengde and Pingshan of Hebei province using sRNA-seq method, respectively. A total of 7 pools constructed for virus screen, and all of the samples (4 pools) originated from Chengde were positive for Dabieshan Tick Virus (DBTV), which has not been reported before in Hebei province.</p> XIAOFENG XU, ZHIHUA GAO, HUIZHU NAN, YIBO XUAN, JINGKAI ZHANG, HAO LI, XUECHENG SONG, YIKUI WANG, WENXIA LV, ZE CHEN, XIAOLONG YANG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.95 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of different hosts on biological characteristics of <em>Ornithodoros lahorensis</em> (Neumann, 1908)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.96 <p><em>Ornithodoros lahorensis</em> (Neumann, 1908) is an important zoonotic parasite, and is widely distributed in the Palearctic region. It often causes anemia in domestic animals. Under natural conditions, this species shows a special preference for sheep, but also occurs on other domestic animals, occasionally infests swallow, and also humans. <em>O. lahorensis</em> often lives between bricks and stones, under plaster and in cracks of roof supports of stables. The blood feeding pattern of <em>O.</em> <em>lahorensis</em> is unique among soft ticks. It usually shows a two-host pattern, <em>i.e.</em> biting the host all the time from larva to the last nymphal instar, detaching from the hosts as engorged nymphs, and then molting to adults which will feed on another host. However, if no host is available for the newly molted adult, <em>O.</em> <em>lahorensis</em> becomes facultatively autogenous as a one-host tick, and can even undergo two gonotrophic cycles without a blood meal. <em>O. lahorensis</em> has adapted to continuous parasitism at an important stage of its life cycle. However, some engorged larvae can drop off the rabbit without showing two-host feeding pattern. The number of nymphal instars of<em> O. lahorensis</em> is variable, especially when feeding on different hosts. This species typically has three nymphal stages, when meeting its favorite host such as sheep, whereas it has four to five nymphal stages, if its hosts are rabbits and rodents. Additionally, <em>O. lahorensis</em> adults are more selective about hosts than immature stages. Adult ticks can suck blood from birds, bats and rodents reluctantly, and the period of suction is delayed up to 5 hours. Therefore, the host could influence the biological features of <em>O. lahorensis </em>significantly.</p> LU SUN, JINGKAI ZHANG, XIAOFENG XU, YOUHONG WU, ZE CHEN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.96 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The arthropods of corpses from above ground and from deep below</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.97 <p>The Acari are one of the most ubiquitous arthropod inhabitants and associates of human and animal remains.&nbsp; Over 150 years ago, Jean Pierre Mégnin proposed that mites arrive at corpses at two particular stages of the decomposition process, that is within the first and the sixth waves of arthropod arrival or colonisation event (Mégnin, 1895).&nbsp; Now we know that mites actually arrive at each stage of the decomposition process of corpses, in a continuum (Rai <em>et al</em>., 2021).&nbsp; Interestingly, the mite fauna of cadavers is very diverse, and mite species composition varies as decomposition progresses and according to the environment where decomposition occurs (Baker, 2009; Braig &amp; Perotti, 2009).&nbsp; In fact, specific stages of decomposition can be characterised by the associated mite species (Kamaruzaman <em>et al.</em>, 2018; Leclercq &amp; Verstraeten, 1988; Mašán <em>et</em> <em>al</em>., 2013; Mégnin, 1895).</p> M. ALEJANDRA PEROTTI, HENK R. BRAIG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.97 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong><em>Whartonia pachywhartoni</em> Vercammen-Grandjean, 1966 (Acari: Trombidiformes: Leeuwenhoekiidae): lost types in the USNM</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.98 <p>The family Leeuwenhoekiidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) has a worldwide distribution, and in Brazil it is represented by twelve species in six genera. Of these species, <em>Whartonia pachywhartoni</em> Vercammen-Grandjean was described from specimens parasitizing the little big-eared bat, <em>Micronycteris megalotis</em> and later reported from Seba’s short-tailed bat, <em>Carollia perspicillata</em> (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), both from Minas Gerais State.</p> R. BASSINI-SILVA, F.C. JACINAVICIUS, C. WELBOURN, R. OCHOA, D.M. BARROS-BATTESTI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.98 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The true identity of <em>Eutrombicula alfreddugesi</em> (Oudemans, 1910) (Acari: Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.99 <p>The genus <em>Eutrombicula</em> Ewing (Trombiculidae<strong>)</strong> currently includes more than 80 species parasitizing amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals worldwide. More than forty species have been recorded from the Americas. <em>Eutrombicula alfreddugesi</em> (Oudemans) is the type species for the genus and has been recorded from: Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, USA, and Venezuela. In the present study, we redescribed <em>E.</em> <em>alfreddugesi </em>based on examination of the types deposited at the Naturalis Biodiversity Centre (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, RMNH), Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands. Drawings were made using a phase contrast microscopy Nikon eclipse E600 and all the figures were prepared using Inkscape and Photoshop software. After examination of the types described by Oudemans in 1910, we noticed differences between type slides and the numerous redescriptions made over the last 100+ years. While none of the characters observed will affect the diagnosis of the genus, we did find characters to reliably identify this species. However, all the records for this species from the Americas should be reviewed considering our redescription. In this study, we provided a redescription of <em>E. alfreddugesi,</em> as a starting point for the reorganizing of all records of this and other <em>Eutrombicula</em> species in the Americas.</p> R. BASSINI-SILVA, C. WELBOURN, R. OCHOA, D.M. BARROS-BATTESTI, F.C. JACINAVICIUS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.99 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Mites associated with early decomposition stages of pigs (<em>Sus scrofa domestica</em>) in Texcoco, Mexico</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.100 <p>Mites can be found in various habitats, they are sensitive to climate variation and disturbance of ecosystems. Many mites are phoretic on insects that are associated with plant and animal decomposition, therefore they can provide relevant information to forensic investigations, such as post-mortem time, causes of death, or temporal and geographical conditions of the place where the body was found. The study of mites at a crime scene or as part of the evidence that can be collected has very important functions. For example, mites can be used to determine cases of food contamination, to track shipments of illegal substances, as well as in investigations of murders, missing persons or cases of negligence. Mites are always present, even in environments where the presence of insects is scarce. Despite this importance, studies on the diversity of mites associated with decomposing bodies are scarce, and work on the matter is just beginning in Mexico.</p> EDITH GUADALUPE ESTRADA-VENEGAS, ROSA IVETTE RÍOS-IBARRA, ITZEL ARIANA CORRALES-FUENTES, HAROL REVELO-TOBAR, JAZIBE HERRERA-DOMÍNGUEZ, ARMANDO EQUIHUA-MARTÍNEZ Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.100 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>High-throughput sequencing analysis of the bacteria associated with a Chinese-reared population of <em>Dermatophagoides farinae</em> (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.101 <p><em>Dermatophagoides farinae</em> Hughes is a widely distributed house dust mite (HDM) (Pyroglyphidae) and one of the major agents of HDM allergy in humans. Studies on the bacterial communities of <em>D. farinae</em> have focused on western populations, while there is a gap of knowledge about the bacterial communities associated with populations from East Asia. With this in mind, we aimed to investigate the diversity of bacteria in laboratory-reared <em>D. farinae</em> from Wuhu, Anhui Province, China.</p> XIAO-QIAN ZHOU, XIAO-NIU TANG, EN-TAO SUN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.101 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Transferrin, a newly identified iron metabolism protein in tick</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.102 <p><em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em> is one of the most important tick species distributed globally. It transmits various pathogens that cause great damage to human health, livestock production, and wild animals. Knowledge of the character of transferrin (Tsf) in insects has grown rapidly during the last decades. However, Tsf in ticks is still poorly understood. Here, we identified for the first time a new iron metabolism-related gene, namely, <em>Tsf</em>, in ticks. The open reading frame (ORF) of the<em> Tsf</em> gene in<em> H. longicornis</em> contained 2,412 bp, which encoded a protein of 803 amino acids.</p> DUO WANG, HONG-XIA LI, JING-YI MA, XIAO-JING ZHANG, XUAN-XUAN WANG, FANG WANG, YAN-KAI ZHANG, ZHI-JUN YU, JING-ZE LIU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.102 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The role of acid phosphatase during sucking blood of <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.103 <p>In this study, a novel acid phosphatase was isolated from <em>Haemaphysalis longicornis</em> which may affect the reproductive development of the tick. The gene was isolated from a cDNA library named <em>HLACP</em> and analyzed by bioinformatics. Then, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the genes were analyzed by real-time PCR.&nbsp; In addition, combined with RNAi interference platform and protein modification omics, the changes of protein expression and modification level of <em>H. longicornis</em> before and after blood feeding were analyzed after interference with <em>HLACP</em>.</p> KUANG WANG, ZHIHUA GAO, SONGBO ZHANG, YANQING SHI, KEXIN DONG, WENXIA LV, XIAOLONG YANG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.103 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Anatomy of a border: transition between Southwestern Atlantic tropical and Warm Temperate marine provinces as revealed by marine mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.104 <p>A previous study found that the division between the Southwestern Atlantic Tropical and Warm Temperate Provinces for marine mites do not occur in Cabo Frio (~23°S), as usually assumed in marine biogeographical studies, but somewhere around the Abrolhos Plateau and the Vitória-Trindade Chain (~20-15°S). New sampling localities along this section of Brazilian coast and sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear genes of three species or species complexes of halacarids (<em>Agauopsis legionium</em>, <em>A. bilophus</em> and <em>Rhombognathus levigatoides</em>) deepened the understanding of this region by showing different scenarios for the different species.</p> ALMIR R. PEPATO, TEOFÂNIA H. D. A. VIDIGAL, PAVEL B. KLIMOV Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.104 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Research status and an analysis of the taxonomy of the Family Torrenticolidae (Acari, Hydrachnidiae, Lebertioidea) in China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.105 <p>The family Torrenticolidae belongs to Lebertioidea (Trombidiformes: Hydrachnidiae), one of the most abundant groups in species diversity in water mites (Krantz &amp; Walter 2009). Up to now, the world’s total number of known torrenticolid species is 618 (Gu <em>et al</em>. 2019c, 2022a, b, c; Gu &amp; Guo 2019; Pešić <em>et al</em>. 2019, 2020a, b, 2022). The earliest taxonomic study of Torrenticolidae started in 1837 (Koch 1837), but that in China started later in the 1990s (Jin 1997; Gu &amp; Guo 2019). Therefore, the taxonomy of Torrenticolidae in China is relatively backward. As of December 2016, only 13 torrenticolid species were identified in China. So there are still many new taxonomic categories to be discovered. In addition, some other critical scientific problems are required to be solved quickly, such as limited available morphological characteristics and taxonomical methods.</p> XINYAO GU, DAOCHAO JIN, JIANJUN GUO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.105 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Italian National Network of phytosanitary laboratories against pest mites: tool forbiosecurity of ‘farm to fork’ agricultural and forest products</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.106 <p>The incidence and impact of transboundary pests are exacerbating by climate change and globalization, leading to high turnover of emergence or re-emergence of new threats. Recent years and globally, they are more and more recognized as increasing and significant threats to sustainable food production and environmental protection.</p> FRANCESCO FAGGIOLI, SAURO SIMONI, DONATELLA GOGGIOLI, SILVIA GUIDI, FRANCA TARCHI, ELENA GAGNARLI, FRANCESCO TURILLAZZI, PIO FEDERICO ROVERSI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.106 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Establishment and spread of the invasive mite, <em>Tetranychus gloveri</em> Banks (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) in Kerala, India</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.107 <p><em>Tetran</em>y<em>chus gloveri </em>Banks was first recorded as <em>Tetranychus okinawanus</em> Ehara in India on an ornamental plant, <em>Adenium obesum</em> from Thrissur district, Kerala state, during 2016 (Zeity <em>et al</em>. 2016). Recently, Sharkey <em>et al</em>. (2022) synonymized <em>T. okinawanus</em> with <em>T. gloveri</em> based on morphological and molecular data. In Kerala, <em>T. gloveri</em> has emerged as a predominant species of mite infesting major agricultural and horticultural crops in the district (Arunima <em>et al</em>. 2018). In order to investigate the distribution and host range of the mite species in Kerala, periodical surveys were conducted in different agricultural ecosystems across the state during March 2020 to June 2022. Spider mite infested samples were collected from fruit crops, vegetables, ornamental plants, medicinal plants and other non-crop plants from different localities, kept in polythene bags. The GPS data of the locality and host plants were recorded. In the laboratory, a single gravid female from each sample was used to establish isoline culture providing unique accession number. Male and female specimens from each isoline culture were slide mounted on Hoyer’s medium and morphological characterization of the slide mounted mite specimens were carried to establish the species identity. Characters such as chaetotaxy of hysterosoma and legs, structure of empodium and pattern of dorsal striae between <em>e</em>1 and <em>f</em>1 of female were used for genus level identification, while the shape of male genitalia, aedeagus, was used for species level identification. In this study, <em>T. gloveri</em> was recorded from a wide host range of 35 host plants in 24 plant families viz., Malvaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Amaranthaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Adoxaceae, Rosaceae, Compositae, Gentianaceae, Convolvulaceae, Balsaminaceae, Orchidaceae, Asparagaceae, Goodeniaceae, Apocyanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Oxalidaceae, Lamiaceae and Pontederiaceae. The mite species was distributed in seven districts covering northern, central and southern regions viz., Wayanad, Malappuram, Thrissur, Palakkad, Ernakulam, Alappuzha and Thiruvananthapuram districts of Kerala. Curry leaf, country kreat (<em>Exacum bicolor</em>), sunflower, Victoria corn plant (<em>Dracaena</em> sp.), <em>Calotropis gigantea</em>, little tree plant (<em>Biophytum sensitivum</em>), holy basil (<em>Ocimum sanctum</em>) and the aquatic pickerel weed (<em>Monochoria vaginalis</em>) are new host records for <em>T. gloveri</em>. The study confirms that the mite species has established and spread across Kerala by widening its host range and expanding its geographical area of distribution, within a short span after its introduction into the state.</p> HASEENA BHASKAR, S. MELVIN MOHAN, M. SREESHA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.107 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The <em>Colomerus vitis</em> (Eriophyidae) identity crisis: genetic evidence of highly diverged groups not associated with plant symptoms</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.108 <p>The worldwide grapevine pest, <em>Colomerus vitis</em> (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae), comprises three strains recognised by different plant symptoms: bud, erineum, and leaf curl strains. It has been hypothesised that these may represent different cryptic species, each causing a specific symptom.</p> DAVINA L. SACCAGGI, ELLEUNORAH ALLSOPP, BARBARA VAN ASCH Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.108 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Mite community assemblage in Italian traditional and in high-density olive groves</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.109 <p>Notwithstanding a still widespread and considerable weight of traditional olive groves throughout Italy, there is large interest in investing in new plantations, different both for cultivars and agronomic approaches, and to renew at least partially the olive-oil heritage. Furthermore, Italy is one of the main importing countries in the world of oil and table olives. To match the internal demand and boost olive-oil production, the National Olive Plan suggests adopting modern high-density plantations like other EU Countries (<em>e.g.,</em> Spain). Traditional groves are partly replaced by high-density olive crops, which are more profitable due to substantially lower operating costs. Furthermore, the introduction of new olive crops may induce changes in agricultural landscape/agroecosystem (<em>e.g.,</em> plain areas <em>vs</em> terraced structures), and may lead to undesirable effects on the environment and pest control. The surveys on the presence and abundance of the main animal groups in traditional and high-density olive crops can be informative, mainly referring to the different ecological/functional roles they can assume (phytophagous, predatory, and vectoring role of pathogens). Mite communities are susceptible to different types of plantation density and eventual environmental effects. Concerning olives, not so many contributions approached screening on the acarofauna, and previous screenings were mainly focused on soil. The characterization of the acarofauna resident on epigeic part of olive groves may be indicative about the status of the agroecosystem and effect of plantation densities.</p> SAURO SIMONI, ELISABETTA GARGANI, SILVIA GUIDI, DONATELLA GOGGIOLI, ELENA GAGNARLI, PIO FEDERICO ROVERSI, FRANCESCO FAGGIOLI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.109 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Population dynamics of mite species on poplar trees in the Black Sea region of Turkey</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.110 <p>The enormous number of mite species across the world includes economically important pests of agricultural plants and forest trees and biological control agents. However, knowledge of their biology and ecology is greatly lacking. Poplar (<em>Populus </em>spp.) is grown in many countries and a number of mite species have previously been recorded. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of mites on poplar in 2021 in Samsun Province, Turkey where it is widely grown in plantations, along property boundaries and as a landscape tree.</p> HUSEYIN BAS, SEBAHAT K. OZMAN-SULLIVAN, EDWARD A. UECKERMANN, PHILIPP E. CHETVERIKOV, ISMAIL DOKER Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.110 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Mites associated with stored <em>Oryza sativa</em> L. in the Philippines</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.111 <p>The mite fauna present in stored rice grains in the Philippines has never been systematically studied. Two of the identified species are known to produce human allergens, namely: <em>Blomia tropicalis </em>Bronswijk, Cock and Oshima (Echimyopodidae) and <em>Suidasia pontifica</em> Oudemans (Suidasiidae). Other species collected were <em>Tropilichus aframericanus </em>Fain (Glycyphagidae),<em> Acarophenax tribolii </em>Newstead and Duvall (Acarophenacidae), <em>Chortoglyphus arcuatus </em>Troupeau (Chortoglyphidae), <em>Sancassania oudemansi </em>Zachvatkin (Acaridae), <em>Cheyletus malaccensis </em>Oudemans (Cheyletidae),<em> Cunaxa capreolus </em>Berlese (Cunaxidae), and <em>Blattisocius keegani </em>Fox (Blattisociidae). However, <em>S. pontifica, C. malaccensis </em>and<em> B. keegani</em> were the only constant and dominant species. On the other hand, lack of control measures and inadequate hygiene and cleanliness in various warehouses contribute to a significant infestation of storage mites. This information could be useful in understanding the acarofauna of stored rice grains and control of the damages and losses caused by storage mites, providing researchers a small starting point for dealing with mite infestations on rice grain.</p> MARK ANTHONY ANGELES MANGOBA, DIONISIO DE GUZMAN ALVINDIA, ALEXANDER JOEL GIBE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.111 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Incidence and post-embryonic development of <em>Raoiella</em> <em>macfarlanei</em> Pritchard and Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on <em>Syzygium</em> <em>Jambos</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.112 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The genus <em>Raoiella</em> represents one of the important genera of the family Tenuipalpidae, which comprises half a dozen species. Members of this group are known to infest a variety of economically important plants such as coconut, aereca nut, <em>Eucalyptus</em>, olive, peanut and various fruit crops. Among these, the species <em>Raoiella macfarlanei</em> Pritchard and Baker has been recorded on olive, <em>Syzygium jambo</em>s and widely distributed in India and Africa.The report of the present study revealed that <em>R. macfarlanei</em> has been recognized as a minor pest and widely distributed in various localities of Kerala, India. A perusal of available literature shows a lack of information on its incidence and biology as it has been given the status of an economic species. But in the present study a high infestation was noticed in the field by the development of brownish patches on the infected leaves, causing severe damage to the host plant. Older leaves were more susceptible to mite attack than the younger ones. Maximum population of <em>R. macfarlanei </em>was found attained during the months of February, March and April. The study also revealed that <em>R. macfarlanei </em>completed its development from egg to adult within 16 days on the host plant, <em>S. jambos.