Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2021-11-19

Molecular phylogeny of Aplosporella abexaminans: a novel species revealing the second report of sexual-asexual connection in Aplosporellaceae (Botryosphaeriales) from India

Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., India 221005
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., India 221005
Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., India 221005
Aplosporellaceae corticolous ITS-LSU phylogeny taxonomic novelty Fungi

Abstract

Aplosporella abexaminans, a new sexual morph fungus belongs to family Aplosporellaceae, was discovered on the bark of stem of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) and identified by morphological characteristics and analysis of combined ITS and LSU sequence data. This is the second report of a sexual morph with molecular evidence for this genus and the second record of conidiogenesis and chlamydospores associated with the asexual state of this family. It is characterized by its larger ascostromata, locules without ostioles, thinner locule peridium, two to multi-layered, larger asci, surrounded by an additional hyaline sac like structure, larger and hyaline to light olivaceous ascospores, asexual state without conidiomata formation, conidiogenous cells light brown to brown, conidia brown without granular content, smooth and presence of chlamydospores. The sexual morph of Aplosporella abexaminans resembles Bagnisiella and the asexual morph resembles Aplosporella, thus proving the sexual-asexual connection for the second time for this family.

References

  1. Abdollahzadeh, J., Mohammadi, G.E., Javadi, A., Shams-Bakhsh, M., Zare, R. & Phillips, A.J. (2009) Barriopsis raniana and Phaeobotryon cupressi: two new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from trees in Iran. Persoonia 23: 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.3767/003158509X467552

  2. Arx, J.A.V. & Müller, E. (1954) Die Gattungen der amerosporen Pyrenomyceten. Beitr Kryptogamenfl Schweiz 11: 1–434.

  3. Arx, J.A.V. & Müller, E. (1975) A re-evaluation of the bitunicate ascomycetes with the keys to families. Studies in Mycology 9: 1–159.

  4. Awasthi, N., Singh, R. & Kumar, S. (2016) A new species of Pseudocercosporella on Andrographis paniculata from Central India. Sydowia 68: 27–33.

  5. Chen, S.F., Pavlic, D., Roux, J., Slippers, B., Xie, Y.J., Wingfield, M.J. & Zhou, X.D. (2011) Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae from plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in South China. Plant Pathology 60: 739–751.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02431.x

  6. Crous, P.W., Summerell, B.A., Shivas, R.G., Romberg, M., Mel’nik, V.A., Verkley, G.J. & Groenewald, J.Z. (2011) Fungal Planet description sheets: 92–106. Persoonia 27: 130–162.  https://doi.org/10.3767/003158511X617561

  7. Crous, P.W., Wingfield, M.J., Guarro, J., Cheewangkoon, R., van der Bank, M., Swart, W.J., Stchigel, A.M., Cano-Lira, J.F., Roux, J., Madrid, H., Damm, U., Wood, A.R., Shuttleworth, L.A., Hodges, C.S., Munster, M., de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M., Zúñiga-Estrada, L., Cruywagen, E.M., de Hoog, G.S., Silvera, C., Najafzadeh, J., Davison, E.M., Davison, P.J., Barrett, M.D., Barrett, R.L., Manamgoda, D.S., Minnis, A.M., Kleczewski, N.M., Flory, S.L., Castlebury, L.A., Clay, K., Hyde, K.D., Maússe-Sitoe, S.N., Chen, S., Lechat, C., Hairaud, M., Lesage-Meessen, L., Pawłowska, J., Wilk, M., Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A., Mętrak, M., Wrzosek, M., Pavlic-Zupanc, D., Maleme, H.M., Slippers, B., Mac Cormack, W.P., Archuby, D.I., Grünwald, N.J., Tellería, M.T., Dueñas, M., Martín, M.P., Marincowitz, S., de Beer, Z.W., Perez, C.A., Gené, J., Marin-Felix, Y. & Groenewald, J.Z. (2013) Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213. Persoonia 31: 188–296.  https://doi.org/10.3767/003158513X675925

  8. Crows, P.W., Giraldo, A., Hawksworth, D.L., Robert, V., Kirk, P.M., Guarro, J., Robbertse, B., Schoch, C.L., Damm, U., Trakunyingcharoen, T. & Groenewald, J.Z. (2014) The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names. IMA Fungus 5: 141–60.  https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2014.05.01.14