</em></span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> T.R. SOBHA Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.112 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Population dynamics of two-spotted mite, <em>Tetranychus</em> <em>urticae</em> Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in relation to weather parameters on strawberry</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.113 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae</em> (Koch) is the most common and often the most severe pest of strawberries always resulting in considerable yield losses. The present research work aimed to investigate the effect of temperature, humidity, rainfall and sunshine hours on the population dynamics and severity of mite attack. A field experiment was carried out during April 2020 to March 2022 at Regional Horticultural Research &amp; Training Station, Mashobra, Shimla, India. Mite population was determined by counting the number of active stages and eggs on the dorsal as well as on the ventral surface of the leaf under a binocular microscope. Two leaves were selected randomly from each plant and thus a total of 50 leaves per 25 plants were observed. The results of the studies indicated that population of two-spotted mite on strawberry fluctuated during April to June. Due to heavy rainfall (RF=101.0mm) received during 2020 in the first week of June mite count dropped to 3.20 active stages and 6.78 eggs/leaf. Thereafter, the mite population started increasing gradually in the subsequent weeks and it reached 18.60 active stages and 37.15 eggs/leaf by the end of June. During July-August mite population declined drastically due to washing off mites by continuous rainfall and mite count fluctuated between 0.85 to14.85 active stages and 0.83 to 27.80 eggs/leaf (Temp=17.16 to 19.28°C; RH=70.57 to 90.79%; RF=10.80 to 85.10 mm; 1.31 to 6.07 hrs) during 2020 while it reduced to minimum level of 0.30 active stages and 1.20 eggs/leaf during 2021 due to heavy rainfall (RF=143.40 mm). It multiplied with fast rate during dry months and a hike in mite count was seen from the second week of October with a peak in the fourth week of November during 2020 with the highest mean population of 89.45 active stages and 131.80eggs/leaf with mean temperature 13.51°C, 37.50% relative humidity, 0.00 mm rainfall and 8.11 hrs of sunshine. During 2021 a hike in the mite population was recorded in the fourth week of November with the highest mean population of 108.85 active stages and 186.65 eggs/leaf with mean temperature 13.05°C, 46.64% RH, 0.00 mm rainfall and 7.74 hrs of sunshine. Due to rain or snowfall received during January to February a sharp decline in mite population was observed during both seasons and it fluctuated between 1.45 to 8.35 active stages and 8.58 to 24.15 eggs/leaf (T=2.21 to7.65<sup>o</sup>C; RH=29.71 to 83.21%; RF=0.00 to 58.70 mm; SS=0.66 to 8.34 hrs). A slight hike in mite population was observed during March and mite count reached to 49.28 active stages and 76.89 eggs/leaf by the end of March, 2022 due to rise in mean temperature. The correlation coefficients (r) between mite population and temperature showed positive and significant relationship, whereas a significant but negative correlation existed between mite population and relative humidity and rainfall. The coefficient of determination between active stages and egg with weather parameters during studies ranged between 71% to 74.0% and 58 to 68.0%, respectively. Thus, the present investigations showed that the severity of mite attack on strawberry was the highest in temperature range of 13–18<sup>o</sup>C, 35–50% RH, zero rainfall, and during bright sunshine hours. These studies will help in forecasting the mite damage in advance for timely application of control measures.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SANGITA SHARMA Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.113 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Studies on seasonal population fluctuations and feeding damage induced by <em>Dolichotetranychus floridanus</em> (Banks) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on areca palms of Kerala, India</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.114 <p>The state of Kerala is home to nearly 10,035 plant species as per the diversity scenario, thereby constituting 22% of the total plant diversity of India. <em>Areca catechu </em>L. (Arecales: Arecaceae) is an important plantation crop of Kerala with a multitude of economic utility and constitutes an important source of income for the people. The areca palms of Kerala are under the threat of many arthropod pests, of which tenuipalpid mites represent a major group causing severe damage to the foliage as well as the nuts. The present study reports a new host record for the tenuipalpid species viz <em>Dolichotetranychus floridanus, </em>which was found to infest the areca palms inducing severe damage to the developing nuts in various Areca plantations of Kerala. To understand the extent of damage induced by the species to its new host <em>A. catechu</em>, sampling was carried out monthly to collect nut samples from areca plantations distributed in two districts viz. Kozhikode and Malappuram of North Kerala, for a period of two years from 2013 and 2015. The collected nut samples were examined in the laboratory under a stereozoom microscope (MVNSZ-450) and data were collected on the population density of the mite as well as the qualitative aspects of feeding damage induced by the mite on the nuts. Results of population studies enabled to record peak population density of <em>D. floridanus</em> during July–August months. A positive correlation was found to exist between mite population and relative humidity and a negative correlation was recorded between mite population and temperature. The mean longevity of the females of this species at different temperatures and humidity conditions was recorded as 17.64 ± 0.17 days at 25 + 2<sup>o</sup>C &amp; 80 + 5% RH, 13.64 ± 0.12 days at 30 + 2<sup>o</sup>C &amp; 70 + 5% RH and 11.37 ± 0.12 days at 35 + 2<sup>o</sup>C &amp; 60 + 5% RH. The feeding activity of the species was found to induce severe alterations, leading to the drying up of epidermal tissue, and formation of cracks at the affected region and the latter often served to permit the entry of fungal and bacterial pathogens, leading to tissue rot.</p> P. PRABHEENA, N. RAMANI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.114 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Oribatida in New Zealand alpine environments</strong> </p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.115 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>New Zealand</em>’s soil biota is diverse and unusual, and has high levels of species endemism. Soil microarthropods are the major (and least studied) part of NZ land fauna, yet changes in their biodiversity are often difficult to quantify, because the baseline data are lacking. Data on alpine fauna and flora are a priority in preserving NZ biological heritage, as they are vulnerable to range contraction and higher-altitude displacement due to climate warming. In this presentation we briefly summarize the gaps and challenges in our knowledge of NZ alpine invertebrate biodiversity. The patterns in diversity and community structure of soil Oribatida in the alpine zone vs. upland forests are discussed using spatially-explicit data from several alpine regions of the South Island. Focusing on environmental and spatial analysis, we answer several questions: 1) is alpine plant diversity a significant driver for oribatid species diversity in the high alpine, and if not, what is? 2) Did limited dispersal and habitat fragmentation during Pliocene mountain building and Pleistocene glaciation produce regionally unique alpine communities, or is the alpine fauna a generic depauperate fragment of communities below treeline? 3) What is the scale of species turnover patterns across the alpine landscape? There is also an interesting opportunity to compare oribatid communities of alpine New Zealand with those bearing similar ecophysiological challenges in the Northern Hemisphere.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MARIA MINOR, ALASTAIR ROBERTSON Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.115 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Study on the feeding preference and feeding habits of the oribatid mite <em>Papillacarus elongatus</em> Xavier (Acari: Oribatida: Lohmannidae) using microfungal and leaf litter diets</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.116 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Oribatid mites are essential to the decomposition of plant tissues in temperate forests by assisting the conversion of primary productivity to soil organic matter and thereby nutrient release. The feeding habits and preference of one of the important soil oribatid mite, Papillacarus elongatus, </em>were observed under the laboratory conditions (RH 80±2% and Temperature 27±2 °C) by providing different microfungi (<em>Pseudo pestalotiopsis, Ectophoma multirostrata, Curvularia verruculosa, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodipladia theobromae, Trichodema harzianum</em>) and semi degraded leaves (<em>Hevea brasiliensis, Theobrama cacao, Myristica fragrans, Artocarpus hirsutus, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Mangifera indica</em>) as food items. Among these food items, the mite fed less on microfungi <em>Pseudo pestalotiopsis and Ectophoma multirostrata </em>but actively fed on<em> Curvularia verruculosa, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodipladia theobromae </em>and<em> Trichodema harzianum</em>. They completely rejected semi-degraded leaves of <em>Hevea brasiliensis, Theobrama cacao </em>and<em> Myristica fragrans </em>but actively fed on<em> Artocarpus hirsutus, Artocarpus heterophyllus, </em>and<em> Mangifera indica. </em>The rate of feeding and their ability to select favoured food items could be analyzed statistically by conducting an ANOVA test, which revealed that the <em>F</em> value was significant at p&lt;0.05 level. The results of this study indicate that the <em>P. elongatus</em> can exhibit both microphytophagous and panphytophagous feeding behaviour, as they could feed both lower plant elements like fungal hyphae and higher plant parts like leaves. Defecated faecal pellets of the reared oribatid mites were also observed on individual food items in culture vessels and counted after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h. The results confirmed the preferred food items in the present experiment. The enzyme assays showed that the possession of cellulose-splitting enzymes like cellulase, trihalase and chitinase suggests their ability to degrade polysaccharides. These alternative feeding guilds in this species and their possible interactions with the fungal community were related to organic matter decomposition which may help them indirectly affect the microbial activity and be directly involved in the biodegradation of leaf litter in the soil ecosystem.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> K.K. PRAVEENA, T.R. SOBHA, A. ARUN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.116 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Mite-microbe gut symbiosis: Novel concept for plastic degradation and waste management</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.117 <p>Plastic is the challenge for every ecosystem and one of the abundant and omnipresent pollutants on the Earth today. Biodegradation of the plastic is a less explored domain of research, limited to the potential of bacteria and fungi as decomposers of few types of plastics. Partial degradation of some types of plastics by bacteria and fungi has been confirmed by studies. Ingestion of microplastics by soil microarthropods has been proposed, but confirmatory evidence on the possibility of plastic degradation by mites is not available. During the last three years of research work, we have collected information on the potential of mite-microbiome combination for targeting plastic degradation and soil fertility enhancement. Few species of oribatid mites have been identified as potential candidates for plastic consumption and digestion in laboratory cultures.</p> M.A. HAQ Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.117 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>An in-depth study on the life stages of lohmanniid mite <em>Lepidacarus ornatissimus</em> Csiszar, 1961 (Acari: Oribatida)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.118 <p>The importance of oribatid mites in soil ecosystem for biodegradation of plant litter to increase soil fertility and crop development is a known fact. However, biodegradation of woody plant materials&nbsp; appears to be a difficult task to most mites. This study concentrated on the developmental biology of a mite which prefers plant material of woody nature.</p> M.A. HAQ Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.118 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Large mites on wild mushrooms in Britain</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.119 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Fungivorous mites and other acari associated with mushroom colonies are known since the beginning of acarology. Most of them are tiny and difficult or impossible to see with the naked eye. Most are myceliophagous mites (Behan &amp; Hill, 1978; Renker et al</em>., 2005; Werner <em>et al.</em>, 2018). Large mites visible unaided on the stems, caps, or gills of the fleshy fruiting bodies of life wild mushrooms have been widely observed by naturalists but have rarely been documented in the acarological literature.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MARTA I. SALOÑA-BORDAS, LAURA F. GARTHWAITE, M. ALEJANDRA PEROTTI, HENK R. BRAIG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.119 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Get a grip—claws of intertidal oribatid mites and their ecological relevance*</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.120 <p>Claws may be the most common biological attachment devices in the animal kingdom but relatively few studies have investigated the ecological and evolutionary significance of their specific morphology.</p> TOBIAS PFINGSTL, MICHAELA KERSCHBAUMER Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.120 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Distribution and phylogeographic patterns of intertidal oribatid mites along South African shores</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.121 <p>A faunistic study of the intertidal oribatid mite fauna of South Africa’s coastline revealed the presence of four species from three families, namely <em>Halozetes capensis</em> (Podacaridae), <em>Fortuynia elamellata micromorpha</em> (Fortuyniidae), <em>Schusteria ugraseni</em> and <em>Selenoribates divergens</em> (Selenoribatidae). A specific biogeographic pattern was observed coinciding with suggested marine biogeographic ecoregions corresponding with the cold Benguela Current slowly drifting northwards on the west coast and the warm, rapidly southwestward moving Agulhas Current on the east coast. <em>Halozetes capensis</em> is confined to the southern cooler warm-temperate Agulhas region, <em>F. e. micromorpha</em> and <em>Sch. ugraseni</em> to the eastern warmer subtropical Natal Ecoregion and <em>Sel. divergens</em> to the northeastern tropical Delagoa Ecoregion. Furthermore, CO1 gene sequences of <em>H. capensis</em> showed isolated populations and a distinct genetic structuring, while <em>F. e. micromorpha</em> showed gene flow between all populations and thus no distinct structure. The paleoenvironmental history and the ocean currents may be responsible for the observed patterns. During the last glacial maximum, the colder climate and the weakening of the Agulhas Current possibly resulted in a bottleneck in the warm adapted <em>Fortuynia</em> populations, but the subsequent global warming allowed the populations to expand again. The cold-adapted <em>Halozetes</em> populations experienced no dramatic changes during this period and thus could persist in the Agulhas Ecoregion. Considering transport on ocean currents, the Agulhas Current on the east coast could be further responsible for connectivity between <em>Fortuynia</em> populations, but the deflection on the south-eastern coast could support the isolation of the <em>Halozetes</em> populations. It is difficult to determine how individual populations may be influenced by climate change, but in general, with global warming induced changes in sea surface temperatures, warm adapted fortuyniid and selenoribatids can be expected to expand their ranges southward, while the distribution of the cold adapted podacarid might be reduced to a few southwestern coastal areas.</p> TOBIAS PFINGSTL, JULIA BAUMANN, IRIS BARDEL-KAHR, JAN-ANDRIES NEETHLING, ELIZABETH A. HUGO-COETZEE Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.121 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The diversity and distribution of oribatid mites in high altitudinal ecosystems of Great and Lesser Caucasus</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.122 <p>The aim of our investigation was to study the community composition and distribution of oribatid mites in high altitudinal ecosystems of Great and Lesser Caucasus mountains.</p> MAKA MURVANIDZE, NINO TODRIA Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.122 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Generalist–specialist continuum in soil oribatid mites (Acari): evidence from stable isotopes</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.123 <p>Not all individuals are the same. How this applies to soil-living creatures received little attention. Within-species variability determines the niche differentiation of coexisting species.</p> JING-ZHONG LU, JOHANNA E. NOSKE, MARK MARAUN, INA SCHAEFER, STEFAN SCHEU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.123 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Comparative diversity of the Uropodina (Acari, Gamasida) inhabiting poultry manure in southeastern Brazil</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.124 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Species in the cohort Uropodina include a great diversity of free-living mites, which inhabit soil, leaf litter and manure. These habitats present favorable microclimatic aspects for colonization and succession of several species of mites, with different niches occupied over time. For poultry manure, many weeks of manure accumulation are necessary for there to be sufficient colonization by predatory and decomposing arthropods, including mite species, and for the formation of complex food webs for ecological stability. The knowledge of manure mite fauna in Brazil is hampered by the great diversity of species and the lack of specialists. In the State of S</em>ão Paulo, there are few known species of edaphic and manure mites from the cohort Uropodina. This study presents taxonomic and some comparative distribution data about uropodids in poultry manure in the State of São Paulo. The manure was collected in poultry farms in Mogi-Guaçu, SP (1,800 kg) in July 2022. The mites were extracted by Berlese-Tullgren method over an eight-day period and preserved in 70% alcohol. The mites were counted and Uropodina identified by visual observation for clarification and preparation of slides in Hoyer’s medium. The mite specimens were compared with the mites previously collected in manure from a laying farm in Santa Cruz da Conceição, SP in July 2001 and July 2002. Two morphospecies of <em>Thrichouropoda</em> were identified in the samples from Mogi-Guaçu. The mites obtained in Santa Cruz da Conceição, SP had representatives in the genera <em>Uroseius</em>, <em>Uroobovella</em> and <em>Thrichouropoda</em>, with four morphospecies identified. The variation in distribution and diversity of uropodids in the manure of both poultry farms suggest that instabilities regarding the accumulation of manure, management in these properties, environmental changes over the years and factors intrinsic to the locations, could affect the uniformity of collections in these areas. The uropodids from this study were deposited in the Collection of Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Importance (IB-CPAMV), Laboratory of Animal Parasitology, Biological Institute of São Paulo.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> TATYANA SACCHI CARMONA RODRIGUEIRO, KARINA ARAÚJO DOS ANJOS, FERNANDA CALVO DUARTE, MÁRCIA CRISTINA MENDES Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.124 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Morphological and molecular analyses of the six-spotted spider mite, <em>Eotetranychus sexmaculatus</em> (Riley) (Tetranychidae)—a pest more widespread than anticipated?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.125 <p>A spider mite species initially identified as the six-spotted spider mite, <em>Eotetranychus sexmaculatus</em> (Riley), was recorded defoliating avocado trees, <em>Persea americana</em> Mill. (Lauraceae), in the southwestern parts of Western Australia.&nbsp; However, due to morphological inconsistencies in the descriptions of <em>E. sexmaculatus</em>, it has recently been suggested that these Australian specimens actually represented the native species <em>E. queenslandicus</em> Manson and that <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> was in fact not present in Australia (Seeman <em>et al.</em> 2017).</p> JENNIFER J. BEARD, FRÉDÉRIC BEAULIEU, WAYNE KNEE, TETSUO GOTOH Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.125 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Larval Parasitengona (Acari, Prostigmata) parasitizing cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae, Ceuthophilinae) in North America</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.126 <p>The unique morphology of cave animals has interested biologists for a long time, especially with respect to eye and pigment loss. Acari have been recorded from caves around the world, but relatively few show modifications resulting from living in caves. Most mites found in caves are troglophiles or accidentals with only a few troglobitic species reported. The terrestrial Parasitengona associated with caves will be reviewed.</p> CAL WELBOURN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.126 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Delimiting the Dermanyssoidea</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.127 <p>The Dermanyssoidea and the Eviphidoidea are two closely related diverse superfamilies within the mite order Mesostigmata. This diversity accrues from their remarkable ecological vagility. The Dermanyssoidea is particularly prone to evolve symbioses with larger animals. Our understanding of the relationships within and between these superfamilies remain unsatisfactory. Various currently-used characters used to recognise the Dermanyssoidea are plesiomorphies and cannot clearly unite this grouping or define it with respect to the Eviphidoidea. While integrated phylogeny will assist in resolving these issues, for key taxa there is a need to further refine available characters to render them usable as homology statements. Several phylogenetically useful characters are outlined. Key characters, when clearly defined, will help the search for natural groups. This will guide phylogenetic sampling and make subsequent tests of evolutionary ecological questions coherent. These needs persist despite widespread calls (coming from outside of acarology) to distil the number of characters used to describe taxa at the species level.</p> MATTHEW SHAW Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.127 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Three new genera of Schizogyniidae (Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) from a New Caledonian millipede (Spirobolida)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.128 <p>Three new monotypic genera of Schizogyniidae, <em>Terrogynium </em><strong>gen. nov.</strong>, <em>Xenogynium </em><strong>gen. nov. </strong>and <em>Zygogynium </em><strong>gen. nov.</strong><em>, </em>are described from a spirobolid millipede in New Caledonia. <em>Terrogynium</em> has females with chelicerae presumably modified for parasitism, and both sexes have numerous flattened ventral setae, convergent with many Paramegistidae. <em>Xenogynium </em>and <em>Zygogynium </em>are less-specialised genera with the former appearing closer to <em>Terrogynium. </em>Genus relationships are difficult to determine. These three genera are probably most closely related to each other but as a group it lacks convincing unique synapomorphies. Possible synapomorphies may instead reflect convergence for living on hosts, such as their shortened peritremes and loss of pretarsal claws, characters found elsewhere in the Schizogyniidae. The origins of the Schizogyniidae are discussed and a key to genera of Schizogyniidae is provided.</p> OWEN D. SEEMAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.128 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The 30 years drought: Updating records on the Uropodina fauna of the Philippines</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.129 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>The majority of published records of Uropodina in the Philippines were by Hirschmann and his colleagues in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Most of these records were from the country</em>’s largest Island, Luzon (34 of 51 species) especially around the province of Laguna. Although acarine diversity in the Philippines is considered as better-known than that of neighboring countries in Southeast Asia, no additional records of Uropodina have been published after 1992, a 30-year drought. In January and February of 2016, we conducted collections in several parts of Luzon Island as part of a larger study on uropodine phylogeny. In the current study, we present initial results from this expedition on uropodine diversity, based on morphospecies. We’ve identified at least 52 species from 23 genera in 12 families including possible new country records for 5 genera and 3 families. We provide new insights on the group’s diversity by comparing numbers from the current study to previous records. The aim is to use these results as benchmark for further studies on the systematics of Uropodina in the Philippines. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> JEREMY C.B. NAREDO Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.129 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>“Tiny dancer in my hand…” 100-million-year-old case of mite flamboyance*</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.130 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Parasitengona is a highly diverse and widely distributed group within the order Trombidiformes with a peculiar lifestyle. Some of them inhabit exclusively aquatic environments, while others live on land. Their larvae with significantly different morphology are parasites of invertebrates and vertebrates, while subsequent three nymphal stages and the adults alternate as inactive stases and active predators. The fossil record of Parasitengona is relatively rich compared to other mite taxa, but much remains to be discovered, particularly among inclusions in various types of fossilised resins.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MATEUSZ ZMUDZINSKI Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.130 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Revision of the genus <em>Kymocta</em> (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) with new records from Brazil</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.131 <p>The neotropical genus <em>Kymocta</em> Yunker &amp; Brennan, 1962 (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) is currently represented by seven species parasitizing rodents and occasionally marsupials: <em>Kymocta brasiliensis</em> (Fonseca, 1935), <em>Kymocta chironectes</em> Brennan &amp; Bronswijk, 1973, <em>Kymocta faitkeni</em> Brennan, 1968, <em>Kymocta inca</em> (Brennan &amp; Jones, 1961), <em>Kymocta lutui</em> Goff, Whitaker &amp; Dietz, 1983, <em>Kymocta teratarsalis</em> Yunker &amp; Brennan, 1962, and <em>Kymocta zulia</em> Brennan &amp; Bronswijk, 1973.</p> F.C. JACINAVICIUS, C. WELBOURN, R. OCHOA, D.M. BARROS-BATTESTI, R. BASSINI-SILVA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.131 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong><em>Caligonella quinqueocellata</em> Khaustov (Caligonellidae): a new addition to Turkey’s acarofauna</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.132 <p>This study presents the first record of <em>Caligonella quinqueocellata</em> Khaustov for the mite fauna of Turkey. The single female specimen was collected from grassy and mossy soil in the Karasu Valley. This species was previously recorded from the Crimea and Iran. As of right now, this is the third report on this species.</p> SALİH DOĞAN, QING-HAI FAN, ŞİFANUR UĞURLU, HASAN HÜSEYİN ÖZBEK, ORHAN ERMAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.132 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The genus <em>Carpoglyphus</em> (Acariformes: Carpoglyphidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.133 <p>The family Carpoglyphidae consists of six valid species in a single genus, <em>Carpoglyphus</em> Robin, 1869. <em>Carpoglyphus</em> <em>lactis</em> (Linnaeus, 1767) is a cosmopolitan species that has been recorded from dried fruits, beer, milk products, jams, honey and wine; <em>C. munroi</em> (Hughes, 1952) was found on dead insects (mainly blowflies and beetle larvae) trapped in cobwebs in a clock tower and in bat roosts in England, bee-hives in Czechoslovakia, and barn dust in Sweden; <em>C. biaggioi</em> (as<em> Dichotomiopus biaggioi </em>Fain &amp; Camerik, 1978) only known from heteromorphic deutonymphs found in close association with two beetle species (<em>Dichotomius anaglypticus</em> (Scarabaeide) and <em>Ischasia rufina</em> (Cerambycidae)), in Brazil; <em>C. sturmi</em> Fain and Rack, 1987 in the flowers of <em>Espeletia grandiflora</em>, <em>E. incana</em>, <em>E. sumapazii</em>, <em>Espeletiopsis corymbosa</em> (Asteraceae) in Colombia; <em>C. ganzhouensis</em> Jiang, 1991 from the house dust and brown sugar residue in a slaughterhouse in China (taxonomic status uncertain); <em>C. nidicolous </em>Hubard and Fashing, 1996 from the nests of barn swallows (<em>Hirundo rustica</em> (Hirundinidae)) and cliff swallows (<em>Petrochelidon pyrrhonota</em> (Hirundinidae)) in a barn in Oregon, USA; <em>C. wardleorum</em> Clark, 2010 from sooty mould fungus <em>Acrogenotheca</em> sp. (Trichopeltinaceae) on the bark of black beech <em>Nothofagus solandri</em> in New Zealand. During a high-risk site surveillance at Kibimie, Wellington, New Zealand (accession number: T16_01895), we found an undescribed species from <em>Cordyline kaspar</em> (cabbage tree) infested with<em> Balanococcus cordylinidis</em> (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and <em>Tyrophagus curvipenis</em> (Acari: Acariae). We compare the morphological characteristics of the new species with known species and provide a key to the species of Carpoglyphidae.</p> HAMASEH ALIAKBARPOUR, QING-HAI FAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.133 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Description of a new species of <em>Lasioseius</em> (Acari: Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) from Brazil, redescription of <em>L. meridionalis</em> Chant and a key to separate the <em>Lasioseius</em> species reported from that country</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.134 <p><em>Lasioseius</em> Berlese is the largest genus of Blattisociidae (Phytoseioidea), with slightly more than 200 described species. Mites of this genus have been collected from different habitats such as soil, litter and in association with insects. In an effort to understand the fauna of edaphic mites, soil samples have been collected from different Brazilian biomes. The objectives of this work are to describe a new <em>Lasioseius</em> species from Brazil, to redescribe <em>Lasioseius meridionalis </em>Chant and to present a key for the separation of the species of the genus reported from that country. The samples were processed in modified Berlese-Tullgren funnels, and the mites collected were mounted in Hoyer’s medium for identification. The Mesostigmata were separated into families, and the Blattisociidae were separated into genera. The <em>Lasioseius </em>specimens were compared with the original descriptions and redescriptions of the species presently placed in the genus, leading to the conclusion that part of the specimens belonged to a new species. Other specimens belonged to a species taxonomically known only from the original description, <em>L. meridionalis</em>, which was redescribed. <em>Lasioseius </em>n. sp. has an unusual feature among the <em>Lasioseius </em>species for having dorsal setae mostly bacilate and saber to leaf-shapped. This species is most similar to <em>L.</em> <em>foliatisetus</em> Merlin <em>et al.</em> in also having a wide peritreme, but differs for not having post-stigmatic extension of the peritreme and different dorsal shield setae. The other species collected in this work is very similar to <em>Lasioseius barbensiensis </em>Faraji &amp; Karg, morphologically known only from the original description, based solely on the holotype. The examination of part of the specimens collected and of the holotypes of <em>L. barbensiensis</em> and <em>L. meridionalis </em>led us to the conclusion that they represent two similar species, differing mostly in relation to the spermathecal apparatus. <em>Lasioseius barbensiensis </em>has been previously reported from Brazil, but <em>L. meridionalis</em> is reported for the first time. With this publication, the total number of <em>Lasioseius</em> species reported from Brazil is increased to nineteen, which can be separated with a key presented in this publication. Financial support FAPESP (2019/27793-7; 2017/12004-1).</p> ÁVYLA R. DE A. BARROS, RAPHAEL C. CASTILHO, GILBERTO J. DE MORAES Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.134 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Checklist of Indian mites in the family Laelapidae Canestrini, 1891 (Acari: Mesostigmata)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.135 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The mite family Laelapidae Canestrini, 1891 (Acari: Parasitiformes) is one of the most diverse families in the Order Mesostigmata. The family is cosmopolitan and ecologically diverse, including obligate and facultative parasites of vertebrates, insect paraphages, and free-living predators that occur in soil and litter and the nests of vertebrates and arthropods. The free-living species have received considerable attention as predatory biological control agents of agri-horticultural pests that spend at least part of their life in the soil. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> PRITHA BANDYOPADHYAY, KRISHNA KARMAKAR, BRUCE HALLIDAY Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.135 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Diversity of phytoseiid mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) fauna from Andaman &amp; Nicobar Islands, India</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.136 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The highly biodiverse group of mesostigmatid mites belonging to the family of Phytoseiidae are globally recognized as potential predators of small soft-bodied arthropods and destructive mite pests owing to their high searching capacity, good adaptability to a wide range of climatic regimes from arctic to tropics, short life cycle (1 week approx.), high multiplication capability (40–60 offspring per female) with high feeding potential. Phytoseiid mites that are commercially exploited as efficient biocontrol agents are regarded as farmers’ friends as they play a pivotal role in managing the pest population below the economic injury level to ensure a safe and sustainable pattern of food production system keeping aside hazardous chemicals. At present, the global scientific communities are deeply involved with this group of mites and due to their higher attention, the number of nominal phytoseiid species has increased from 34 in 1950 to more than 2500 in 2021.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SHUBHADEEP BISWAS, KRISHNA KARMAKAR Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.136 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Real-time PCR assay for <em>Tetranychus evansi</em> and multiplex with three other <em>Tetranychus</em> species</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.137 <p>Spider mites are significant agricultural and horticultural pests. Among them, <em>Tetranychus urticae </em>Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is the most important one and has a cosmopolitan distribution. The tomato red spider mite (TRSM), <em>T. evansi</em> Baker and Pritchard is a worldwide pest of solanaceous crops and has become a major invasive agricultural pest. <em>Tetranychus evansi</em> originates from South America and has recently invaded many other parts of the world, including countries of Africa, Europe, Asia and North America. Recently, it has spread to Australia and New Zealand. TRSM has a high intrinsic rate of increase and completes a generation in less than 15 days. It is reported that <em>T. evansi</em> has replaced <em>T. uritcae</em> and other endemic spider mites as the dominant pest and also colonised new host plants in the invaded countries. Furthermore, <em>T. urticae, T. ludeni</em> and <em>T. lambi</em> shared the same host as <em>T. evansi. Tetranychu</em>s species are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological methods, and the molecular techniques such as mitochondrial COI and ITS sequences have greatly assisted in the diagnosis of those species. However, the methods include post-PCR steps and are time-consuming. In contrast, real-time PCR assays which omit those post-PCR steps can provide rapid detection. The real-time PCR assay to identify <em>T. urticae, T. ludeni</em> and <em>T. lambi</em> were already developed and validated by us (Li <em>et al.</em>, 2015) and by Australian scientists (Chen <em>et al.</em>, 2020), but no assay targeting <em>T. evansi</em> is available. Therefore, we developed and validated a TaqMan real-time PCR protocol for rapid detection of <em>T. evansi</em>, by targeting ITS1 gene region. The assay specificity was tested against the closely related species, <em>i.e.</em>,<em> T. collyerae, T. lambi,</em> <em>T. ludeni, T. kanzawai, T. parakanzawai, </em></p> <ol> <li><em> pueraicola, T. truncatus, T. turkestani</em> and <em>T. urticae. </em>Plasmid DNA containing ITS1 sequence of <em>T. evansi </em>was used as standards for sensitivity tests of the real-time PCR assay. The detection limit of the assay is 10 copy of the target region, indicating that it can detect DNA from different life stage of the target species, i.e. an egg, a larva, a nymph or an adult<em>. </em>Furthermore, multiplex assay targeting <em>T. evansi, T. ludeni, T. lambi</em> and<em> T. urticae </em>have been validated for detection of the four species. The validation showed that the assay against <em>T. evansi</em> can run as singleplex and also as multiplex by targeting the four species simultaneously. This multiplex assay has been used in the surveillance programme in New Zealand and demonstrated its efficiency in detection of the target species. Moreover, the assay will be very useful for the quick identification of intercepted specimens at border and post border.</li> </ol> DONGMEI, QING-HAI FAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.137 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Identification of <em>Euseius nicholsi</em> and <em>Euseius oolong</em> (Acari: Phytoseiidae) by using integrative taxonomy</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.138 <p>Several specimens of an Euseius sp. were collected from Bajiaozhai National Forest Park (Guilin, China). Preliminary morphological observations showed that the species is very similar to Euseius nicholsi (Ehara and Lee, 1971) which is frequently reported from China and other far eastern countries, as well as Euseius oolong Liao and Ho, 2018, a species recently described from Taiwan. However, some morphological differences such as the body size, reticulation on the dorsal plate, shape of calyx of spermatheca etc., existed between these two species. In order to ascertain whether these morphological differences are representing different or a single species belonging to the genus Euseius, molecular analyses were conducted by using ITS, 12S rDNA, and mitochondrial DNA COI markers. Results revealed very low levels of genetic divergence (ITS 0–1%, 12S rDNA 0–2.37%, COI 0–2%), based on the three molecular markers, between Euseius sp., Euseius nicholsi [collected from Institute of Zoology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences (IZGAS) and from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) data], and Euseius oolong (collected from IZGAS). In addition, the phylogenetic tree constructed by using the neighbor-joining method also showed that sequences of these three populations were clustered in a single clade and parallel to out-group Euseius ovalis. Therefore, it can be concluded that Euseius sp. probably belongs to Euseius nicholsi, and Euseius oolong is a junior synonym of this species. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of integrative taxonomy for the proper identification of phytoseiid mites, one of the most important groups of predators utilized for biological control all over the world.</p> XIAO-DUAN FANG, WEI-NAN WU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.138 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Diversity of edaphic predatory mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in the Amazon region</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.139 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>The Amazon region has been reported to hold some of the highest levels of biodiversity of the planet. However, little is known about the edaphic mesostigmatic mites of this region. Worldwide, the Mesostigmata constitute the most abundant order of edaphic predatory mites. Given their potential importance, knowledge about their diversity is considered desirable to allow the determination of species for use as biological control agents. Hence, an exploratory study has been conducted in parts of the Brazilian Amazon to evaluate the diversity of those mites in areas of natural vegetation as well as in areas of subsistence crops and livestock production for local use. The objective of this presentation is to report the results of the evaluation of soil-litter samples collected in January 2022 in Rorain</em>ópolis, state of Roraima, in areas of natural vegetation, cassava, pasture and an açaí (<em>Euterpe oleracea</em>) cultivation, taking 16 samples of each area. A total of 540 Mesostigmata (Gamasina cohort) mites was collected, of which 339 were adult females representing 40 morphospecies (eleven new to science), distributed in 24 genera (two new to science) grouped into 13 families. The highest abundance was found in the cassava cultivation, where 142 adult females, representing the highest number of genera (13) and species (18). Pasture had the lowest abundance (51 specimens), representing the lowest number of genera (9) and species (11). Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae were the most abundant families, each representing about 32% of the identified females, followed by Ascidae with 9%. Considering all areas together, <em>Multidentorhodacarus squamosus</em> (Rhodacaridae) was the most abundant species, being dominant in areas of cassava cultivation (53 specimens) and natural vegetation (31 specimens). A new species of <em>Gaeolaelaps</em> (Laelapidae) (13 individuals) and a new species of <em>Neogamasellevans</em> (Ologamasidae) (19 individuals) were dominant in the pasture and açaí cultivation, respectively. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> LINA MARCELA GONZALEZ CANO, TATIANE MARIE MARTINS GOMES DE CASTRO, GILBERTO JOSÉ DE MORAES, RAPHAEL DE CAMPOS CASTILHO Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.139 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Morphological and mitochondrial genomic traits of <em>Spinibdella lignicola</em> (Trombidiformes, Eupodina, Bdelloidea) and evolution of Trombidiform mites from comparative genomics</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.140 <p>Numerous trombidiform mites have been elucidated for their morphological features and mitochondrial (mt) genomes. However, the mitochondrial genomes of <em>Spinibdella lignicola </em>has never been described yet. In this study, we accounted for the morphological characteristics and complete mitochondrial genome of <em>S. lignicola</em> (the first mitogenome of Bdelloidea)<em>.</em> Furthermore, combined with other 26 trombidiform mitogenomes, we conducted gene order (GO) comparative analyses of trombidiform mites. <em>S. lignicola</em>, pear-shaped, bright red in color, is about 950 μm in length and featured by Coxa I with 4 setae. The mitogenome of <em>S. lignicola </em>have a typical set of 37 genes in arthropods, exhibiting a novel gene cluster of “<em>trnA-trnQ-trnS1-trnR</em>” among trombidiform mites. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that <em>S. lignicola </em>is closely related to <em>Riccardoella reaumuri</em>, supporting its position within Eupodides. In line with previous studies, the monophyly of Trombidiformes is rejected beacuse the Eriophyoidea lies outside of Trombidiformes. Four derived gene clusters (<em>cox1~cox3; nad6~trnS2; nad1-trnL2; trnM~trnC</em>) were suggested as synapomorphies in trombidiform mites. Furthermore, we propose the possible ancestral GO of Trombidiformes and provide GO evidence for eriophyoid mites evolving independently from non-eriophyoid trombidiform mites. Our study confirms that comparative analysis of GO is a valuable information approach in improving our understanding of mitogenome evolution and phylogeny of trombidiform mites.</p> YING FANG, YU FANG, LINGMIAO CHU, XINGQUAN XIA, ENTAO SUN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.140 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Molecular and morphological identification of <em>Brevipalpus</em> spp. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in <em>Citrus</em> <em>sinensis</em>, Costa Rica</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.141 <p>The genus <em>Brevipalpus</em> presents interspecific variability since its description. Therefore, the question arises as to which species are found on citrus in Costa Rica. Molecular and morphological techniques are complementary tools that allow a more precise identification at the species level, which is important, some species of the genus Brevipalpus have been associated with virus transmission, such as <em>Citrus leprosis virus</em>.</p> JACQUELINE ABARCA DURÁN, PAMELA MURILLO ROJAS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.141 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Diversity, distribution and scope of utilization of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in eastern India</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.142 <p>The mites of the family Phytoseiidae are one of the most studied groups of predatory mites worldwide for its species diversity, wide distribution and feeding potential to act as biocontrol agents for control of pest mites and small soft bodied insect pests. Phytoseiid mites are boon of nature because they sustain on pests of many agri-horticultural crops which are indeed very difficult to manage relying solely on pesticides. Considering its immense importance, it has been extensively explored from eastern India to understand the inherent potential of these biocontrol agents. In the era of biological control, predatory mites, specifically those belonging to the family Phytoseiidae, are now appreciated with farmers worldwide as natural enemies for their exhaustive use in pest control in greenhouses and as well as in open field conditions.</p> KRISHNA KARMAKAR, SAGARIKA BHOWMIK, ANAMIKA KAR, MD. IFTIAR HOSSAIN MOLLA, SHUBHADEEP BISWAS Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.142 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Exploring the diversity and host association of tarsonemid mites in West Bengal, a highly biodiverse state of Eastern India</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.143 <p>The family Tarsonemidae is an extremely diverse assemblage of heterostigmatid mites which include phytophagous, fungivorous, detriphagous, algivorous and insect parasitic species living in various terrestrial, arboreal, subcortical or nidicolous habitats. Many of these mites pose a serious threat to global agriculture due to their direct feeding on crop plants or indirect transmission of disease-causing bacterial or fungal spores to healthy plants. For instance, <em>Polyphagotarsonemus latus</em> may reproduce year-round in all tropical and subtropical habitats and feed on more than 60 different plant families. <em>Steneotarsonemus</em> species, such as <em>S. spinki</em> and <em>S. subfurcatus</em>, attack rice and can significantly reduce the harvest,&nbsp;<em>S. ananas</em> attacks pineapple, and <em>S. laticeps</em> targets lilies. In temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere, several <em>Tarsonemus</em> species phoretic on curculionid beetles transfer lethal fungal spores on healthy pine trees, while some other species pose a real hazard to cultivated mushrooms and stored products.</p> KRISHNA KARMAKAR, PRIYANKAR MONDAL, MOUMI GANGULY, SANDIPAN KAYAL Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.143 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong><em>Leipothrix</em> <em>argutae</em> (Acari: Eriophyidae) infesting kiwi fruit trees in Jilin province, Northeastern China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.144 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Eriophyoid mites are herbivorous mites of a worldwide distribution. The genus Leipothrix </em>(Eriophyidae) was established by Keifer (1966) and currently consisted of 53 species (including two species unpublished). This genus is characterized by (1) the absence of femoral setae <em>bv</em> from both legs and (2) the distinctive form of dorsal palp genual setae<em> d, </em>which is moderately long and bifurcate, with its branch being minute or very minute (sometimes seen as a sharp bend in the seta). Most <em>Leipothrix</em> spp. cause no damage and are vagrant on the leaf surface. However, some of them caused russeting and drying of the leaves when the mites were in high density. During field surveys in Zuojia Experimental Plot in Jilin Province, China, we collected two sympatric morphs of <em>Leipothrix </em>species from the hardy kiwi, <em>Actinidia arguta </em>(Siebold &amp; Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. (Actinidiaceae), a cultivated vine. The mites were later described as <em>L. argutae</em> Han, Wang &amp; Ai, 2020, which is a deuterogynous species (Han <em>et al.