  9. Crous, P.W., Muller, M.M., Sanchez, R.M., Giordano, L., Bianchinotti, M.V., Anderson, F.E. & Groenewald, J.Z. (2015) Resolving Tiarosporella spp. allied to Botryosphaeriaceae and Phacidiaceae. Phytotaxa 202: 73–93.  https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.202.2.1

  10. Crous, P.W., Schumacher, R.K., Akulov, A., Thangavel, R., Hernandez-Restrepo, M., Carnegie, A.J., Cheewangkoon, R., Wingfield, M.J., Summerell, B.A., Quaedvlieg, W., Coutinho, T.A., Roux, J., Wood, A.R., Giraldo, A. & Groenewald, J.Z. (2019) New and Interesting Fungi. 2. Fungal Systematics and Evolution 3: 57–134.  https://doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2019.03.06

  11. Damm, U., Fourie, P.H. & Crous, P.W. (2007a) Aplosporella prunicola, a novel species of anamorphic Botryosphaeriaceae. Fungal Diversity 27: 35–43.

  12. Damm, U., Crous, P.W. & Fourie, P.H. (2007b) Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. Mycologia 99: 664–680.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15572536.2007.11832531

  13. Daranagama, D.A., Thambugala, K.M., Campino, B., Alves, A., Bulgakov, T.S., Phillips, A.J.L., Liu, X.Z. & Hyde, K.D. (2016) Phaeobotryon negundinis sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriales) from Russia. Mycosphere 7: 933–941.  https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/si/1b/2

  14. Dayarathne, M.C., Boonmee, S., Braun, U. & Crous, P.W. (2016) Taxonomic utility of old names in current fungal classification and nomenclature: Conflicts, confusion & clarifications. Mycosphere 7: 1622–1648.  https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/7/11/2

  15. Dissanayake, A.J., Phillips, A.J.L., Li, X.H. & Hyde, K.D. (2016) Botryosphaeriaceae: Current status of genera and species. Mycosphere 7: 1001–1073.  https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/si/1b/13

  16. Dou, Z.P., Lu, M., Wu, J.R., He, W. & Zhang, Y. (2017) A new species and interesting records of Aplosporella from China. Sydowia 69: 1–7.

  17. Du, Z., Fan, X.L., Yang, Q., Hyde, K.D. & Tian, C.M. (2017) Aplosporella ginkgonis (Aplosporellaceae, Botryosphaeriales), a new species isolated from Ginkgo biloba in China. Mycosphere 8: 1246–1252.  https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/8/2/8

  18. Ekanayaka, A.H., Dissanayake, A.J., Jayasiri, S.C., To-anun, C., Jones, E.B.G., Zhao, Q. & Hyde, K.D. (2016) Aplosporella thailandica; a novel species revealing the sexual-asexual connection in Aplosporellaceae (Botryosphaeriales). Mycosphere 7: 440–447.  https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/7/4/4

  19. Fan, X.L., Hyde, K.D., Liu, J., Liang, Y. & Tian, C.M. (2015a) Multigene phylogeny and morphology reveal, Phaeobotryon rhois sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriales, ascomycota). Phytotaxa 205: 90–98.  https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.205.2.2

  20. Fan, X.L., Qin, Y., Cao, B., Liang, Y.M. & Tian, C.M. (2015b) New record of Aplosporella javeedii on five hosts in china based on multigene analysis and morphology. Mycotaxon 130: 749–756.  https://doi.org/10.5248/130.749

  21. Hall, T. (2007) Bioedit, Version 7.0.9. [Online]. Ibis Biosciences, Carlsbad, 1997–2007. Available from: http://www.mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit/bioedit.html

  22. Hyde, K.D., McKenzie, E.H.C. & KoKo, T.W. (2011) Towards incorporating anamorphic fungi in a natural classification–checklist and notes for 2010. Mycosphere 2: 1–88.

  23. Jami, F., Slippers, B., Wingfield, M.J. & Gryzenhout, M. (2012) Five new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from Acacia karroo in South Africa. Cryptogam Mycology 33: 245–266.  https://doi.org/10.7872/crym.v33.iss3.2012.245

  24. Jami, F., Slippers, B., Wingfield, M.J. & Gryzenhout, M. (2014) Botryosphaeriaceae species overlap on four unrelated, native South African hosts. Fungal Biology 118: 168–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2013.11.007

  25. Jeewon, R. & Hyde, K.D. (2016) Establishing species boundaries and new taxa among fungi: recommendations to resolve taxonomic ambiguities. Mycosphere 7: 1669–1677.  https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/7/11/4

  26. Katoh, K. & Toh, H. (2010) Parallelization of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. Bioinformatics 26: 1899–1900.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq224

  27. Kumar, S. & Singh, R. (2015a) Passalora musicola sp. nov. a new Indian hyphomycete. Sydowia 67: 21–23.

  28. Kumar, S. & Singh, R. (2015b) Pseudocercospora bischofigena, a new cercosporoid fungus from northeastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Czech Mycology 67: 39–44.  https://doi.org/10.33585/cmy.67105

  29. Kumar, S. & Singh, R. (2016) Passalora caesalpiniicola sp. nov. from India on Caesalpinia bonduc. Mycotaxon 131: 25–30.  https://doi.org/10.5248/131.25

  30. Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C. & Tamura, K. (2018) MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across computing platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 35: 1547–1549.  https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy096

  31. Li, G.Q., Liu, F.F., Li, J.Q., Liu, Q.L. & Chen, S.F. (2018) Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus plantations and adjacent plants in China. Persoonia 40: 63–95.  https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2018.40.03

  32. Li, W.-J., McKenzie, E.H.C., Liu, J.-K., Bhat, D.J., Dai, D.-Q., Camporesi, E., Tian, Q., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Luo, Z.-L., Shang, Q.-J., Zhang, J.-F., Tangthirasunun, N., Karunarathna, S.C., Xu, J.-C. & Hyde, K.D. (2020a) Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 100: 279–801.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-020-00440-y

  33. Liu, J.K., Phookamsak, R., Doilom, M., Wikee, S., Li, Y.M., Ariyawansha, H., Boonmee, S., Chomnunti, P., Dai, D.Q., Bhat, J.D., Romero, A.I., Zhuang, W.Y., Monkai, J., Jones, E.B.G., Chukeatirote, E., Ko-Ko, T.W., Zhao, Y.C., Wang, Y. & Hyde, K.D. (2012) Towards a natural classification of Botryosphaeriales. Fungal Diversity 57: 149–210.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-012-0207-4

  34. Luque, J., Martos, S. & Phillips, A.J. (2005) Botryosphaeria viticola sp. nov. on grape vines: a new species with a Dothiorella anamorph. Mycologia 97: 1111–1121.  https://doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.97.5.1111

  35. Motohashi, K., Inaba, S., Anzai, K., Takamatsu, S. & Nakashima, C. (2009) Phylogenetic analyses of Japanese species of Phyllosticta sensu stricto. Mycoscience 50: 291–302.  https://doi.org/10.1007/S10267-009-0487-Z

  36. Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2000) Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New York, 352 pp.

  37. Petrak, F. & Sydow, H. (1927) Die Gattungen der Pyrenomyceten, Sphaeropsideen und Melanconieen. Beihefte Repert Spec Nov Regni Veg 42: 1–551.

  38. Phillips, A.J., Alves, A., Pennycook, S.R., Johnston, P.R., Ramaley, A., Akulov, A. & Crous, P.W. (2008) Resolving the phylogenetic and taxonomic status of dark-spored teleomorph genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae. Persoonia 21: 29–55.  https://doi.org/10.3767/003158508X340742

  39. Phillips, A.J.L. & Alves, A. (2009) Taxonomy, phylogeny and epitypification of Melanops tulasnei, the type species of Melanops. Fungal Diversity 38: 155–166.