</em> 2020). These mites were found with large rust on the surfaces of leaves and fruits of the host plant. Local people wrongly attributed these symptoms to a kind of plant disease. Sometimes <em>L. argutae </em>is also confused with <em>Phyllocoptruta oleivora</em> (Ashmead), which also causes rust in <em>Citrus</em> sp. and other related plant species. This is the first record of <em>Leipothrix</em> species on a species of Actinidiaceae, and also a new record of an eriophyoid mite causing serious symptoms and affecting fruit quality in kiwi fruits. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> XIAO HAN, RI-ZHAO CHEN, YING YUAN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.144 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The genus <em>Proterothrix</em> Gaud (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) of China: a review of research progress</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.145 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The Pterodectinae is one of the two subfamilies (Pterodectinae and proctophllodinae) in the Proctophyllodidae and its members are characterized by the continuous tips of epigynum with epimerites IIIa and IV forming a keyhole-shaped structure. The feather mite genus Proterothrix Guad, 1968 along with seven more genera, belongs to the “Phroterothrix generic group”, which is characterized by satae ps3 anterior to adanal suckers in males.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SHU-XIANG HE, LI-HUA SUN, HUAI LIU, ZI-YING WANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.145 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Feather mites of the genus <em>Proctophyllodes</em> Robin, 1868 (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.146 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>The feather mite genus Proctophyllodes</em> Robin, 1868 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae) is the most speciose genus in this family, with 181 species placed in 12 species groups. Currently, only 13 species of <em>Proctophyllodes</em> from Passeriformes were recorded in China: <em>P. anthi </em>Vitzthum, 1922, <em>P.</em> <em>ceratophyllus</em> Atyeo &amp; Braasch, 1966, <em>P. garrula</em> Wang, Wang &amp; Su, 2014, <em>P. canora</em> Wang, Wang &amp; Su, 2014, <em>P. scleroticus</em> Zhang, Chen &amp; Wang, 2021, <em>P. glandarinus</em> Atyeo &amp; Braasch, 1966, <em>P. flexuosa</em> Wang, Wang &amp; Su, 2014, <em>P. troncatus</em> Robin, 1877, <em>P. sinensis </em>Gaud &amp; Atyeo, 1976 stat. n., <em>P. vegetans</em> Trouessart, 1899, <em>P. brevis</em> Wang, Wang &amp; Su, 2014, <em>P.</em> <em>weigoldi </em>Vitzthum, 1922 and <em>P. micrurus</em> Zhang, Chen &amp; Wang, 2021. Herein we describe one new species and redescribe <em>P. weigoldi</em> Vitzthum, 1922 from a newly recorded host for the genus <em>Proctophyllodes</em> from two passerines in China, <em>Ixos mcclellandii </em>(Horsfield) (Pycnonotidae) and <em>Poecile montanus</em> (Baldenstein) (Paridae).</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> LI-HUA SUN, SHU-XIANG HE, HUAI LIU, ZI-YING WANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.146 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Efficacy of biorationals against the two-spotted spider mite infesting cucumber cultivated under net house</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.147 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>T</em>wo-spotted spider mite, <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the key pests in cucumber cultivation, especially under protected conditions. The net houses and poly-net houses provide favourable environment for the multiplication of spider mite populations. The active stages of <em>T. urticae</em> suck cells sap which produces yellowish-white specklings on leaves and in severe infestations on the fruits. To promote non-chemical approach for mite management, studies on the efficacy of biorationals against <em>T. urticae</em> on net house cucumber were undertaken at Ludhiana, India. Cucumber variety <em>Punjab kheera-1 </em>was transplanted in February, 2021 and the crop was raised as per university recommended cultural and management practices for production of cucumber. The trial was conducted in a double-door, naturally ventilated net house structure made of galvanized iron pipes covered with ultraviolet stabilized 40 mesh size net and an arc-shaped dome. The trial was laid out in randomized block design with each of the concentration of the biorationals as one treatment with three replications each for all the treatments. The maximum and minimum temperature varied from 31<sup>o</sup>C to 36<sup>o</sup>C and 16<sup>o</sup>C to 18<sup>o</sup>C, respectively, while morning and evening relative humidity varied from 68 to 82% and 20 to 26 %, respectively during this period. There were 10 plants per plot in each treatment, separated by a distance of 50cm between 2 plots to avoid chemical interference owing to drift to adjacent treatments. For foliar applications of different treatments, a battery-operated knapsack sprayer fitted with hollow cone nozzle (40 PSI pressure) was used. Different biorationals including indigeneous ‘gurukul’ products as given in Palekar’s model of organic farming i.e. <em>brahamastra</em> (20 litres cow urine, 2 kg each of neem, mango, guava, castor leaves boiled in 100 litres of water and then filtered)<em>, neemastra </em>(5 litres cow urine, 2 kg cow dung, 5 kg neem leaves boiled in 100 litres of water and then filtered)<em>, agniastra</em> (20 litres cow urine, 5 kg neem leaves, 500g each of chilli and garlic fruits boiled in 100 litres of water and then filtered), all at the dose of 10, 20 and 30 ml/litre and botanicals <em>viz.</em> PAU homemade neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>) extract (PAUHMNE) @ 12, 14, 16 ml/litre, dried neem fruit powder extract (DNFPE) @ 3, 4, and 5%, PAU homemade <em>dharek</em> (<em>Melia azaderach</em>) extract (PAUHMDE) @ 12, 14, 16 ml/litre, dried <em>dharek </em>fruit powder extract (DDFPE) @ 3, 4 and 5%, and water spray along with untreated control were evaluated. The different indigenous products and botanicals were prepared freshly. Two sprays of the treatments were given at weekly interval, with the first spray at the appearance of 20–25 % mite infestation on plants. Observations were recorded from randomly selected three leaves each from top, middle and bottom canopies. The number of active stages of mites were recorded before the treatment, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after each spray (DASI and DASII). The data were subjected to square root transformation and analyzed statistically following Analysis of Variance. The results were interpreted at 5 per cent level of significance using Tukey’s test. The number of mites before treatment ranged from 31.00 to 36.67 mites/ 2 cm leaf area in different treatments. Significantly lower mean number of mites was observed in <em>agniastra </em>(9.78)<em>, </em>PAU HMDE (9.67), <em>neemastra </em>(10.67), DNFPE (11.47), DDFPE (12.22), <em>brahamastra (</em>12.67) and PAU HNE (13.11) at highest doses after 3 DASI and 5 DASI, compared to the untreated control (35.66 and 36.22). After the second spray of the biorationals, mean number of mites in PAU HNE (14.33), <em>neemastra </em>(14.67), PAU HMDE (15.17), DNFPE (15.33), DDFPE (16.17), <em>agniastra </em>(16.50)<em>,</em> <em>brahamastra </em>(18.83) were observed at highest doses after 3 DASII and 5 DASII. No phytotoxicity was observed in any treatment. Seeing the overall results, it can be concluded that these botanicals and indigenous products can be incorporated in integrated mite management programme which will help in reducing the pesticide load and promoting organic cultivation of the vegetable crops. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MANMEET BRAR BHULLAR, PARAMJIT KAUR, RAJINDER KUMAR DHALL Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.147 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Bio-efficacy of <em>Tagetes</em> <em>minuta</em> L. against <em>Tetranychus truncatus</em> Ehara (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.148 <p><em>Tetranychus truncatus</em> is the predominant species of spider mite infesting vegetable crops in Kerala (Bennur et al., 2015). The mite management in Kerala largely depends on the use of synthetic acaricides. However, extensive use of synthetic pesticides over decades has led to several adverse effects on environment and non-target organisms. Plants and plant-based products are receiving considerable attention worldwide for their utilization and applications in pest management. The Mexican marigold, <em>Tagetes minuta</em> L. (Asteraceae), has been reported to contain the chemicals 5-(3-buten-1-ynyl) 2, 2-bithienyl and alpha therthienyl, which have pesticidal properties (Morallo-Rejesus and Decena, 1982). A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of <em>Tagetes minuta </em>against the spider mite, <em>Tetranychus truncatus</em>. The solvent extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) of <em>T. minuta</em> were evaluated separately against eggs and gravid females of <em>T. truncatus</em> at five different concentrations <em>viz</em>., 0.025, 0.05, 0.1,0.15 and 0.2 per cent. To evaluate the ovicidal effect, ten gravid females were released on mulberry leaf bit (5×5 cm) placed in Petri plate lined with moistened cotton and allowed for egg laying. The adults were removed after 24 h and 25 eggs were retained per leaf bit. The solvent extracts were applied on the leaf bits with eggs using hand atomizer and observed for egg hatchability at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of spraying and per cent mortality of egg was calculated. To evaluate the adulticidal activity, mulberry leaf bits were dipped in solvent extracts for 30 seconds, air dried and placed in a Petri plate lined with moistened cotton. Twenty-five gravid females were released to the leaf bit and adult mortality was recorded after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h of treatment and per cent mortality was calculated. The extracts varied significantly in their ovicidal and adulticidal effects. Among the different extracts, 0.2 % hexane extract was found to be significantly superior in ovicidal activity over other treatments and recorded 100 per cent mortality at 120 h after treatment. This was followed by 0.15 and 0.1 per cent hexane extracts which recorded 81.33 and 53.33 per cent egg mortality, respectively. The hexane extracts 0.2 % and 0.15 % were found to be significantly superior over other treatments, recording 93.33 and 92 per cent adult mortality, respectively within 120 h of application. This was followed by 0.2 % chloroform and 0.1 % hexane extracts, recording 73.33 and 72.00 per cent mortality, respectively. These results indicate that Mexican marigold possess excellent acaricidal properties and the hexane and chloroform extracts of the plant can be explored for further utilization in the management of spider mites.</p> V.V. ASHISH, HASEENA BHASKAR, U. SREELATHA, K.B. DEEPTHY Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.148 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Status of abamectin resistance and mechanisms in <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> in China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.149 <p>The two-spotted spider mite, <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> Koch, is an important agricultural pest worldwide. It is prone to evolve resistance to pesticides, including organophosphates, pyrethroids, and some newly developed compounds (Xu <em>et al.</em>, 2018; Alpkent <em>et al.</em>, 2020), due to the frequent pesticide spray and the biological characteristics of <em>T. urticae</em>, such as short life cycle and parthenogenesis, etc. There is no doubt that the development of pesticide resistance and unclear resistant mechanisms have impeded the chemical control and resistance management of <em>T. urticae </em>in the field.</p> YAN ZHANG, DANDAN XU, SHAOLI WANG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.149 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The sublethal and&nbsp;transgenerational effects of pyridaben on fitness and induced tolerance in <em>Panonychus</em> <em>citri</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.150 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Panonychus citri</em> is a dominant citrus pest mite in the world. Pesticide-induced population resurgence is a concern for environmental and resistance risk assessment in mite control. To evaluate the effective mite management strategies, the sublethal and transgenerational effects of pyridaben on <em>P. citri </em>were assessed using life-table parameters<em>.</em> Two segregated pyridaben-resistant and susceptible strains (previously obtained from the crossing between laboratory susceptible strain and pyridaben-resistant population) were used in our study. After exposure to LC<sub>30</sub> pyridaben, the fecundity of Pyr_Control and Pyr_Rs strains were both significantly reduced in the parental generation (F<sub>0</sub>). Life-table results showed that LC<sub>30</sub> pyridaben significantly induced the fecundity of both strains in F<sub>1</sub> generation (egg stage was prolonged as well). Interestingly, this effect also stimulated the fecundity of F<sub>2</sub> generation in Pyr_Control strain. But no significant effects were observed in Pyr_Rs strain. While detoxification enzyme assays indicated that only the activity of P450s was significantly activated by LC<sub>30</sub> pyridaben in Pyr_Control and Pyr_Rs strains (1.242- fold and 1.355-fold increase, respectively). The expressions of P450 gene (<em>CYP4CL2</em>) and reproduction-related gene (<em>Pc_Vg</em>) were determined and the results showed that the expression of <em>Pc_Vg</em> of pyridaben treated mites in F<sub>0</sub> generation was significantly reduced in both strains. In Pyr_Control and Pyr_Rs strains, the significant upregulation <em>CYP4CL2</em> (2.029-fold and 2.516-fold increase, respectively) and <em>PcVg</em> (1.771-fold and 2.924-fold increase, respectively) of F<sub>1</sub> generation suggested there were delayed hormesis effects on reproduction and developed tolerance to pyridaben. No significant difference was found between LC<sub>30</sub> treatments and controls in F<sub>2</sub> generation of both strains. These results provided evidence that transgenerational hormesis effects of low concentration of pyridaben might lead to mite population outbreak and resistance risk in the field through stimulating the reproduction and developing tolerance to pyridaben. Furthermore, LC<sub>30</sub> pyridaben could affect the offspring populations of susceptible strain in the longer-term as compared to resistant strain.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> DENG PAN, MENGHAO XIA, QIUJUAN LUO, GUORUI YUAN, JINJUN WANG, WEI DOU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.150 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The role of salivary proteins from <em>Tetranychus</em> <em>evansi</em> in the mite-plant interaction</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.151 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Herbivores and plants have been engaged in a tight co-evolutionary arms race, and saliva played important roles in this process. Some herbivore-derived small molecules or proteins called herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) can be recognized by plants and thus trigger plant immune responses. Another type of salivary proteins, called effectors, utilize various strategies to suppress plant defense responses to establish successful feeding. The tomato red spider mite </em><em>Tetranychus evansi</em> is a worldwide pest of <em>Solanaceous</em> crops and causes enormous economic damage in many regions of the world. During the feeding process, <em>T. evansi</em> secretes saliva into plant cells through cheliceral stylets. Secreted saliva plays crucial roles in modulating plant-mite interaction, such as effectors Te28 and Te84 (Villarroel <em>et al.</em>, 2016). We previously identified 136 salivary proteins from <em>T. evansi</em> by transcriptome and LC-MS/MS analyses (Huang <em>et al</em>., 2018). However, the role of these salivary proteins in mite-plant interaction was unknown. Here, we identified a salivary protein involved in the mite-plant interaction (Cui <em>et al</em>., 2022). This protein encodes a protein disulfide isomerase (TePDI) and acts as a HAMP that triggers plant defenses by inducing ROS burst, callose deposition and plant defense-related genes in <em>Nicotiana benthamiana</em>. TePDI can be recognized by multiple Solanaceae plants such as tomato, pepper, and eggplant. TePDI-mediated cell death in<em> N. benthamiana</em> is dependent on the plant signaling molecules SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1) and HSP90 (heat shock protein 90). To better feed on plants, <em>T. evansi </em>inhibited TePDI-triggered cell death and plant defense responses by secreting effectors Te28 and Te84. Further analysis revealed that PDI from phylogenetically distinct herbivorous and non-herbivorous arthropods all triggered cell death and immune response in <em>N. benthamiana</em>. Moreover, silencing <em>PDI</em> gene in spider mites and whiteflies resulted in the reduced survival rate of both pests. Altogether, our study revealed that PDI is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it is functionally conserved in herbivores and required for their survival; on the other hand, it is recognized by Solanaceae plants and enhances plant resistance against herbivores. Our findings indicate that plants utilize evolutionarily conserved HAMPs to activate plant defense and resist pest damage, providing a potential strategy for pest management.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> JIA-RONG CUI, XIAO-LI BING, XIAO-YUE HONG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.151 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Potential roles of two <em>doublesex genes</em> during embryogenesis in <em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.152 <p>In arthropods, <em>doublesex</em> (<em>dsx</em>) is a nexus gene in multiple sex-regulatory pathways, regulating variable downstream genes that further regulate sex differentiation and other reproductive related features. In the present study, we screened two <em>dsx</em> genes (<em>Ppdsx1</em> and <em>Ppdsx2</em>) in <em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em>, investigated their expression, function, and interaction with potential downstream genes, through RNA interference and protein-protein interaction (PPI).</p> ZHENHUI WANG, ENDONG WANG, BO ZHANG, JIALE LV, XUENONG XU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.152 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Roles of salivary proteins in bacteria-mediated reproductive manipulation in spider mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.153 <p>Arthropods host a diverse range of microbes. Some symbiotic bacteria are important in influencing the performance of arthropods, especially when facing biotic and abiotic challenges. The symbiont <em>Wolbachia</em> is a genus of intracellular bacteria (Rickettsiaceae) found in about 40% of terrestrial arthropods. It causes a variety of reproductive alterations in arthropod hosts, such as inducing parthenogenesis, killing males, feminizing genetic males, and inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and is well known as a reproductive manipulator in arthropods. Recent studies show that <em>Wolbachia</em> can also affect host fitness by mediating interactions between plant and herbivores. But it remains unclear whether saliva proteins are involved in this process. The two-spotted spider mite (<em>Tetranychus urticae</em>), a notorious cosmopolitan agricultural pest, harbors <em>Wolbachia </em>(Xie <em>et al.</em>, 2006). In this study, we explored the effects of <em>Wolbachia</em> on biological performance of <em>T. urticae</em> (Bing <em>et al.</em>, 2022). We showed that the <em>Wolbachia-</em>infected <em>T. urticae</em> decreased the number of deposited eggs but increased the egg hatching rate compared with <em>Wolbachia-</em>uninfected mites. With transcriptomic analysis data, we further demonstrated that <em>Wolbachia</em> infection upregulated the gene expression levels of many <em>T. urticae</em> salivary proteins, which include a cluster of <em>Tetranychidae</em>-specific, functionally uncharacterized SHOT1s (secreted host-responsive proteins of Tetranychidae). These <em>SHOT1</em> genes were highly enriched in the proterosomas (Jonckheere <em>et al.</em>, 2018) and were expressed more in the feeding stages (nymphs and adults) of mites than in eggs. RNAi experiments showed that knocking down <em>SHOT1s </em>could significantly decrease <em>Wolbachia</em> titer, increase the number of deposited eggs and decrease the egg hatching rate. Altogether, our results suggest that host salivary proteins are related to <em>Wolbachia</em>-mediated manipulations of host reproduction.</p> XIAO-LI BING Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.153 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Spaetzle responds to the process of <em>Neoseiulus</em> <em>barkeri</em> resistance to <em>Beauveria</em> <em>bassiana</em> infection</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.154 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>The application of </em><em>Beauveria bassiana</em> is proved to be a feasible biological control measure against pest insects and mites (<em>e.g</em>. Liu <em>et al.</em> 2018; Al Khoury <em>et al</em>. 2020). But the complex and variable ecological environment can affect the efficiency of <em>B. bassiana</em>. Due to the powerful search and spread ability of predatory mites, they were proposed to carry and spread pathogenic microbial spores to places that are difficult to be covered by conventional spray methods (Chen <em>et al</em>. 2020; Hao <em>et al</em>. 2021). This biocontrol strategy of combining fungi with predator mites is predicted to play a synergistic role in pest control. Therefore, the tolerance of predator mites to <em>B. bassiana</em> and the underlying mechanism have been the subject of extensive research and remained to be explored further. The infection of insects by <em>B. bassiana</em> can induce insect innate immune response. Spaetzle protein (Spz), as an important ligand of insect Toll pathway, has been demonstrated to play an important role in insect innate immune defense system. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> TIANDI NIU, YI YANG, BOWEI YANG, XIAOTIAN FENG, HAO WANG, YAYING LI, YUZHEN NIMA, HUAI LIU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.154 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Ceramidase is involved in the development and reproduction of <em>Panonychus</em> <em>citri</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.155 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>As the second largest lipid, sphingolipids play an important role in the growth and development of organisms. However, due to the complexity and diversity of their molecular structures, the knowledge about the structure and function of sphingolipids remians unclear for many insects and mites. Ceramidase, as an important sphingolipid substance, maintains cell survival by regulating the dynamic balance between ceramide and sphingosine. In order to study the role of ceramidase in the growth and development of </em><em>Panonychus citri</em>, the full-length cDNA sequence of ceramidase (CDase) gene was cloned by RT-PCR combined with RACE technology for the first time. The results showed that the full-length of Ceramidase cDNA sequence was 1841 bp , including a 164-bp 5′-UTR, a 1572-bp ORF , and a 105-bp 3-UTR and encodes a deduced protein of 523 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that CDase gene had the highest homology with that of <em>Tetranychus urticae </em>and the closest genetic relationship with it. In addition, quantitative analysis using RT-qPCR of the gene expression levels of CDase during different developmental stages demonstrated that the CDase gene was expressed during all developmental stages of <em>P. citri</em>, and the relative expression in larvae was significantly higher than those in other stages. Furthermore, RNAi technology was used to silence CDase gene of <em>P. citri</em>, and the corresponding expression and mortality analysis were observed under different concentration gradients (1500ng/ul, 2000ng/ul, 2500ng/ul) and time gradients (24h, 48h). The dsRNA treatment of CDase gene showed a decrease in gene expression. Compared with the control group, the gene expression of CDase in the dsRNA treatment at 2000 ng/ul decreased by 72%, and the mortality rate of adult females increased by 40%. Furthermore, CDase genes treated with dsRNA also decreased by 78% within 48 hours. In general, the interference effect of dsRNA at 2000 ng/ul and 48h was the best, compared with the control group. Our findings will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism in<em> P. citri.