  40. Phillips, A.J., Alves, A., Abdollahzadeh, J., Slippers, B., Wingfield, M.J., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. (2013) The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture. Studies in Mycology 76: 51–167.  https://doi.org/10.3114/sim0021

  41. Quaedvlieg, W., Verkley, G.J., Shin, H.D., Barreto, R.W., Alfenas, A.C., Swart, W.J., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. (2013) Sizing up Septoria. Studies in Mycology 75: 307–390.  https://doi.org/10.3114/sim0017

  42. Rannala, B. & Yang, Z. (1996) Probability distribution of molecular evolutionary trees: a new method of phylogenetic inference. Journal of Molecular Evolution 43: 304–311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00006090

  43. Rojas, E.I., Herre, E.A., Mejía, L.C., Arnold, A.E. & Chaverri, P. (2008) Endomelanconiopsis, a new anamorph genus in the Botryosphaeriaeae. Mycologia 100: 760–775.  https://doi.org/10.3852/07-207

  44. Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D., Darling, A., Ohna, S.H., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: Effcient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systmatic Biology 61: 539–542.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys029

  45. Senanayake, I.C., Rathnayaka, A.R., Marasinghe, D.S., Calabon, M.S., Gentekaki, E., Lee, H.B., Hurdeal, V.G., Pem, D., Dissanayake, L.S., Wijesinghe, S.N., Bundhun, D., Nguyen, T.T., Goonasekara, I.D., Abeywickrama, P.D., Bhunjun, C.S., Jayawardena, R.S., Wanasinghe, D.N., Jeewon, R., Bhat, D.J. & Xiang, M.M. (2020) Morphological approaches in studying fungi: collection, examination, isolation, sporulation and preservation. Mycosphere 11: 2678–2754.

  46.          https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/20

  47. Sarr, M.P., Ndiaye, M.B., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. (2014) Genetic diversity in Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53: 250−268.

  48. Schoch, C.L., Crous, P.W., Groenewald, J.Z., Boehm, E.W.A., Burgess, T.I., de Gruyter, J., de Hoog, G.S., Dixon, L.J., Grube, M., Gueidan, C., Harada, Y., Hatakeyama, S., Hirayama, K., Hosoya, T., Huhndorf, S.M., Hyde, K.D., Jones, E.B., Kohlmeyer, J., Kruys, A., Li, Y.M., Lucking, R., Lumbsch, H.T., Marvanova, L., Mbatchou, J.S., McVay, A.H., Miller, A.N., Mugambi, G.K., Muggia, L., Nelsen, M.P., Nelson, P., Owensby, C.A., Phillips, A.J., Phongpaichit, S., Pointing, S.B., Pujade-Renaud, V., Raja, H.A., Plata, E.R., Robbertse, B., Ruibal, C., Sakayaroj, J., Sano, T., Selbmann, L., Shearer, C.A., Shirouzu, T., Slippers, B., Suetrong, S., Tanaka, K., Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B., Wingfield, M.J., Wood, A.R., Woudenberg, J.H., Yonezawa, H., Zhang, Y. & Spatafora, J.W. (2009) A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes. Studies in Mycology 64: 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.3114/sim.2009.64.01

  49. Schoch, C.L., Robbertse, B., Robert, V., Vu, D., Cardinali, G., Irinyi, L., Meyer, W., Nilsson, R.H., Hughes, K., Miller, A.N., Kirk, P.M., Abarenkov, K., Aime, M.C., Ariyawansa, H.A., Bidartondo, M., Boekhout, T.,Buyck, B., Cai, Q., Chen, J., CrespoShow less, A., Crous, P.W., Damm, U., de Beer, Z.W., Dentinger, B.T.M., Divakar, P.K., Duenas, M.,Feau, N., Fliegerova, K., Garcia, M.A., Ge, Z.W., Griffith, G.W., Groenewald, J.Z., Groenewald, M., Grube, M., Gryzenhout, M., Gueidan, C., Guo, L., Hambleton, S., Hamelin, R., Hansen, K., Hofstetter, V., Hong, S.B., Houbraken, J., Hyde, K.D., Inderbitzin, P., Johnston, P.A., Karunarathna, S.C., Koljalg, U., Kovacs, G.M., Kraichak, E., Krizsan, K., Kurtzman, C.P., Larsson, K.H., Leavitt, S., Letcher, P.M., Liimatainen, K., Liu, J.K., Lodge, D.J., Luangsa-ard, J.J., Lumbsch, H.T., Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N., Manamgoda, D., Martin, M.P., Minnis, A.M., Moncalvo, J.M., Mule, G., Nakasone, K.K., Niskanen, T., Olariaga, I., Papp, T., Petkovits, T., Pino-Bodas, R., Powell, M.J., Raja, H.A., Redecker, D., Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M., Seifert, K.A., Shrestha, B., Stenroos, S., Stielow, B., Suh, S.O., Tanaka, K., Tedersoo, L., Telleria, M.T., Udayanga, D., Untereiner, W.A., DieguezUribeondo, J., Subbarao, K.V., Vagvolgyi, C., Visagie, C., Voigt, K., Walker, D.M., Weir, B.S., Weiss, M., Wijayawardene, N.N., Wingfield, M.J., Xu, J.P., Yang, Z.L., Zhang, N., Zhuang, W.Y. & Federhen, S. (2014) Finding needles in haystacks: linking s cientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi. Database (Oxford) 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1093/database/bau061