</em></span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> XIAOJING ZHANG, XINYAN KONG, CUI YANG, WENQI LIU, ZHIWEN ZOU, BIN XIA, TIANRONG XIN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.155 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Integrative analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics reveals the toxic mechanism of spirobudiclofen on <em>Panonychus</em> <em>citri</em> (Acari: Tetranychidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.156 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">After insecticides are used in the field, their toxicity will gradually decrease to sublethal concentration with the passage of time and environmental factors, and some pest individuals will be exposed to sublethal concentrations, which will result in the sublethal effects. Therefore, understanding the sublethal effects of pesticides is the key to examine their efficacy and evaluate pesticide risk management. Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a key citrus pest in the world and its control is largely based on the use of acaricides, such as spirobudiclofen In this study, the sublethal effects of spirobudiclofen on population parameters of Panonychus citri adult females were evaluated. The results showed that sublethal concentration of spirobudiclofen significantly reduced in the longevity and fecundity of female adults, and the effects increased with increasing tested concentrations (LC<sub>30, </sub> LC<sub>50</sub>). In order to characterise the spirobudiclofen molecular mechanism, the transcriptomes and metabolomics of spirobudiclofen-treated (two sublethal concentrations LC<sub>30</sub> and LC<sub>50</sub>) and untreated adult females were compared using RNA-sequencing and LC-MS. The RNA-seq results revealed that the immune defense, antioxidative system, cuticle formation and lipid metabolic pathway of P. citri were involved in the responses to spirobudiclofen stress. Moreover, based on the disordered lipid metabolic pathways obtained from transcriptomic studies, the sublethal effects of spirobudiclofen on P. citri were examined by LC-MS; the results showed that the tolerance metabolism of P. citri exposed to spirobudiclofen was regulated by enhancing the metabolism of glycerophospholipid and glycine, serine and threonine. In the present study, transcriptomics and metabolomics-based approaches were employed to examine the molecular mechanism of spirobudiclofen-induced sublethal effects on P. citri, and the results provide new insights into the defense mechanisms at the molecular and biochemical level, and valuable information for pest control strategy development.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> HONGYAN WANG, TIANRONG XIN, XIAOJING ZHANG, HAOCHENG GU, KEXIN WEN, CUI YANG, JING WANG, ZHIWEN ZOU, LING ZHONG, BIN XIA Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.156 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Identification and profiling of <em>Panonychus citri</em> microRNAs and their potential function in regulating egg hatching and adult eclosion*</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.157 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>MicroRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulations are involved in many physiological processes in insects, such as development, reproduction, metamorphosis, immunity, and insecticide resistance. In this study, the transcript profile of miRNAs over the developmental transitions of the citrus red mite </em><em>Panonychus citri</em> (McGregor) including egg hatching and three molting processes from egg to adult were analyzed. A total of 142 miRNAs, including 74 known, 64 novel miRNAs, 14 isomiRNAs and 12 duplicate miRNAs, were identified. Meanwhile, 21 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) over the developmental transitions were analyzed, including 14 and 8 DEMs in egg hatching and molting process from mite deutonymph to adult. Amongst these DEMs, there were 2 and 2 in the developmental transitions from larva to protonymph and the protonymph to deutonymph, respectively, suggesting a complicated role of miRNAs in the regulation of developmental transitions. Additionally, two miRNAs were identified as reference miRNAs for mites from 7 candidate reference miRNAs after a systematic evaluation about their relative expression patterns at different developmental stages of both <em>Panonychus citri</em> and <em>Tetranychus urticae</em>. Furthermore, feeding miR-34-5p mimic in the deutonymph of <em>P. citri</em> resulted in a significant decrease in adult eclosion rate, and miR-92c and miR-305-5p also had similar functions in the emergence process from deutonymph to adult. Moreover, over expression of miR-315 and let-7a significantly inhibited egg hatching by dripping miRNA mimic on the back of mites with a microinjector. This study identified critical miRNAs involved in the developmental transitions of this important agricultural pest <em>P. citri</em> from egg hatching to adult eclosion, and thus provided a useful resource for exploring the application of miRNAs in mite pest control.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> CHUAN-ZHEN LI, GANG LI, WEI DOU, JIN-JUN WANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.157 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Regulation of three subtypes of SOD gene in <em>Aleuroglyphus ovatus</em> (Acari: Acaridae) under lead stress</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.158 <p>Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important enzyme that acts as the first line of protection in the mite antioxidant defense system and involves in eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) under harsh environmental conditions. Lead pollution is becoming increasingly serious and poses a serious hazard to the health and survival and reproduction of organisms. Nevertheless, the SOD gene family was yet to be reported in stored grain pest mite (<em>Aleuroglyphus ovatus</em>). In the present study, <em>A. ovatus</em> was reared on artificial diets treated with different concentrations of lead (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg); the treatment fed on artificial diet without lead was marked as the control group (CK). Then three different subtypes of <em>SOD</em> were cloned, including <em>AoSOD1</em> (Cu-ZnSOD), <em>AoSOD2</em> and <em>AoSOD3 </em>(MnSOD). Enzyme activity of the egg stage was the lowest, and that of the protonymph stage was the highest. The enzyme activity of <em>A. ovatus</em> increased initially before dropping with increasing lead concentration, nevertheless, it was still substantially higher than that in CK. The analysis of SOD enzyme activity specified that it was higher at 25 mg/kg lead in each mite stage compared to other concentration groups. All three genes were up-regulated and thereafter reduced in the embryonic stage, according to an examination of mRNA expression levels; tritonymphs, in particular, attained the highest level. The expression level of the SOD genes also changed with lead concentration. It increased after an initial decline trend with increasing lead concentration, and then peaked in the 100 mg/kg lead group, which were 3.1 times (<em>AoSOD1</em>), 4.1 times (<em>AoSOD2</em>), and 2.3 times (<em>AoSOD3</em>) the control group, respectively. In this study, three <em>AoSOD</em> genes had developmental stage-specific mRNA expressions, and the expression of SOD enzyme activity was encouraged by the higher lead concentration, and the mRNA expression level of the <em>AoSOD</em>s genes was not synchronized with the enzyme activity.</p> HUI AI, PEIPEI ZHU, WENHUI XIONG, BIN XIA, ZHIWEN ZOU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.158 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Response of trehalose transporter gene in <em>Aleuroglyphus</em> <em>ovatus</em> (Troupeau) under low temperature stress</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.159 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Globally distributed mite</em><em> Aleuroglyphus ovatus </em>is one of the dominant species of harmful mite in grain warehouses in China. It not only damages grains and edible fungi, but also causes various human diseases such as asthma. Temperature control and controlled atmosphere are two mature and widely used green grain storage technologies. In order to explore the mechanism of low temperature in the prevention and control of <em>A. ovatus</em>, this paper accurately obtained the half-lethal temperature (LLt<sub>50</sub>) and 99% lethal temperature (LLt<sub>99</sub>), 8.878 °C and -8.520 °C, respectively, and the half-lethal time (LLT<sub>50</sub>) and 99% lethal time (LLT<sub>99</sub>), 2.225 h and 26.979 h, respectively, of <em>A. ovatus</em> through low temperature exposure experiments. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) showed that with the decrease of temperature (16 °C to 4 °C), the trehalose transporter (Tret) content and trehalose concentration increased, while the glucose concentration decreased. When it was lower than 8 °C, Tret protein content began to decrease, trehalose content decreased, and glucose content increased after 4 °C. In the meantime, the content of trehalose transporter in egg stage was significantly higher than that in other stages (<em>P</em> &lt;0.05). Then, the full-length of <em>AoTret1-1</em> and <em>AoTret1-2</em> genes of <em>A. ovatus, </em>1,754 bp and 1,727 bp, was obtained by RACE technique. The mRNA expression levels of <em>AoTret1-1</em> and <em>AoTret1-2</em> under low temperature stress and different developmental stages were detected by qRT-PCR technique. Both <em>AoTret1-1</em> and <em>AoTret1-2</em> genes had the specificity of development stage, and the expression level of two <em>AoTret1</em> genes in the egg and adult stages were significantly higher than those in other stages. After adults of <em>A. ovatus</em> were treated with low temperatures (0 °C, 4 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C, and 16 °C) for 3 h, the expression of <em>AoTret1-1</em> and <em>AoTret1-2</em> were significantly higher than those in the control group (28 °C), and the highest gene expression levels of <em>AoTret1-1 </em>and <em>AoTret1-2</em> appeared at 8 °C. Our study showed that <em>AoTret</em> could play an important role in resisting low temperature stress in <em>A. ovatus</em>. To sum up, <em>A. ovatus</em> is a freeze-avoiding species, and its ability to withstand extreme low temperature is weak. It could significantly increase the contents of <em>Tret</em>, and accumulate trehalose in response to low temperature stress. Its two Tret genes were upregulated significantly by low temperature stress, which indicated that <em>Tret</em> was a potential specific target gene for <em>A. ovatus</em> control.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> YANG ZOU, WENHUI XIONG, YUANFA YANG, HUI AI, ZHIYONG ZOU, TIANRONG XIN, BIN XIA, ZHIWEN ZOU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.159 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>A newly characterized <em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em> is a component of a novel mass rearing method and a revolutionary slow-release product</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.160 <p>The predatory mite <em>Phytoseiulus persimilis </em>has been a leading commercial biocontrol agent against spider mites, traded globally for more than five decades. Despite that, the main diet used for its mass rearing hasn’t changed, and still consists of spider mites, which are considered essential for this mite’s reproduction (McMurtry &amp; Croft 1997). Spider mites are both challenging for mass rearing, and are also inadequate to be used as a diet for slow release sachets, which are a common product for other predatory mites that can feed on a broader range of diets.</p> ARNON TABIC, TOM KATZ, SHIMON STEINBERG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.160 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Updated spider mite management guidelines for California almonds as sixspotted thrips replace phytoseiids as predominant predator</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.161 <p>Spider mites (<em>Tetranychus</em> <em>sp</em>.) are a universal pest of almonds in California that are naturally regulated by a variety of biological control organisms.&nbsp; Historically, phytoseiids have served as the predominant predator whereas recent changes in pesticide spray programs have caused a higher-level predator, the sixspotted thrips, <em>Scolothrips sexmaculatus</em>, to gain importance.&nbsp; Given the changing dynamics, we conducted research to re-evaluate treatment thresholds for spider mites and compare those to previous thresholds established in the 1980s.&nbsp; Efforts were made to develop a sticky card trap system to monitor for sixspotted thrips (Haviland <em>et al.</em>, 2021a) that was used to generate key information on its biology, phenology, and role in predator-prey relationships (Haviland <em>et al.</em>, 2021b).&nbsp; Finally, capture data for sixspotted thrips were used to develop thresholds based on sixspotted thrips sampling that could be used to predict whether mite populations would increase, decrease, or stay the same (Haviland <em>et al.</em>, 2021c).</p> DAVID R. HAVILAND, STEPHANIE M. RILL Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.161 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Monitoring mites in orchards: absence or non-detection?</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.162 <p>Successful integrated pest management (IPM) programs rely on effective and efficient methods of monitoring pest and beneficial species, including mites. Several methods have been proposed for monitoring mites in Australian orchards, mainly based on examining leaves in situ. During the 2021–2022 growing season we flagged 1–2 pear trees <em>Pyrus communis</em> in each of 192 panels (a panel being trees in a 14 m length of a row) in a pear orchard at Tatura, Victoria, Australia. For each flagged tree we examined mite species occurrence and prevalence using three methods, (1) non-destructive visual examination of 10 leaves per panel using a 10x hand lens (current industry standard), (2) destructive lab-based examination of 4 leaves per flagged tree(s) using a stereo microscope, and (3) destructive lab-based examination of 2 leaves per flagged tree(s) using a stereo microscope. The presence and prevalence of pest mites and the previously released predatory mite <em>Neoseiulus californicus</em> were recorded. Throughout the season we observed various pest mites in the orchard including <em>Tetranychus urticae</em>, <em>Panonychus ulmi</em>, <em>Eriophyes pyri</em>, and <em>Bryobia rubrioculus </em>and the predatory mite <em>N. californicus. </em>However, the number of species detected and the prevalence of detected species on leaves were dependant on sampling method used. Both destructive sampling methods, method (2) and method (3), performed better than the current non-destructive industry standard in terms of species detection and prevalence. The largest differences were seen during the early stages of infestation for mite species other than <em>E. pyri</em>. Early detection of certain mite species is important because it can provide a more accurate estimate of the starting point for Cumulative Leaf Infested Days (CLIDs) calculations, resulting in better informed management decisions. Importantly, detection and prevalence results were similar for methods (2) and (3) despite the greatly reduced sampling effort (time required) for method (3), and overall sampling effort for method (3) was similar to that required for method (1). Therefore, in terms of both accuracy and sampling effort, method (3) outperformed the other two methods we trialled. An obvious limitation of method (3) when compared to current practice is the requirement for a stereo microscope and access to a laboratory or similar facility. Therefore, the method may be more useful for appropriately trained consultants who monitor pests in orchards on behalf of growers. Another limitation with our study was that it was limited to a single growing season in one pear orchard. We therefore recommend further research to validate our observations, and to support recommendations for growers and consultants.</p> HASAN RAHMANI, GREG LEFOE, RAELENE KWONG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.162 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Conservation of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in vineyards by enhancing pollen provisioning</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.163 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Pollen can be an important alternative food source for generalist phytoseiid mites occurring in vineyards, promoting the persistence of these beneficial mites in prey absence. In three field experiments, we studied the influence of airborne pollen provisioning on the population of generalist phytoseiid mites colonizing vineyards in northeastern Italy. In the first experiment, we investigated whether the presence of predatory mites found in vineyard plots located at increasing distance from hop plants with flowers was correlated with pollen abundance. In the second experiment, cattail pollen was sprayed on the grapevine canopy to evaluate the effect of this food source on predatory mite populations. In a third experiment, we investigated the effect of grass management based on a reduction of mowing frequency on predatory mite populations. Results were published in Malagnini </em><em>et al.</em> (2022), and showed that the abundance of the predatory mites <em>Amblyseius andersoni</em>, <em>Kampimodromus aberrans</em>, <em>Phytoseius finitimus</em> and <em>Typhlodromus pyri</em> was associated with pollen availability on grapevine leaves. <em>K. aberrans</em> population increases were promoted by hop pollen abundance. Both pollen spray and reduced the frequency of mowing groundcover increased the densities of predatory mite egg and motile stages. Pollen availability positively affected the four phytoseiid species considered here and promoted stable predatory mite populations in vineyards. According to our results, pollen availability could be guaranteed by: hedges with plants having scalar bloom; reducing the frequency of mowing groundcover inter-rows; pollen spray. These practices can be considered in light of biocontrol tactics to conserve predatory mite populations in vineyards. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> VALERIA MALAGNINI, ALBERTO POZZEBON, PAOLO FACCHIN, ARTURO PAGANELLI, CARLO DUSO Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.163 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Suitable areas of two introduced predatory mites and their interactions with one native predatory mite in China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.164 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Predatory mites were the second largest group of natural enemies, where some species have been commercialized and used worldwide for pest biological control. Two important predatory mite species </em><em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em> and <em>Neoseiulus cucumeris</em> have been introduced to China for the control of mite and small insect pests in greenhouses and open fields. However, little was known about their suitable distribution range in China and their interactions with the native and commercialized predatory mites, making their application and commercialization difficult. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> GUANG-YUN LI, YU-CHUANG LI, YUE HU, HUAI LIU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.164 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Biological control potential of <em>Pyemotes zhonghuajia</em> Yu, Zhang &amp; He (Prostigmata: Pyemotidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.165 <p><strong>Summary: </strong><em>Pyemotes zhonghuajia </em>Yu, Zhang &amp; He is an ectoparasitic mite of various pests. Our studies found that <em>P. zhonghuajia </em>could kill <em>Spodoptera frugiperda </em>(Smith), <em>Mythimna separata</em> (Walker), and <em>Spodoptera litura</em> (Fabricius) at different developmental stages. Through an integrated approach of lipidomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, we explored the immune response of <em>S. frugiperda</em> parasitized by <em>P. zhonghuajia</em>. In order to explore toxin proteins of <em>P. zhonghuajia</em>, we mined toxin genes by combining genome and transcriptome.</p> YAN-FEI SONG, SHUAI YE, TAI-AN TIAN, YI-CHAI CHEN, MAO-FA YANG, JIAN-FENG LIU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.165 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Study of the population dynamics of phytoseiid mites on citrus under natural conditions</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.166 <p>Citrus is the most extensively produced tree fruit crop in the world, and the citrus red mites, <em>Panonychus citri </em>(McGregor) and citrus rust mites, <em>Phyllocoptruta oleivora </em>(Ashmead) are the serious pest mites of citrus crops. Except for chemical control, biological control is an important component of integrated pest management and plays an essential role in regulating populations of pest mites. Predatory mites from the family Phytoseiidae are important natural enemies. The populations of <em>P. citri </em>are usually controlled by indigenous predators, mainly the phytoseiid mites. As native phytoseiids are more likely to adapt to the local environmental conditions than the commercially available phytoseiids, conservation of local phytoseiid species is a key factor for the IPM success in citrus orchards. Investigation into the species and population dynamics of phytoseiid mites in citrus orchards will provide important references to the conservation and utilization of predatory mites. This work aimed to investigate the species of phytoseiid mites and their seasonal population dynamics associated with <em>P. citri </em>in different citrus cultivars orchards. We sampled phytoseiid mites from orchards planted with three citrus cultivars of citron-lemon, Ehime Kashi No. 28 and Shatangju, respectively, from April to December in 2018⁓2021. Species of phytoseiid mites, and their developmental stage and gender were identified under a microscope. In the citron-lemon orchard, we recorded nine phytoseiid species in 2018, but only three species in 2019. The dominant species was <em>Scapulaseius newsami</em> (Evans). In 2020, five species with a dominant species of <em>Euseius nicholsi </em>(Ehara et Lee) were found in Ehime Kashi No. 28 orchard, but only two with a dominant species of<em> Neoseiulus californicus</em> (McGregor) detected in the Shatangju orchard. In the Shatangju orchard in 2021, six species were recorded with <em>N. californicus</em> being dominant from April to July, and <em>Amblyseius eharai</em> Amitai &amp; Swirski being dominant from August to December. The population of predatory mites peaked in May and October in the citron-lemon orchard, and in May, July and October in the Ehime Kashi No. 28 and Shatangju orchards. All active life stages (i.e., larva, nymph and adult) were found and most were adults. The sex ratio was female-biased (over 80%) in each orchard. In conclusion, the population size of phytoseiids changed over the growing seasons. Whether this could be attributed to the different tolerance capacities of different species to the local climate conditions or chemical pesticides remains for future studies.</p> ZI-WEI SONG, YUAN ZHENG, BAO-XIN ZHANG, DUN-SONG LI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.166 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Use of the predatory mite <em>Neoseiulus longispinosus</em> Evans (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for biological control of red mite <em>Tetranychus truncatus</em> Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.167 <p>At present, cannabis is a narcotic plant which could be cultivated legitimately for general and medical uses in Thailand to become a new crop of economic importance. In a preliminary survey, the important mite and insect pests found on cannabis grown in the greenhouse were the mulberry red mite (<em>Tetranychus truncatus</em>), peanut thrips (<em>Caliothrips phaseoli</em>), and vegetable cutworm (<em>Spodoptera litura</em>). The most common one was the mulberry red mite. The objective of this project is to release the predatory mite, <em>Neoseiulus longispinosus</em>, for biological control of cannabis mite pest in the greenhouse. The application rate of 15,000 predatory mite per greenhouse was determined at the laboratory of the Plant Protection Research and Development Office, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok. The experiment was then carried out in the cannabis greenhouses of the Buriram Community Enterprise, Buriram, from October 2021 to January 2022 during the flowering period of two months. The comparison was Treatment 1 (No release of the predatory mites), and Treatment 2 (Release of the predatory mites, weekly for eight times), with 20 replications of each treatment. They were carried out in the greenhouses where the three similar mite and insect pests were found. The results showed that the population of the mulberry red mite, <em>T. truncatus</em>, was much lower in the greenhouse with the release of predatory mites than the one with no release, yielding 55 and 44 kg of dried flower bud (marijuana) per greenhouse, respectively. The 25% increase in yield due to predatory mite releases indicates that <em>N. longispinosus</em> is a promising biocontrol agent for cannabis mite pest in the greenhouse.</p> ATHITIYA KAEWPRADIT, WEERACHAI SOMSRI, PLOYCHOMPOO KRONWIPASRUNG, SOMKID DAMNOI, SONGMAT SUNGNOI, SURAKITTI SRIKUL, WIMOLWAN CHOTWONG, NAPHACHARAKORN TA-PHAISACH Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.167 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Expression and function analyses of <em>sex-lethal</em> gene in <em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.168 <p><em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em> is a specialist predator of spider mites, with promising control effects. Its population generally has stable sex ratio. Under appropriate conditions, the proportion of female offspring can reach 80%. But the mechanism of sex determination in <em>P. persimilis </em>is still unclear. <em>Sex-lethal</em> (<em>sxl</em>) is an important gene in studying sex regulation mechanisms in insects. In the model organism <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>, it has been proved to control sex determination and dose compensation. Herein, we screened one <em>sex-lethal </em>gene ortholog in the transcriptome of each stage of <em>P. persimilis </em>that fed with spider mites (<em>Ppsxl</em>). It contains three highly conservative RRM domains. The expression pattern and function of <em>Ppsxl </em>were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and RNA interference. <em>Ppsxl</em> expressed in <em>P. persimilis </em>males and females at different developmental stages: the expression peaked 10 h after mating in females, and it was also highly expressed in eggs that developed into males (the first egg). The adult females, 5 hours after mating, were interfered through soaking in a mixed system of dsRNA and nanomaterials Star Polycation (dsRNA and SPc were 1:1 mixed, the concentration was 500 ng/μl). When <em>Ppsxl</em> was interfered, the expression of <em>Ppsxl</em> decreased by 47%. All female individuals after interference were fertile, and the first eggs still always developed into males. However, the daily fecundity per female decreased by 13.4%, and the proportion of female offspring decreased by 22.7%. This study showed that <em>Ppsxl</em> gene had a certain influence on reproduction of <em>P. persimilis</em>, but its influence on sex determination may not be as critical as that of <em>D. melanogaster</em>.</p> MINGXIA LI, ENDONG WANG, BO ZHANG, JIALE LV, XUENONG XU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.168 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Virulence evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi against <em>Panonychus citri</em> (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with acaricides and predatory mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.169 <p>The citrus red mite, <em>Panonychus citri </em>(McGregor), is one of the most notoriously agricultural pests which can cause severe damage to over 100 species of plants. The species is difficult to control because of its short generation time and high reproductive rate. Owing to the reliance on chemical acaricides in pest management in the field, <em>P. citri</em> has evolved resistance to a number of chemical acaricides over the years. The emergence of pesticide resistant populations of<em> P. citri</em> is a significant concern worldwide. Thus, it is urgent to find alternative ways to keep the pest populations below the economic injury levels based on the IPM strategy. Nowadays, ecologically-sound control strategies have been sought for this pest and many biocontrol agents have been introduced into pest management such as the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and predatory insects. In our study, 5 EPF strains designated HL3, Bbzwn9, Bb0601, Bb07, and Bblh were tested for their efficacy against <em>P. citri </em>by spraying conidia suspension in the laboratory. Amongst these, the HL3 strain exhibited the highest pathogenicity against <em>P. citri </em>and was identified as <em>Isaria cateniannulata </em>using ITS sequences. Further bioassays of HL3 strain indicated the LC<sub>50</sub> (3.093x10<sup>4 </sup>conidia/mL) at 7 d post inoculation and the LT<sub>50 </sub>(3.356 d) at a concentration of 1x10<sup>8 </sup>conidia/mL against <em>P. citri</em>. Subsequently, HL3 was evaluated for its compatibility with four commonly used chemical acaricides at their low dosages (gradient dilution of their labeled application rates for <em>P. citri</em> control) and its side effects on the predatory mite, <em>Neoseiulus barkeri. </em>Briefly, HL3 exhibited an ideal compatibility with avermectin compared to other three acaricides, with the lowest inhibition rate of colony growth, sporulation and spore germination in the PDA culture medium containing avermectin. Besides, the fungal strain was harmless to <em>N. barkeri</em> with only 9.167% mortality rate, and no significant impact was recorded on <em>N. barkeri</em> oviposition rates, although HL3 possessed a slightly negative effect on the predatory ability of <em>N. barkeri. </em>The analysis of functional response indicated that compared with the untreated <em>P. citri,</em> the handling time of predator increased on HL3-treated <em>P. citri</em>, while the attack rates decreased with the increase of the time after inoculation. In summary, in combination with avermectin or the natural enemy <em>N. barkeri</em>, HL3 exhibited a potential ability for sustainable control of the mite pest.</p> LESHU LI, CHANG WANG, JINJUN WANG, WEI DOU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.169 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Toxicity of <em>Cymbopogon nardus</em> (L.) Rendle against <em>Blomia tropicalis</em> Bronswijk, Cock and Oshima</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.170 <p>The toxicity of <em>Cymbopogon nardus </em>(Poaceae) against <em>Blomia tropicalis </em>(Echimyopodidae) was tested <em>in-vitro </em>(i.e. vial method) and <em>in-vivo </em>(i.e. admixture method using corn grits as media)<em>. </em>Based on the biological response of <em>B. tropicalis,</em> the estimated minimum effective concentration (MEC) of <em>C. nardus</em> extract (CNE) that give complete mortality was 1.75 g/L, and had a potential capacity to control <em>B. tropicalis</em> population. Thirty-two chemical components were identified in CNE based on GC-MS analysis. The seven major compounds were as follows: Oleyl alcohol, methyl ether (35.34%), γ-Sitosterol (13.60), 6-Methylheptan-3-ol (8.04), α-Terpineol (3.92%), Citral (3.59), n-Pentadecanol (3.57%), and 1-Octadecanol methyl ether (3.51%). The CNE (1.75 g/L) was generally superior in terms of toxicity and volume concentration against <em>B. tropicalis</em> as compared with conventional synthetic acaricide (Coumaphos 2.50 g/L), as a standard control of stored product mites. It indicates that the major compound of CNE and its derivatives may have interacted synergistically; amplifying its toxicity and effect that leads into mite mortality.</p> MARK ANTHONY ANGELES MANGOBA, DIONISIO DE GUZMAN ALVINDIA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.170 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>A draft genome assembly of ectoparasitic mite <em>Pyemotes</em> <em>zhonghuajia</em> Yu, Zhang &amp; He (Prostigmata: Pyemotidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.171 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Pyemotes zhonghuajia</em> Yu, Zhang &amp; He (Prostigmata: Pyemotidae) is an ectoparasitic mite species with a variety of insects-specific protein toxins, which are harmless to mammals and human. This mite can cause the death of many agricultural and forestry pests which can be 680,000 times greater than its own body weight (Tian <em>et al</em>., 2020; Chen <em>et al.</em>, 2021). Exploring its genome will help us understand its parasitic mechanism. PacBio technology was used to sequence the genome of <em>P. zhonghuajia</em>. The genome size of <em>P. zhonghuajia</em> was estimated to be 71.943 Mb, which captured 90.6% of the Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) completeness (Song <em>et al.</em>, 2022). A total of 11,183 protein coding genes were annotated with 91.2% BUSCO completeness. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using 473 single-copy genes of 12 species including two species of spiders, two species of scorpions and 10 species of mites, of which spiders and scorpions were outgroups<em>. </em>The result shows that <em>Pyemotes zhonghuajia </em>is sister to <em>Tetranychus urticae</em>. An estimate of species divergence time showed that<em> P. zhonghuajia </em>and <em>T.</em> <em>urticae</em> emerged during Triassic (223.43~247.66 Mya). In <em>P. zhonghuajia</em>, there were 621 gene families (containing 1,224 genes) expanded, and 3664 gene families (containing 3,927 genes) contracted. Most importantly, we found that <em>P. zhonghuajia </em>contained three types of toxin proteins, which were neurotoxins, dermonecrotic toxins and agatoxins. Neurotoxin and dermonecrotic toxin-related genes are significantly expanded. The toxin-related gene expression level of one-day-old mites was higher than that of seven-day-pregnant mites, which might explain why one one-day-old mite had such strongly toxin (Chen <em>et al</em>., 2021). We also verified the function of the toxin proteins and explored its effect on insect cells to lay a theoretical foundation for the study and development of biopesticides with multi-target insecticidal toxins (Song <em>et al</em>., 2022).</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> YAN-FEI SONG, SHUAI YE, MAO-FA YANG, JIAN-FENG LIU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.171 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Sublethal effects of bifenthrin on development, reproduction and predation of deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-sensitive strains of <em>Neoseiulus barkeri</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.172 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>The chemicals applied in the field always gradually decrease to low or sublethal concentrations, which usually have a substantial negative effects on natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of bifenthrin on the deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-sensitive strains of </em><em>Neoseiulus barkeri </em>were determined by the slide-dip method in the laboratory. The effects of the low and sublethal bifenthrin concentrations (LC<sub>10</sub>, LC<sub>20</sub> and LC<sub>30</sub>) on the development, reproduction and predation of deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-sensitive strains of <em>N. barkeri</em> were evaluated. The results showed that the LC<sub>50</sub> values of bifenthrin on the deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-sensitive strains of <em>N. barkeri</em> were 21.96 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> and 0.15 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, with the resistance of 146.40-fold. The fecundity and longevity of the parents of the deltamethrin-sensitive <em>N. barkeri </em>strain significantly decreased at three tested concentrations of bifenthrin compared with the control (distilled water treatment). With the increase in bifenthrin concentration, the net reproductive rate (<em>R</em><sub>0</sub>) of deltamethrin-sensitive <em>N. barkeri </em>decreased gradually, while the juvenile duration and generation period of offspring (F1 generation) were prolonged. However, there was no significant effect of bifenthrin concentrations on the growth, development and reproduction of deltamethrin-resistant <em>N. barkeri</em> strain. After pretreatment with sublethal doses of bifenthrin, the functional response models of deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-sensitive strains of <em>N. barkeri </em>on<em> Tetranychus urticae </em>were still Holling’s type II curves, whereas there were differences for the parameters of the models. Compared to the control, the attack rates of the deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-sensitive strains of <em>N. barkeri </em>at LC<sub>20</sub> and LC<sub>30</sub> concentrations of bifenthrin were reduced by 2.01% and 2.12%, and 27.69% and 32.98%, respectively; and the handling time of the sensitive strain was prolonged by 16.22% and 54.37%, respectively. Thus, low and sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin significantly reduced the predation rates of the sensitive strain of <em>N. barkeri</em>, but not for the resistant strain of <em>N. barkeri</em>. It is concluded that bifenthrin can be used in combination with a deltamethrin-resistant strain of <em>N. barkeri</em> to control <em>T. urticae</em> in the field.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> JING CHANG, ZHIJIA HUO, RUIXIA MENG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.172 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Predation ability of <em>Stratiolaelaps</em> <em>scimitus</em> (Acari: Laelapidae) to <em>Tyrophagus putrescentiae</em> (Acari: Acaridae) on edible fungi</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.173 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Tyrophagus putrescentiae</em> is one of the major pests of many edible fungi, whereas <em>Stratiolaelaps scimitus</em> is one of its main natural predators, which can be used to control <em>T. putrescentiae</em> on edible fungi. In our study, the prey preference and predation ability of <em>S. scimitus</em> to <em>T. putrescentiae</em> were determined in the laboratory. The results showed that both female and male adults of <em>S. scimitus</em> preferred adults to larvae of <em>T. putrescentiae</em>. The daily consumption of female adults of <em>S. scimitus</em> was higher than that of male adult mites. The consumption and predation rates of female and male adult mites reached the maximum within the first hour, then gradually decreased. This research provided a theoretical basis for the mass breeding of <em>S. scimitus </em>and field control of <em>T. putrescentiae</em> for edible fungi.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> HAN ZHANG, LINGYU HAO, SIJIA ZHAO, ZHIQIANG LIU, YA SU, HUINA ZHENG, JINLIANG HAO, HUIMIN GAO Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.173 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of inbreeding on development, growth, reproduction and survival in a predatory mite <em>Stratiolaelaps</em> <em>scimitus</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.174 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Stratiolaelaps scimitus</em> living in microhabitats (e.g., soil, humus and litter), is an important predatory mite (Zhang <em>et al</em>., 2022) used in biological control of pests, such as the thrips pupae (Satio and Brownbridge, 2016; Mouden <em>et al</em>., 2017), fungus gnat larvae (Castilho <em>et al</em>., 2009; Wen <em>et al</em>., 2017; Zhou <em>et al</em>., 2018) and snout moth eggs (Xie <em>et al</em>., 2018). It has been commercially produced (Knapp <em>et al</em>., 2018). However, commercial production of predatory mites inducing inbreeding is inevitable, which may lead to inbreeding inhibition and lower fitness of offspring (Slate <em>et al</em>., 2000), for example, the decline of vitality, fecundity, stress resistance, adaptability and retardation of growth. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> LIXIA XIE, NA ZHANG, XU ZHANG, LI WANG, YI YAN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.174 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of flour mites feeding on powders of two insects and yeast on the life parameters of <em>Stratiolaelaps</em> <em>scimitus</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.175 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Stratiolaelaps scimitus</em> is a polyphagous and soil-dwelling predatory mite that has been commercialized and widely used to control small pest insects and mites (Knapp <em>et al</em>. 2018; Xie <em>et al.</em> 2018). This mite can prey on acaroid mites (Park <em>et al</em>. 2021), thrips pupae (Zhang 2019), fungus gnat (Enkegaard <em>et al</em>. 1997), <em>Drosophila</em> eggs or larvae (Wang 2010) and bee mites (Rondeau <em>et al</em>. 2019) etc. As a kind of natural enemy with great potential, its artificial mass-production is very important, and large-scale population breeding of this mite is the premise of its commercial production and application. The nutritional level of substitute prey or diets is closely related to the growth, development and reproduction of predatory mites (Zhang <em>et al</em>. 2020; 2021). Therefore, the reproductive capacity and biological characteristics of predatory mites can be improved by improving the nutritional level of substitute prey or diets. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> YI YAN, SHUO ZHANG, MENGLEI CHEN, LIXIA XIE Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.175 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Review of predatory mites as biocontrol agents against thrips in China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.176 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Thrips are one of the most destructive pests of vegetables, fruits, and ornamental crops worldwide (Wan</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em> et al.,</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;"> 2020; Davari </span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>et al.</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">, 2021). The more severe species include </span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Frankliniella occidentalis, Frankliniella intonsa, Thrips tabaci, Thrips flavidulus, Pseudodendrotrips mori, Scirtothrips dorsalis</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">,</span> <span style="color: #231f20;">and </span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Megalurothrips usitatus</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;"> (You </span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>et al</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">., 2007; Zheng </span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>et al</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">., 2007; Saito </span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>et al.</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">, 2022). Many thrips have developed resistance to pesticides. For example,</span> <span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Frankliniella</em></span> <span style="color: #231f20;"><em>occidentalis</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;"> developed different degrees of resistance to organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides and environmentally friendly insecticides</span> (<span style="color: #231f20;">Broadbent and Pree, 1997; Sun</span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em> e</em></span><span style="color: #181717;"><em>t </em></span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>al.</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">, 2022).</span> <span style="color: #231f20;">Tobacco thrips have developed resistance to pyrethroid and </span><span style="color: #181717;">organic</span><span style="color: #231f20;"> phosphate insecticides</span> <span style="color: #231f20;">(Krob </span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>et al</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">., 2022). Soybean thrips also developed varying degrees of resistance to emamectin benzoate, beta-cypermethrin, and imidacloprid</span> <span style="color: #231f20;">(Tang</span><span style="color: #231f20;"><em> et al</em></span><span style="color: #231f20;">., 2016).</span> <span style="color: #231f20;">Therefore, searching and screening effective natural enemies for biological control of thrips is urgent.</span></span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> XU ZHANG, SHUO ZHANG, ZHITONG ZHU, HAOLIN WANG, YI YAN, LIXIA XIE Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.176 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>A new species of the genus <em>Gaeolaelaps</em> Evans &amp; Till (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) from China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.177 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>As members of the family Laelapidae, </em></span><em>Gaeolaelaps</em> species are generally acknowledged from litter and edaphic habitats (Joharchi 2019; 2022). The taxonomic history of <em>Gaeolaelaps</em> is complicated and long-term (Halliday &amp; Lindquist 2007). <em>Gaeolaelaps</em> was first defined by Evans and Till (1966) and used to be a subgenus of <em>Hypoaspis</em> (Halliday &amp; Lindquist 2007; Beaulieu 2009). Prior to this paper, the genus <em>Gaeolaelaps</em> consisted of more than 120 described species (Nemati &amp; Mohseni 2013; Kazemi 2020), with 20 species reported from China (Yan <em>et al.</em> 2018). Herein, a new species of <em>Gaeolaelaps</em> Evans &amp; Till, 1966, <em>Gaeolaelaps </em><strong>sp. nov. </strong>is described from adult females collected in soil under the <em>Osmanthus</em> trees in Jiangxi Province, China. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SHUO ZHANG, KAI LIU, ZIXUAN WAN, WENZHI LU, LIXIA XIE, YI YAN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.177 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Two new species of the family Scheloribatidae from China, with remarks on the genus <em>Annobonzetes</em> Pérez-Íñigo, 1983 (Scheloribatidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.178 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Two new species of oribatid mites are described based on adult specimens from China. </em></span><em>Similobates</em> <em>linzhiensis </em><strong>sp. nov. </strong>differs from <em>S. deficiens </em>Wallwork, 1977 by its lanceolate shaped bothridial setae, and it also differs from <em>S. staryi </em>Ermilov, 2018 and <em>S. demetororum</em> Mahunka, 1982 by shorter adanal setae <em>ad</em><sub>1</sub> and <em>ad</em><sub>2</sub>. <em>Annobonzetes</em> <em>hamatus </em><strong>sp. nov. </strong>differs from <em>A. sphaericus </em>Pérez-Íñigo, 1983 by barbed prodorsal setae. The genera <em>Annobonzetes </em>and <em>Similobates </em>are recorded in China for the first time. The updated description and an identification key for the genus <em>Annobonzetes</em> are given. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ZI-XUAN WAN, YAN-YING TAN, YI YAN, LIXIA XIE Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.178 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Prey stage preference and functional response of <em>Neoseiulus striatus</em> (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> (Acari: Tetranychidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.179 <p>The two-spotted spider mite, <em>Tetranychus urticae</em>, is one of the most serious phytophagous mites affecting maize in China. Recently, a species of predatory mite, <em>Neoseiulus striatus </em>Wu (Acari: Phytoseiidae), was found on maize plants in Inner Mongolia. To understand the potential of <em>N</em>.<em> striatus</em> as a biocontrol agent agsinst <em>T. urticae</em>, prey stage preference of <em>N. striatus</em> for <em>T. urticae</em> and functional response of <em>N. striatus </em>to <em>T. urticae</em> were explored in a climate chamber set at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a 16:8 h (L:D) photoperiod. The immature stages (eggs, larvae and nymphs) of <em>T</em>.<em> urticae </em>were used to avoid the influence of oviposition of female adults on the experimental results. In the no-choice experiment, <em>N</em>. <em>striatus</em> consumed significantly more larvae than on the other prey stages of <em>T. urticae</em>. At same time, in the choice experiment, <em>N</em>.