  50. Simon, U.K., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. (2009) Cymadothea trifolii, an obligate biotrophic leaf parasite of Trifolium, belongs to Mycosphaerellaceae as shown by nuclear ribosomal DNA analyses. Persoonia 22: 49–55.  https://doi.org/10.3767/003158509X425350

  51. Singh, R., Kumar, S. & Kamal (2011) Two new species of Passalora and Pseudocercospora from northeastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Mycotaxon 117: 137–143.  https://doi.org/10.5248/117.137

  52. Singh, R., Chaurasia, B., Shukla, K. & Upadhyaya, P.P. (2012) Passalora aseptata, a new cercosporoid fungus from northeastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Mycotaxon 120: 461–463.  https://doi.org/10.5248/120.461

  53. Singh, R., Kumar, S., Saini, D.C., Upadhyaya, P.P., Kamal & Braun, U. (2013a) Diversity of Passalora on Ficus. Mycological Progress 12: 637–643.  http://dx.doi. 10.1007/s11557-012-0870-6

  54. Singh, R., Kumar, S. Singh, A. & Shukla, K. (2013b) A new species of Parapyricularia from India and a key to all species. Sydowia 65: 337–342.

  55. Singh, R., Singh, A., Kumar, S., Upadhyaya, P.P & Castañeda-Ruíz, R.F. (2014a) Two new species of Zasmidium from northeastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Nova Hedwigia 98: 257–263.  https://doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2013/0137

  56. Singh, A., Kharwar, R.N., Singh, R. & Kumar, S. (2014b) A new species of Zasmidium (Mycosphaerellaceae) from India. Sydowia 66: 309–312.

  57. Singh, R., Verma, S.K., Yadav, S., Bhojak, P. & Kumar, S. (2020) Morphology and phylogeny of Pseudocercospora hamiltoniani—A new species comparable to Sirosporium from Uttarakhand, India. Phytotaxa 458: 281–293.  https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.458.4.4

  58. Slippers, B., Fourie, G., Crous, P.W., Coutinho, T.A., Wingfield, B.D. & Wingfield, M.J. (2004) Multiple gene sequences delimit Botryosphaeria australis sp. nov. from B. lutea. Mycologia 96: 1030–1041.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15572536.2005.11832903

  59. Slippers, B., Boissin, E., Phillips, A.J., Groenewald, J.Z., Lombard, L., Wingfield, M.J., Postma, A., Burgess, T. & Crous, P.W. (2013) Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriales: a systematic and evolutionary framework. Studies in Mycology 76: 31–49.  https://doi.org/10.3114/sim0020

  60. Spegazzini, C. (1880) Fungi argentini. Pugillustertius (Continuacion). An Soc Cient Argent 10: 145–168.

  61. Spegazzini, C. (1880a) Fungi argentini. Pugillussecundus (Continuacion). An Soc Cient Argent 10: 5–33.

  62. Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30: 1312–1313.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033

  63. Sutton, B.C. (1980) The Coelomycetes. Fungi Imperfecti with Pycenidia, Acervuli and Stromata. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England, 696 pp.