<em> striatus</em> also significantly preferred larvae, followed by eggs and then nymphs of <em>T. urticae</em>. <em>Neoseiulus striatus</em> displayed a type II functional response on all immature stages of <em>T</em>.<em> urticae. </em>The number of prey consumed by <em>N</em>.<em> striatus </em>increased with the increase in prey density. In contrast, the predation rate of<em> N</em>.<em> striatus</em> decreased with increasing prey density, indicating that the proportions of prey consumed by <em>N</em>.<em> striatus</em> were higher at lower prey densities. Meanwhile, the highest attack rate of <em>N. striatus</em> was recorded when it fed on larvae of <em>T. urticae</em>, whereas the shortest handling time of <em>N. striatus</em> was recorded when it fed on eggs of <em>T. urticae</em>. In conclusion, <em>N. striatus</em> appears to be a promising natural enemy against<em> T</em>.<em> urticae</em>, especially at low prey densities. Thus, releasing <em>N</em>.<em> striatus</em> at the early occurrence of <em>T. urticae </em>may be an efficient method for suppressing the population of <em>T</em>.<em> urticae </em>and prevent their establishment on maize.</p> YUJING LI, XIAOTONG FU, KEKE ZENG, RUIXIA MENG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.179 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of drought-stressed rubber plants on the development and reproduction of <em>Oligonychus biharensis</em> and <em>Eotetranychus sexmaculatus</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.180 <p>The spider mites, <em>Oligonychus biharensis</em> and <em>Eotetranychus sexmaculatus</em>, are two major pests of rubber trees which are very important tropical crop in China (Liu <em>et al</em>. 2022). They normally caused more serious damages in drought seasons and various species showed differences in infestation severity (Wang <em>et al.</em> 2019; Liu <em>et al</em>. 2022). This study aims to understand the effects of drought stress on the occurrence of the spider mites by measuring the development and reproductive characteristics of <em>O. biharensis</em> and <em>E. sexmaculatus</em> on high (30%≤W&lt;40%), moderate (40%≤W&lt;50%), mild (50%≤W&lt;60%) drought-stressed and control plants (60%≤W&lt;80%) under the conditions of 30±1℃, 75±5%RH and 14L:10D photoperiod in artificial climate chambers.</p> YUE NIE, YA LIU, LIJIU ZHENG, JUNYU CHEN, YULUN LIN, YUEGUAN FU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.180 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of parasitism by <em>Pyemotes</em> <em>zhonghuajia</em> on reproduction of potato tuber moth</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.181 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Pyemotes zhonghuajia</em></span> is an ectoparasitoid natural enemy of a wide range of pests such as Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. <em>Phthorimaea operculella </em>(Zeller) (PTM) is a worldwide potato pest with serious damage of potato production. Our study showed that one <em>P. zhonghuajia</em> female could kill 1<sup>st</sup> to 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae of PTM, and the lethal time of one <em>P. zhonghuajia</em> female on first to fourth PTM instar larvae were 5.48, 11.33, 23.47 and 2076 min, respectively. The parasitism of 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 <em>P. zhonghuajia </em>mites could significantly affect the mortality rate of PTM 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae and pupae. The parasitism durations (30 and 60 mins) of one <em>P. zhonghuajia</em> female on one PTM fourth instar larva could influence the life history of PTM parental generation but did not influence the life table of PTM offspring generation. Releasing 60, 80, and 100 mites or opisthosoma with mites could reduce the occurrence and consumption of PTM on potatoes the weight loss of the potato tuber. The number of insect dung piles in one potato tuber was significantly decreased by releasing 60, 80, and 100 <em>P. zhonghuajia</em> mites, and releasing 100 mites resulted in the lowest number of insect dung piles. Our results indicate that <em>P. zhonghuajia</em> can significantly affect the population growth of PTM. Future studies should explore the lethal mechanism of <em>P. zhonghuajia</em> and its performance in practical application in the warehouse and field condition.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SHUAI YE, DE-RUI HAN, YU-LIN GAO, MAO-FA YANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.181 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>MaxEnt model for predicting potential distribution of ticks in the western Kanto region of Japan</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.182 <p>Land-use patterns, climatic factors, and wildlife distributions have been suggested to have a role in shaping vector tick distributions. In the Tokyo metropolis and surrounding prefectures, these factors have rapidly changed over the last few decades. Here, we estimated the potential distributions of ticks based on the data of a 7-year tick survey at 134 sites in western Kanto, Japan. We focused on&nbsp; 6 tick species (<em>Amblyomma testudinarium</em>; <em>Haemaphysalis flava</em>; <em>H. kitaokai</em>; <em>H. longicornis</em>; <em>H. megaspinosa</em>; and <em>Ixodes ovatus</em>) using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling based on the annual precipitation, snow depth; remote-sensing land-use patterns (Forest connectivity; Agricultural land; Urban; Open water; Deciduous broad-leaf forest; Deciduous needle-leaf forest; Evergreen broad-leaf forest; Evergreen needle-leaf forest; Bamboo forest; Grassland; Bareland), and the distributions of five common wildlife species [sika deer (<em>Cervus nippon</em>); wild boar (<em>Sus scrofa</em>); raccoon (<em>Procyon lotor</em>); raccoon dog (<em>Nyctereutes procyonoides</em>); masked palm civet (<em>Paguma larvata</em>)].</p> KANDAI DOI, IORI TABATA, TAKUYA KATO, SHIN-ICHI HAYAMA Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.182 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Harassment-experienced <em>Tetranychus kanzawai</em> females skillfully refuse male courtships</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.183 <p>Because persistent male courtships and multiple mating (<em>i.e.</em> male mating harassment) generally impose fitness costs to females (Köhler <em>et al.</em> 2011), females are considered to have developed adaptive strategies to avoid such troubles (Breed <em>et al</em>. 2015). Although only the first mating is effective for females in the Kanzawa spider mite <em>Tetranychus kanzawai</em>, males frequently court already mated females. To examine the effects of previously experienced male mating harassment on mating avoidance by <em>T. kanzawai</em> females, we experimentally compared mating avoidance behaviors of mated females that had cohabited with three adult males for three days (harassment+) and mated females that had been isolated for the same period after the first mating (harassment-). We found that significantly more harassment+ <em>T. kanzawai</em> females refused male courtships compared to harassment- females, suggesting that <em>T. kanzawai</em> females that had experienced male mating harassment learned at least in part how to refuse male courtships. The mechanism by which harassment-experienced <em>T. kanzawai</em> females refuse male courtships will be discussed.</p> TOMOMI WADA, SHUICHI YANO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.183 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Spider mites avoid caterpillar traces to prevent intraguild predation</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.184 <p>The phytophagous spider mites <em>Tetranychus kanzawai</em> and <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> (Acari: Tetranychidae) can be as small as &lt; 0.5 mm; thus, they are often incidentally consumed along with food plant leaves by voracious lepidopteran larvae (hereafter, ‘caterpillars’; Shirotsuka and Yano, 2012). Therefore, the ability to avoid such intraguild predation should confer a selective advantage to mites. We experimentally demonstrated that adult females of both mite species avoided settling on food plant leaves with traces of all tested caterpillar species (<em>Bombyx mori</em>, <em>Papilio xuthus</em>, <em>Spodoptera litura</em>, and <em>Theretra oldenlandiae</em>). We examined additional interactions using <em>B. mori</em> and <em>T. kanzawai</em> and found that <em>B. mori</em> trace avoidance by <em>T. kanzawai </em>lasted for more than 48 h. <em>Tetranychus kanzawai </em>also avoided <em>B. mori</em> traces on plant stems, along which mites access leaves. Moreover, <em>T. kanzawai </em>avoided acetone extracts of <em>B. mori </em>traces applied to filter paper, indicating that chemical substances of caterpillar traces are responsible for the avoidance. This study is the first demonstration of a repellent effect of herbivore trace chemicals on heterospecific herbivores. Although spider mites have developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides (Attia et al., 2013; Van Leeuwen et al., 2010), this study showed the potential of using natural compounds simulating caterpillar traces in repelling spider mites from agricultural crops.</p> SHIORI KINTO, TOSHIHARU AKINO, SHUICHI YANO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.184 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong><em>Cheylostigmaeus pannonicus</em> Willmann (Acariformes, Stigmaeidae): a new mite record for Turkey</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.185 <p>Members of the genus <em>Cheylostigmaeus</em> Willmann are found in a variety of habitats including soil, grassy soil, litter, moss and lichen (Fan <em>et al</em>., 2016), and are presumed to be free-living predators (Summers &amp; Ehara, 1965; Koç, 2005). Up to now, 35 species of <em>Cheylostigmaeus</em> are known in the world (Fan <em>et al</em>., 2016; Doğan &amp; Doğan, 2022); eight of them, <em>C. californicus</em> Summers &amp; Ehara, <em>C. mirabilis</em> Wood,<em> C. occultatus</em> Doğan &amp; Doğan, <em>C. salinus </em>Evans,<em> C. salmani </em>Koç, <em>C. tarae</em> Khanjani, <em>C. urhani</em> Dönel &amp; Doğan and <em>C. variatus</em> Doğan, Dilkaraoğlu &amp; Fan, are reported from Turkey (Doğan, 2019; Doğan &amp; Doğan, 2022). With this study, an additional member of the genus, <em>viz</em>. <em>Cheylostigmaeus pannonicus</em> Willmann is added to the acarofauna of Turkey. Within the scope of the study, six male specimens found in grassy soil from Erzincan province (39°43’22.03”N 39°37’22.03”E, 1149 m, 26 October 2017) were examined and identified as <em>Cheylostigmaeus pannonicus</em>. This species was previously known from Austria, China, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine and USA (Fan <em>et al</em>., 2016; Beron, 2020). This species can be recognized by having three pairs of aggenital setae in both sexes, broad rostral lamellae, each deeply incised to form two cusps (Fig. 1A), and aedeagus bearing bulb in male (Fig. 1B).</p> SALİH DOĞAN, QING-HAI FAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.185 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>First detection of numerical variations in aggenital setae of female <em>Eustigmaeus segnis</em> (Koch) (Acariformes: Stigmaeidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.186 <p><em>Eustigmaeus</em> <em>segnis</em> (Koch, 1836) (Stigmaeidae) (Fig. 1) has a widespread distribution and was recorded from many countries including Turkey (Fan <em>et al</em>. 2016; Doğan <em>et al</em>. 2018a; Doğan 2019). This species can be recognized by having dorsal dimples in uniform size, dorsal body setae long, falciform with marginal spinules, dorsal setae <em>c</em><sub>1</sub> widely spaced in both sexes, metasternal shield fused with (Fig. 2A) or partly separated from endopodal shields (Fig. 2B) in female and a pair of aggenital setae in both sexes (Doğan 2005; Bayrak <em>et al</em>. 2019).</p> SALİH DOĞAN, QING-HAI FAN, ŞİFANUR UĞURLU, ORHAN ERMAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.186 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Parasitic and phoretic mites of honeybees (<em>Apis mellifera</em>) from Wallis and Futuna</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.187 <p>This is the first report of parasitic and phoretic mites on honeybee (<em>Apis mellifera</em>) from the south Pacific islands, Wallis and Futuna which have 12 registered beekeepers, 27 apiaries and 178 hives. Seventy eight samples were collected from 20 apiaries belonging to 11 beekeepers of the two main islands during a honeybee multi-pathogen survey in the framework of PROTEGE project implemented by SPC (South Pacific Community). A total of 8415 bees (including 7973 workers and 442 drones) were washed for external mites and thirty worker bees from each sample were examined for internal mites using the thoracic disc method (TDM). All samples tested were negative for <em>Acarapis woodi</em>, <em>Tropilaelaps</em> spp. and <em>Varroa</em> spp. The mites detected, 297 individuals, were mounted on microscope slides. Eleven species were identified, and all are new to the fauna of Wallis and Futuna. <em>Acarapis dorsalis</em> (57.69%, family Tarsonemidae) is the most common species, followed by <em>Suidasia pontifical</em> (20.51%, Suidasiidae), <em>Hattena tongana</em> (11.54%, Ameroseiidae), <em>Tyrophagus javensis</em> (10.26%, Acaridae), <em>Afrocypholaelaps africana</em> (7.69%, Ameroseiidae), <em>Acarapis externus</em> (2.56%, Tarsonemidae), and <em>Chaetodactylus ludwigi</em> (2.56%, Chaetodactylidae). Four other species, <em>Brevipalpus obovatus</em> (Tenuipalpidae), <em>Cheletomimus bakeri</em> (Cheyletidae), <em>Tyrophagus communis</em> (Acaridae) and<em> Tyrophagus macfarlanei</em> (Acaridae) were detected on only one occasion. Apart from these, nine were not identified to species: <em>Cerophagopsis</em> sp. (1 tritonymph) and <em>Thyreophagus</em> sp. (1 deutonymph) (Acaridae), <em>Czenspinskia</em> sp. (1 larva) and <em>Vidia</em> sp. (2 deutonymphs) (Winterschmidtiidae), <em>Grallacheles</em> sp. (1 protonymph) (Cheyletidae), <em>Lipstorpia</em> sp. (1 deutonymph) (Histiostomatidae), <em>Tenuipalpus</em> sp. (1 deutonymph) (Tenuipalpidae), Iolinidae indet. (1 damaged specimen) and Scheloribatidae indet. (1 male). All species detected are not considered pests of bees.</p> QING-HAI FAN, MARGOT CAMOIN, OLIVER QUINN, RICHARD HALL Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.187 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Two cases of structural anomalies on dorsal podosomal shields in <em>Raphignathus gracilis</em> (Rack) (Acariformes: Raphignathidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.188 <p><em>Raphignathus gracilis</em> (Rack, 1962) (Raphignathidae) is a widely distributed species and has been recorded from many countries including Turkey (Koç &amp; Ayyıldız 1996; Doğan 2003, 2019; Beron 2020; Mohammad-Doustaresharaf &amp; Kazemi 2022). It can be recognized by having 2 setae on palp femur, 2 pairs of setae on interscutal membrane of idiosoma, no obvious small platelets posteriad of median podosomal shield, 3 pairs of genital setae and 3 setae on femur IV in female (Fan &amp; Yin 2000; Doğan <em>et al</em>. 2019).</p> SALİH DOĞAN, QING-HAI FAN, ŞİFANUR UĞURLU, HASAN HÜSEYİN ÖZBEK, ORHAN ERMAN Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.188 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Adaptation mechanism of a spider mite population to tea plants</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.189 <p>In herbivores, adaptation to different plants often occurs during their ecological speciation. Plants have a variety of defensive systems, especially toxic and repellent secondary metabolites, to cope with herbivore attacks, while herbivores often enhance their xenobiotic metabolism for detoxifying the defensive compounds. Once a population acquires the adaptation ability to plant defense, it will occupy the plant as a host. This reduces interaction with other populations even within the same species, causing the population to diverge, and consequently, reproductive isolation occurs. The Kanzawa spider mite (KSM), <em>Tetranychus kanzawai </em>Kishida (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), is a polyphagous arthropod that causes serious economic damage to agricultural and horticultural crops. KSM is an important pest of tea plants, <em>Camellia sinensis </em>(L.) Kuntze. There are adapted and non-adapted KSM populations to tea plants (adapted and non-adapted KSM). Both populations may have undergone ecological speciation through the interaction with tea plants. However, the mechanism underlying the differences between two KSM populations remains unclarified. The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), <em>Tetranychus urticae </em>Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), is closely related to KSM. Based on the highly-annotated TSSM genome sequence, we conducted comparative transcriptome and proteome analyses among adapted and non-adapted KSM, and TSSM on tea plants and the preferable host bean plants. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes containing catechol dioxygenase, carboxylesterase, ABC transporter, Cathepsin L, and UDP-glycosyltransferase were upregulated in adapted KSM on tea plants. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that pathways related to oxidoreductase activity were particularly enriched in adapted KSM on tea plants. These enzymes should be dealing with catechins which are known as secondary metabolites of tea plants and to be toxic to spider mites. The survival rate in adapted KSM on tea plants was significantly reduced by RNAi targeting the gene encoding a catechol dioxygenase (<em>TkCTD</em>). These results suggest that <em>TkCTD</em>-mediated detoxification is involved in the adaptation of KSM to tea plants.</p> NAOKI TAKEDA, RYUTARO MURAKAMI, MASANOBU YAMAMOTO, TAKESHI SUZUKI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.189 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>RNA interference machinery in the two-spotted spider mite, <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> Koch</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.190 <p>RNA interference (RNAi) or post-transcriptional gene silencing is a biological process conserved in a broad range of eukaryotes and triggered by endogenous or exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi suppresses the endogenous expression of the target gene of which the mRNA sequence is complementary to the dsRNA sequence. RNAi has been widely used as a gene functional analysis technology, and recently, exogenous dsRNA has begun to be applied to a sprayable biopesticide with a different mode-of-action from conventional synthetic pesticides. The two-spotted spider mite, <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), is distributed worldwide and has been known as one of the most difficult agricultural pests to control due to its rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides. Therefore, the development of RNAi-based biopesticide targeting this species is highly anticipated. However, the function of RNAi machinery in this species remains unclear. Processing dsRNA into small RNA is a fundamental process contributing to RNAi efficacy. Here we performed functional analysis of <em>TuDcr1</em> and <em>TuDcr2</em> genes, homologues of <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em> Dicer-1 and Dicer-2, which belong to the RNase III family. The nucleotide sequences of <em>TuDcr1</em> (tetur19g00520), <em>TuDcr2</em> (tetur07g00990), and an intergenic region as a negative control (NC) were obtained from the ORCAE database and used for PCR amplification of each DNA fragment. RNA synthesized by <em>in vitro</em> transcription from each DNA fragment was used to prepare dsRNA specific to <em>TuDcr1</em>, <em>TuDcr2</em>, and NC (dsRNA-<em>TuDcr1</em>, dsRNA-<em>TuDcr2</em>, and dsRNA-NC, respectively). A nylon-mesh-based feeding device was used to orally deliver dsRNA to age-synchronized adult female mites for 24 h. Both <em>TuDcr1</em> and <em>TuDcr2</em> were upregulated after oral administration of dsRNA-NC, which indicates the activation of RNAi machinery by orally-delivered dsRNA. Downregulations of <em>TuDcr1</em> and <em>TuDcr2</em> were observed in mites fed on dsRNA-<em>TuDcr1</em> and dsRNA-<em>TuDcr2</em> when compared to dsRNA-NC. However, no significant effects were observed in the susceptibility to RNAi targeting an essential gene <em>Vacuolar-type H<sup>+</sup>-ATPase</em> after oral administration of dsRNA-<em>TuDcr1</em>, dsRNA-<em>TuDcr2</em>, or dsRNA-NC. The dsRNA-cleaving assay revealed that the dicing activity was reduced in mites fed on dsRNA-<em>TuDcr1</em> and dsRNA-<em>TuDcr2</em> when compared with dsRNA-NC and that the activity seemed to be higher in TuDcr2 than TuDcr1. Our results suggest that TuDcr1 and TuDcr2 possess the activity of dsRNA cleavage and that TuDcr2 is responsible for dicing exogenous dsRNA.</p> YUKA ARAI, TAKESHI SUZUKI Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.190 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Damages of <em>Tyrophagus communis</em> to a variety of edible fungi</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.191 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Tyrophagus communis </em></span>and <em>T. putrescentiae</em> are the primary acarid mites that cause damages to edible fungi. They have similar damaging symptoms and morphological characteristics. They are difficult to distinguish, and many people often mistake <em>T. communis </em>for <em>T. putrescentiae. Tyrophagus communis </em>often infests the original culture and cultivated medium in natural farming or commercial production. From 2021 to 2022, <em>T. communis </em>seriously damaged the cultivated medium of <em>Tremella fuciformis </em>(Fig. 1)<em>. </em>Being fed by <em>T</em>. <em>communis</em> on mycelium and primordia (Fig. 2), the medium gradually turned brown-black and decayed, resulting in fruiting bodies appearing delayed, or even without fruit coming out. It was still found to damage the fungi after the disinfestation of the houses infested with <em>T</em>. <em>communis. </em>In addition to <em>Tremella fuciformis</em>, <em>T. communis</em> also infested <em>Hypsizygus marmoreus</em>, <em>Pleurotus pulmonarius</em>, <em>Auricularia polytricha </em>and <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em>. The infested original cultures must be discarded due to the loss of their value. The fruiting bodies of <em>T. fuciformis</em> on the infested medium emerge unevenly, being difficult to manage, and their yield and beneficial values are reduced. The safety production of these edible fungi was affected by <em>T. communis. </em>The biological characteristics, causes of infestation and prevention methods of <em>T. communis</em> need to be further studied to ensure the green and safe production of edible fungi. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> QINGXIU LAN, ZHENGHUI LU, BINGRONG KE, JIANHUA LIAO, HUI ZENG, QING-HAI FAN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.191 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Molecular gut-content analysis in phytoseiid mites</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.192 <p>Molecular gut content analysis has been used widely to elucidate predator-prey interaction both in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The two-spotted spider mites, <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important pest species worldwide, mainly due to their acaricide resistance. In greenhouses, commercially available biological control agents (BCAs), such as <em>Phytoseiiulus persimilis</em> and <em>Neoseiulus californicus</em> (Acari: Phytoseiidae), have been used. However, in open fields like orchards, conservation biological control (CBC) is desirable rather than augmentation, because natural populations of phytoseiid mites, which can potentially control spider mites, are distributed. There can be several species of phytoseiid mites feeding on spider mites in the same habitat, and therefore it is important to know which species can control spider mites effectively. To this end, Hinomoto (2017) elucidated the effectiveness of molecular gut-content analysis in the predatory mite, <em>N. californicus</em>, and showed that ordinary agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products could not detect any bands, but fluorescent-labeled primers successfully detected the gut contents of phytoseiid mites and confirmed they were derived from spider mite eggs. Furthermore, he also found that newly deposited spider mite eggs (less than 3 hr of oviposition) consumed by the predatory mites could not be detected even if fluorescent-labeled primers were used. To apply this technique in the fields, this should be carefully taken in the consideration, although it is unknown whether old or new eggs of spider mites are preferred. Regardless of this phenomenon, a combination of barcoding of phytoseiid mite species and molecular cut-content analysis will reveal real predator-prey food web in fields.