  64. Tanney, J.B. & Seifert, K.A. (2019) Pileospora piceae gen. et sp. nov. (Septorioideaceae, Botryosphaeriales) from Picea rubens. Mycological Progress 18: 163–174.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-018-1423-4

  65. Thambugala, K.M., Ariyawansa, H.A., Li, Y.M., Boonmee, S., Hongsanan, S., Tian, Q., Singtripop, C., Bhat, J.D., Camporesi, E., Jayawardena, R., Liu, Z.Y., Xu, J.C., Chukeatirote, E. & Hyde, K.D. (2014) Dothideales. Fungal Diversity 68: 105–158.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-014-0303-8

  66. Tibpromma, S., Hyde, K.D., Bhat, D.J., Mortimer, P.E., Xu, J.,Promputtha, I., Doilom, M., Yang, J.-B., Tang, A.M.C. & Karunarathna, S.C. (2018) Identification of endophytic fungi from leaves of Pandanaceae based on their morphotypes and DNA sequence data from southern Thailand. MycoKeys 33: 25–67.  https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.33.23670

  67. Tilak, S.T. & Rao, R. (1964) The genus Haplosporella in India. Mycopathologia 24: 362–368.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02053649

  68. Trakunyingcharoen, T., Lombard, L., Groenewald, J.Z., Cheewangkoon, R., To-anun, C. & Crous, P.W. (2015) Caulicolous Botryosphaeriales from Thailand. Persoonia 34: 87–99.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/003158515X685841

  69. Vilgalys, R. & Hester, M. (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. Journal of bacteriology 172: 4238–4246.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.172.8.4238-4246.1990

  70. Vu, D., Groenewald, M., de Vries, M., Gehrmann, T., Stielow, B., Eberhardt, U., Al-Hatmi, A., Groenewald, J.Z., Cardinali, G., Houbraken, J., Boekhout, T., Crous, P.W., Robert, V. & Verkley, G.J.M. (2019) Large-scale generation and analysis of filamentous fungal DNA barcodes boosts coverage for kingdom fungi and reveals thresholds for fungal species and higher taxon delimitation. Studies in Mycology 92: 135–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2018.05.001

  71. White, T.J., Bruns, T. & Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: A guide to molecular methods and applications (Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White JW, eds). Academic Press, New York 315–322.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-372180-8.50042-1

  72. Wijayawardene, N.N., Crous, P.W., Kirk, P.M., Hawksworth, D.L., Boonmee, S., Braun, U., Dai, D.Q., D’souza, M.J., Diederich, P., Dissanayake, A., Doilom, M., Hongsanan, S., Jones, E.B.G., Groenewald, J.Z., Jayawardena, R., Lawrey, J.D., Liu, J.K., Lücking, R., Madrid, H., Manamgoda, D.S., Muggia, L., Nelsen, M.P., Phookamsak, R., Suetrong, S., Tanaka, K., Thambugala, K.M., Wanasinghe, D.N., Wikee, S., Zhang, Y., Aptroot, A., Ariyawansa, H.A., Bahkali, A.H., Bhat, D.J., Gueidan, C., Chomnunti, P., De Hoog, G.S., Knudsen, K., Li, W.J., McKenzie, E.H.C., Miller, A.N., Phillips, A.J.L., Piątek, M., Raja, H.A., Shivas, R.S., Slippers, B., Taylor, J.E., Tian, Q., Wang, Y., Woudenberg, J.H.C., Cai, L., Jaklitsch, W.M. & Hyde, K.D. (2014) Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names. Fungal Diversity 69: 1–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-014-0309-2

  73. Yadav, S., Verma, S.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, R., Singh, A. & Kumar, S. (2021) Morphology and phylogeny of a new species, Pseudocercospora haldinae (Mycosphaerellaceae) on Haldina cordifolia from India. Phytotaxa 501: 281–292.  https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.501.2.3

  74. Yang, T., Groenewald, J.Z., Cheewangkoon, R., Jami, F., Abdollahzadeh, J., Lombard, L. & Crous, P.W. (2017) Families, genera, and species of Botryosphaeriales. Fungal Biology 121: 322–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2016.11.001

  75. Zhu, H.Y., Tian, C.M. & Fan, X.L. (2018) Studies of botryosphaerialean fungi associated with canker and dieback of tree hosts in Dongling Mountain of China. Phytotaxa 348: 63–76.  https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.348.2.1