</p> NORIHIDE HINOMOTO Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.192 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Identification of effective insecticides to manage <em>Petrobia latens</em> outbreaks in winter wheat</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.193 <p><em>Petrobia latens</em> (Müller) is a sporadic, but important pest of winter wheat in Oklahoma. Outbreaks are associated with prevalent hot, dry conditions (Jepson <em>et al.</em> 1975; Dhooria 2016).&nbsp; Because outbreaks are sporadic, updated data on acaricide efficacy against <em>P. latens </em>is sparse, and growers need to know what products are available to effectively control them when outbreaks occur (Depew 1968; Henderson &amp; Tilton 1955; Saxena &amp; Rawat 1969). We conducted two studies in established winter wheat to evaluate selected insecticides (bifenthrin @ 0.02 kg ai/ha, dimethoate @ 0.28 kg ai/ha, gamma cyhalothrin @ 0.015 kg ai/ha, lambda cyhalothrin @ 0.03 kg ai/ha, and zeta-cypermethrin @ 0.028 kg ai/ha) for their effectiveness at controlling <em>P. latens</em>. The first study (field 1) was conducted in a wheat field at Feekes growth stage 3.0 (Feekes 1941), and the second in a wheat field (Field 2) at Feekes growth stage 4.0.&nbsp; Mite populations in Field 1 averaged 421 mites per m<sup>2</sup> and 1694 per m<sup>2</sup> in Field 2. Growth stage affected control, with % control ranging from 48% to 64% in Field 1, while % control ranged from 81% to 88% in Field 2.</p> TOM A. ROYER, THOMAS HESS, ALI ZARRABI Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.193 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>A case of fungal spores zoochory found upon examination of Dominican amber inclusion of an undescribed stilt-legged mite fossil (Camerobiidae)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.194 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Palaeoacarological studies are concerned mainly with the unexplored fossil record of mites. Hence, they can reveal many engaging discoveries, influencing acarology </em></span><em>per se</em> as a free-standing branch of science and unveiling hypotheses facing more general biological and evolutionary points of inquiry. Although “interdisciplinary science” seems to be an increasingly overhyped catchphrase rather than a matter of reality, the term remains utterly appropriate in the case of fossil mite investigations. Amber inclusions, the primary source of the fossil record of acarines, are three-dimensional imprints containing remains embedded within the polymerised and fossilised tree resin. They provide rich information on the biodiversity and structure of extinct ecosystems and allow the tracing of evolutionary and zoogeographic pathways of some taxonomic groups. Furthermore, in amber, there have been frequently preserved “frozen” acts that depict intraspecific and interspecific interactions (e.g., copulation, predation, parasitism, and phoresy).</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MATEUSZ ZMUDZINSKI Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.194 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Chromosome-level genomic assembly and allergome inference reveal novel allergens in the storage mite, <em>Tyrophagus putrescentiae</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.195 <p><em>Tyrophagus putrescentiae</em> is a common storage mite in house dust, stored grains and other food. It has been demonstrated as an important indoor allergen source resulting in IgE-mediated responses and allergic diseases in genetically predisposed patients. Identification and characterization of its allergens using whole genome sequencing is needed for improving allergy diagnostics and developing better immunotherapeutic vaccines.</p> YING ZHOU, PAVEL B. KLIMOV, XIAOHONG GU, ZHIWEI YU, XIAOCHUAN CUI, QINGQING LI, RUILIN PAN, CUNYIN YUAN, FANGFANG CAI, YUBAO CUI Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.195 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Effects of nutritional supplements on population proliferation and nutrients content of <em>Acarus</em> <em>siro</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.196 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Using natural predatory mites to control stored product pests is an important green grain storage technology. As a dominant prey of </em></span><em>Cheyletus malaccensis</em> Oudemans (Cheyletidae), <em>Acarus siro</em> Linnaeus (Acaridae) can ensure the population expansion of <em>C. malaccensis</em> so as to realize its prevention and control ability. The population of <em>A. siro</em> raised on flour only increased slowly. In order to explore the effect of feed composition on the propagation efficiency of <em>A. siro</em>, orthogonal experiments were used to evaluate the changes of population proliferation of <em>A. siro</em> by adding different nutritional supplements, including yeast powder, sugar and L-valine to wheat bran under the same experimental condition (26 ℃, 75% RH, dark, wheat bran of 50 g, moisture content 11%–12% and 6,000 individuals of<em> A. siro</em>). The results showed that the population density of <em>A. siro</em> was the highest under the combination of 15% yeast powder, 17% sugar and 1% L-valine, indicating that it is the optimum feeding condition. And the maximum population density was 50,722 individuals/g while it was 10,388 individuals/g raised with wheat bran only. At the same time, the nutrient contents of <em>A. siro</em> under the optimal condition were determined. Protein content was determined by BCA method, soluble sugar content was determined by anthrone colorimetry technique, and free fatty acids content was determined with a kit. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugar, protein and free fatty acids of <em>A. siro</em> in treatment groups were higher than those in the control group. Free fatty acid showed the greatest increase (653%), while soluble sugar and protein increased 96% and 71%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the population density of <em>A. siro</em> was correlated with the content of supplemental nutrients. This study may serve as a useful reference for the feed optimization for <em>A. siro</em> and large-scale rearing of <em>C. malaccensis</em>.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> YIN-BIAO HAN, SHI-BO WANG, DING-RONG XUE, YI WU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.196 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Characterization and evaluation of extracellular vesicles as anti-tick vaccine candidates</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.197 <p>Among all the agricultural sectors, the livestock industry is the most economically developed and prolific. Livestock production promotes economic stability globally and provides a significant source of protein in meat and milk. Ticks can transmit pathogens such as <em>Anaplasma marginale</em>, the causative agent of Bovine Anaplasmosis, affecting the cattle industry due to mortality, reduction of meat and milk production, and increased costs for treatment and prevention. Bovine Anaplasmosis results in estimated losses of over 300 million USD per year in the U.S. There are no effective treatments since they act as bacteriostatic antimicrobials, arresting bacterial growth, but do not eliminate them. In subclinical levels the infection can persist. Further, the ability of <em>A. marginale </em>to undergo antigenic variation hinders vaccine development. Therefore, alternatives that target transmission and early establishment of the pathogen are needed. Extracellular vesicles are small membrane blebs secreted by eukaryotic cells that act in cell-to-cell communication. These vesicles can be divided into exosomes and microvesicles, depending on their mechanism of biogenesis and secretion. Recent studies, and my preliminary data, have shown that tick extracellular vesicles carry proteomic material that is conserved among different tick species. This proteomic material can be used as a vaccine candidate for the development of anti-tick vaccines. We hypothesize that these vesicles have potential as vaccine candidates for tick control. To test this hypothesis, we will: 1) Characterize the vesicle populations secreted by <em>Dermacentor andersoni,</em> <em>Amblyomma americanum</em>, and <em>Rhipicephalus microplus</em> ticks, 2) Define the best adjuvant-vesicle combination to trigger strong humoral and cellular responses in cattle, and 3) Determine the effectiveness of extracellular vesicle-derived vaccines for the management of tick populations in semi-field conditions. The emergence of acaricidal resistance in tick populations increases the need to develop new alternative control methods. Current vaccines have shown to be protective only against particular tick populations and species, for this reason artificial vesicles containing conserved proteins among different tick species, present a tempting approach that can be mass-produced and commercialized as an anti-tick vaccine protective against different tick species but specially <em>R. microplus</em>. This technology can be applied to other systems and would have a great impact in animal and human health.</p> CHARLUZ M. AROCHO ROSARIO, ADELA OLIVA CHAVEZ, CRAIG COATES, PETE TEEL, DONALD THOMAS, ARTEM S. ROGOVSKYY Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.197 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Dynamics of transcriptome-based gene expression across spider mite life cycle induced by Wolbachia</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.198 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Wolbachia</em></span> are maternally transmitted endosymbionts which cause an array of effects on hosts reproduction, fitness, immunity etc. To better understand <em>Wolbachia</em>-associated effects on their hosts, we identified gene expression profilings for a spider mite, <em>Tetranychus turkestani</em>, across the entire life cycle by transcriptome sequencing. Dynamic changes of mites at different developmental stages, including eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults were analyzed. We found that quite a few host genes exhibited stage- or sex-specific expression differences across the mite life cycle. Most metabolism processes were affected by <em>Wolbachia</em>, such as detoxification, redox, reproduction and immunity pathways. Differentially expressed genes of detoxification metabolism included ABC transporters, cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase and carboxylesterase. Differentially expressed genes of reproduction included cathepsin B, histone acetyltransferase KAT7, Juvenile hormone binding, histone H2B etc. Our work provides comprehensive insights into the developmental dynamics of differential gene-expression for a mite associated with an intracellular bacterium, and shows that public gene expression data harbor rich resources to probe the functional basis of the <em>Wolbachia</em>-<em>mite</em> symbiosis.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SHA WANG, DAN-DAN CUI, YI-YING ZHAO Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.198 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Transcriptome analysis in spider mite&nbsp;<em>Tetranychus</em> <em>turkestani</em> doubly infected with Cardinium and Wolbachia</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.199 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Endosymbiotic bacteria </em></span><em>Cardinium</em> and <em>Wolbachia</em> play an important role in the growth and development of mites. However, the mechanisms of their reproductive manipulations in host mites, especially inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), is still unclear. In the study, transcriptional responses of a spider mite, <em>Tetranychus turkestani</em>, jointly infected with <em>Cardinium</em> and <em>Wolbachia, </em>were analyzed based on RNA-Seq. Potential target genes of reproductive regulation and inducing CI were identified with functions and metabolism pathways, especially detoxification metabolic processes, redox processes, as well as reproductive and immune-related pathways, while the mites uninfected with <em>Cardinium</em> and <em>Wolbachia</em> were used as the control for comparative transcriptome analysis. Our transcriptional outputs provide a rich resource for the mechanisms of double infection on reproduction manipulation of mites, and can be explored in detail in symbiotic interactions between microbes and their multicellular hosts.</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> DAN-DAN CUI, XIN-LEI WANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.199 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Non-consumptive effects of predation risk on prey population regulations: empirical evidence from the invasive spider mite <em>Tetranychus ludeni</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.200 <p><em>Tetranychus ludeni </em>Zacher is an invasive pest from Europe. It infests more than 300 plant species, including many economically important crops such as bean <em>Phaseolus vulgaris </em>L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), eggplant <em>Solanum melongena </em>L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and many other cucurbitaceous plants. Gotoh <em>et al.</em> (2015) predict that this species could replace <em>T. urticae </em>to become a major crop pest in the world. It is often assumed that the success of biological control using predators is achieved through direct predation. However, it is still largely unknown whether predation risk could contribute to the effectiveness of prey biological control. In the present study we investigated the effects of cues from the predatory mite <em>Phytoseiulus persimilis </em>and killed <em>T. ludeni </em>on life history traits and offspring fitness of <em>T. ludeni, </em>providing novel knowledge for evaluation of the non-consumptive contribution to the biological control of <em>T. ludeni </em>and for future development of new spider mite control methods using these cues<em>. </em>We demonstrated that the cues from the predators and killed prey shortened the longevity by more than 23% and oviposition period by more than 35% and reduced the number of eggs laid by more than 31% in <em>T. ludeni </em>females. These cues also significantly reduced the intrinsic rate of increase and net population growth rate and prolonged the time to double the population size. Furthermore, in response to predator cues females significantly delayed their lifetime production of daughters and laid significantly smaller eggs. Offspring from predator-exposed mothers developed significantly more slowly. Our findings strongly suggest that the non-consumptive mortality caused by cues from both predators and killed prey can significantly reduce prey fitness, suppressing their population and lowering their damage to crops. The earlier prey death caused by these cues could result from the energic costs of natural enemy avoidance (Luong <em>et al.</em> 2017), decrease of foraging rate or food intake (Hermann &amp; Thaler 2014) and increase of oxidative damage (Janssens &amp; Stoks 2013). The present study partially supports previous reports that non-consumptive impacts of predation risk on prey are transgenerational (Tariel <em>et al.</em> 2020). Our study provides critical information for evaluation of biological control effectiveness using predators and paves the way for identification of chemical odors from the predator and killed prey and development of new materials and methods for the control of spider mite pests.</p> DWI RISTYADI, XIONG Z. HE, QIAO WANG Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.200 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Suitable doses screening for mutagenesis in <em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em> induced by <sup>60</sup>Co-γ</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.201 <p><em>Phytoseiulus persimilis</em> Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a specialist predator of <em>Tetranychus </em>sp.; however, the lack of resistance to high temperatures and drought may result in the lower biological control efficiency of <em>P. persimilis</em> in the adverse climatic conditions. In breeding programs, <sup>60</sup>Co-γ irradiation is commonly used to quickly screen suitable mutants, optimize biological characteristics, and improve resistance. It is expected that <sup>60</sup>Co-γ irradiation could be useful in resistance screening in <em>P. persimilis</em>. The purpose of this study is to determine the suitable doses of <sup>60</sup>Co-γ with high levels of mutagenesis in <em>P. persimilis.</em> <em>P. persimilis </em>individuals were irradiated using <sup>60</sup>Co-γ at 0, 20, 40, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy, with a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min. The mortality of irradiated individuals was used to estimate the LD<sub>50</sub>. The fecundity of survived individuals and egg hatch rate were applied to estimate the mutagenesis frequency. The mortality of <em>P. persimilis</em> increased with increasing irradiation dose with a rapid increase between 70 to 95 Gy. When irradiation dose exceeded 100 Gy, almost all <em>P. persimilis</em> died. The LD<sub>50</sub> of irradiation dose was ca. 80 Gy. When irradiation doses increased from 70 to 95 Gy, sterility rate increased from 5% to 20%, fecundity decreased from 97% to 80%, and egg hatch rate decreased from 98% to 60%. We suggest that the appropriate irradiation doses of <sup>60</sup>Co-γ inducing higher <em>P. persimili</em>s mutagenesis were between 70 Gy and 95 Gy. Results of this study allow future large-scale screening for resistant strains of <em>P. persimilis</em>.</p> ZIYI KONG, JIALE LV, BO ZHANG, ENDONG WANG, XUENONG XU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.201 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Development and reproduction of <em>Tetranychus cinnabarinus</em> (Acari: Tetranychiae) on transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.202 <p>The effects of two insect-resistant transgenic cotton strains (transgenic Bt pest-resistant cotton Zhongkangza 5 and Lumianyan 23, transgenic Bt+CpTI pest-resistant cotton sGK958 and Zhongmiansuo 45) on the growth and reproduction of<em> Tetranychus cinnabarinus</em> was examined in comparison with non-transgenic cotton (K836) at 70% relative humidity and 30±0.5 ℃. The results showed that<em> T. cinnabarinus</em> fed on transgenic Bt cotton and transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton differed significantly from those on conventional cotton in development time of various stages. Furthermore, the development times of mites on transgenic Bt cotton and transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton were the same, but the development times of <em>T. cinnabarinus </em>fed on transgenic Bt pest-resistant cotton Zhongkangza 5 and Lumianyan 23 were different, as well as the development times of <em>T. cinnabarinus</em> fed on transgenic Bt+CpTI pest-resistant cotton sGK958 and Zhongmiansuo 45. The pre-oviposition period, oviposition period and the female mite life span were longer (1.44 d, 12.71 d, and 14.11 d respectively) on non-transgenic cotton than on transgenic cotton. The maximum fecundity was 75.61 eggs per female on non-transgenic cotton and the minimum fecundity (54.68 eggs per female) was observed in mites fed on sGK958. The net reproductive rate (<em>R<sub>0</sub></em>) was the highest (55.000) on non-transgenic cotton, but was the smallest (37.219) on Zhongkangza 5. The intrinsic rate of increase (<em>r<sub>m</sub></em>) was the highest (0.454) on non-transgenic cotton, but was the smallest (0.246) on Zhongkangza 5. The finite rate of increase (<em>λ</em>) was the highest (1.575) on non-transgenic cotton, but was the smallest (1.278) on Zhongkangza 5. The population doubling time (DT) was the shortest (1.526 d) on non-transgenic cotton, but was the longest (2.823 d) on Zhongkangza 5. The results of this study indicated the negative effects of transgenic cotton on the development and reproduction of <em>T. cinnabarinus </em>was significant: the larvae had the lowest survival rate after feeding on five kinds of cotton, while deutonymphs had the highest survival rate; the hatching rate and deutonymph survival rate of <em>T. cinnabarinus</em> fed on CK were the highest, while the hatching rate and larval survival rate of the sGK958 were the lowest. Transgenic insect-resistant cotton basically showed significant effects on the development period of each stage and the whole generation of <em>T. cinnabarinus</em>, but there were no significant differences between univalent transgenic Bt cotton and bivalent transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton.</p> YUANFA YANG, SHIYU CAI, YANG ZOU, HUI AI, ZHIYONG ZOU, TIANRONG XIN, BIN XIA, ZHIWEN ZOU Copyright (c) 2022 Zoosymposia https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.202 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Preliminary faunistic study on Erythraeoidea (Acari: Trombidiformes) in China</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.203 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;">The superfamily Erythraeoidea consists of two families: Erythraeidae and Smarididae. To date, 44 named species of Erythraeidae and three named species of Smarididae have been recorded in China.</span></span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SI-YUAN XU, TIAN-CI YI, JIAN-JUN GUO, DAO-CHAO JIN Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.203 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Prediction of potential overwintering areas in China for the <em>Neoseiulus</em> <em>barkeri</em></strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.204 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;">Predicting the potential distribution area of </span><em>Neoseiulus barkeri</em> can provide a good understanding of the habitat range of the <em>N. barkeri</em> and assess the possibility of overwintering in the release site (Khadem <em>et al</em>. 2021). The study of the habitat of <em>N. barkeri</em> can be used to determine whether it can overwinter in released areas and to assess its population dynamics (Abdellah <em>et al</em>. 2021).</span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> JIANQI ZHAO, WENHUAN XU, WENJIE WANG, XUECHUN SONG, SHIJIA LI, YAYING LI, YUZHEN NIMA, HUAI LIU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.204 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Coordinated application of phytoseiids and other biological control agents on management of different pest insect species: a case of ecostacking</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.205 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #231f20;"><em>Ecostacking, maximising the benefts of ecosystem services, implies to combine in an additive or synergistic manner the beneficial services of functional biodiversity from all levels and types (Hokkanen and Menzler-Hokkanen, 2018). Historically, studies of biological control focused on interactions between different prey species and shared predators, or that among target prey and different predators (El-laithy </em></span><em>et al</em>., 2021; Hao <em>et al</em>., 2021). <em>Amblyseuis swirskii </em>was a predominant predator against small sap-sucking pests including whiteflies and thrips (Rahimi <em>et al</em>., 2022). In this study, we conducted a coordinated management strategies utilizing the phytoseiid mite <em>A. swirskki</em>, the predatory bug <em>Eocanthecona furcellata</em> and the entomopathogenic fungi <em>Beauveria bassiana</em>, to control the major pest insects of tobacco planting areas in Southwestern China, including <em>Bemisia tabaci</em>, <em>Thrips tabaci</em>, <em>Spodoptera litura</em> and <em>Helicoverpa assulta</em>. </span></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> XIAODONG HU, JINGE YUAN, GANG CHEN, YISHU DING, JINGDONG CAO, GUORUN FU, ZHENGXIONG ZHAO, YAYING LI, HUAI LIU Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.205 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Index to authors and index to subjects (Proceedings of the XVI International Congress of Acarology)</strong></p> https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.206 <p>This index includes only speakers in oral or poster presentations. The authors are listed by family names alphabetically.</p> ZHI-QIANG ZHANG Copyright (c) 2022 https://www.mapress.com/zs/article/view/zoosymposia.22.1.206 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +1300