Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2018-08-30

A new species of Palaeocarya (Juglandaceae) from the Ningming Basin in Guangxi, South China

Guangxi Museum of Natural History, Nanning, Guangxi 530012, China
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 326117800, USA
Guangxi Museum of Natural History, Nanning, Guangxi 530012, China
Guangxi Museum of Natural History, Nanning, Guangxi 530012, China
Guangxi Museum of Natural History, Nanning, Guangxi 530012, China
Guangxi Museum of Natural History, Nanning, Guangxi 530012, China
Eudicots fossil winged fruits Palaeocarya Oligocene Ningming Formation Guangxi South China


A new species of fossil winged fruits of Palaeocarya (Juglandaceae) is recognized from the Oligocene Ningming Formation in Guangxi, South China. The fruits of Palaeocarya huashanensis sp. nov. consist of a trilobate wing with an oblong median lobe, pinnate and eucamptodromous lobe venation, a hispid nutlet, and a very short pedicel. This new species, along with other four species reported previously from the same locality, represents the Oligocene Palaeocarya occurrence in the lowest latitude and provides additional evidence of diversity of Juglandaceae in the Paleogene in South China, and new data for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the tribe Engelhardieae.


  1. Akhmetyev, M.A. & Bratzeva, G.M. (1973) Fossil Remains of the Genus Engelhardia from Cenozoic Deposits of Sikhote-Alin and Southern Primorye. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 16: 123–132.

    Bertini, A. & Martinetto, E. (2008) Messinian to Zanclean vegetation and climate of Northern and Central Italy. Bollettino della società Paleontologica Italiana 47: 105–121.

    Chen, Y.F. & Zhang, D.X. (2005) Bauhinia larsenii, a fossil legume from Guangxi, China. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 147: 437–440.

    Chen, Y.F., Manchester, S.R., Song, Z.Q. & Wang, H.S. (2014) Oligocene fossil winged fruits of tribe Engelhardieae (Juglandaceae) from the Ningming Basin of Guangxi Province, South China. International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology 3: 13–17.

    Chen, Y.F. & Manchester, S.R. (2015) Winged Fruits of Deviacer in the Oligocene from the Ningming Basin in Guangxi, South China PLoS ONE 10 (12): e0144009.

    Chen, Y.F., Wong, W.O., Hu, Q., Liufu, Y.Q. & Xie, Z.M. (2017) A new fossil species of Acer (Sapindaceae) from the Ningming Basin in Guangxi, South China. Phytotaxa 298 (2): 158–164.

    Dilcher, D.L., Potter, F.W. & Crepet, W.L. (1976) Investigations of angiosperms from the Eocene of North America: juglandaceous winged fruits. American Journal of Botany 63: 532–544.

    Dong, J.L., Wang, W.J., Deng, P., Wang, J., Ma, F.J., Wang, Q.J., Yang, Y. & Sun, B.N. (2016) New material of Palaeocarya from the Oligocene of Ningming, Guangxi, South China. PalZ 90: 399–412.

    Elliott, L.L., Mindell, R.A. & Stockey, R.A. (2006) Beardia vancouverensis gen. et sp. nov. (Juglandaceae): permineralized fruits from the Eocene of British Columbia. American Journal of Botany 93 (4): 557–565.

    Fischer, T.C. & Butzmann, R. (2006) The Pliocene macro-and microflora of lacustrine sediments from Meleto (Valdarno, N. Italy) and its ecological, palaeobiogeographical and climatic interpretation. Cainozoic Research 5: 71–88.

    Hickey, L.J. (1979) A revised classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. In: Metcalfe, C.R. & Chalk, L. (Eds.) Anatomy of the dicotyledons, vol.1. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 25–39.

    Hu, Q., Huang, J., Chen, Y.F. & Manchester, S.R. (2017) Mahonia fossils from the Oligocene of South China: Taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Palaeoworld 26: 691–698.

    Iljinskaya, I.A. (1993) Alfaropsis, a new genus of the Juglandaceae. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 78: 79–83.

    Jähnichen, H., Friederick, W.L. & Takác, M. (1984) Engelhardioid leaves and fruits from the European Tertiary, part II. Tertiary Research 6: 109–134.

    Jin, J.H. (2009) Two Eocene Fossil Fruits from the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island, China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153: 150–152.

    Li, H.M., Chen, Y.F., Chen, G.J., Kuang, G.D. & Huang, Z.T. (2003) Tertiary Fossil Winged Fruits of Palaeocarya from Ningming of Guangxi, South China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 42: 537–547.

    Liufu, Y.Q.,Chen, Y.F. & Wang, H.S. (2017) A new species of Chaneya from the Oligocene Ningming Formation, Guangxi, South China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 244: 148–152.

    Lu, A.M., Stone, D.E. & Grauke, L.J. (1999) Juglandaceae. Flora of China 4: 277–285.

    Manchester, S.R. (1987) The Fossil History of the Juglandaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 21: 1–137.

    Manchester, S.R., Collinson, M.E. & Goth, K. (1994) Fruits of the Juglandaceae from the Eocene of Messel, Germany, and implications for early Tertiary phytogeographic exchange between Europe and west North America. International Journal of Plant Sciences 155: 388–394.

    Manning, W.E. (1978) The classification within the Juglandaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 65: 1058–1087.

    Manos, P.S., Soltis, P.S., Soltis, D.E., Manchester, S.R., Oh, S.-H., Bell, C.D., Dilcher, D.L. & Stone, D.E. (2007) Phylogeny of extant and fossil Juglandaceae inferred from the integration of molecular and morphological data sets. Systematic Biology 56: 412–430.

    Meng, H.H. Su, T., Huang, Y.J., Zhu, H. & Zhou, Z.K. (2015) Late Miocene Palaeocarya (Engelhardieae: Juglandaceae) from Southwest China and its biogeographic implications. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 53: 499–511.

    Mosbrugger, V., Utescher, T. & Dilcher, D.L. (2005) Cenozoic Continental Climatic Evolution of Central Europe. PNAS 102 (42): 14964–14969.

    Ning, Z.S., Zhou,T.M., Hu, Y.K. & Liang , Z.H. (1994) Tertiary in Petroliferous Regions of China. Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing, pp. 13–19.

    Saporta, G. (1873) Études sur la Végétation du sud-est de la France à L’épque Tertiaire. Supplement I: Révision de Flore des Gypses d’Aix Annales des Sciences Naturelles 5e série 18: 23–146.

    Shi, G.L., Zhou, Z.Y. & Xie, Z.M. (2010) A new Cephalotaxus and associated epiphyllous fungi from the Oligocene of Guangxi, South China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 161: 179–195.

    Shi, G.L., Zhou, Z.Y. & Xie, Z.M. (2011) Cupressus foliage shoots and associated seed cones from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Gaungxi, South China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 166: 325–334.

    Shi, G.L., Zhou, Z.Y. & Xie, Z.M. (2012) A new Oligocene Calocedrus from South China and its implications for transpacific floristic exchanges. American Journal of Botany 99: 108–120.

    Shi, G.L., Xie, Z.M. & Li, H.M. (2014) High diversity of Lauraceae from the Oligocene of Ningming, South China. Palaeoworld 23: 336–356.

    Song, Z.Q., Shi, G.L. Chen, Y.F. & Wang, Q. (2014) Winged fruits of Ailanthus (Simaroubaceae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, and their taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 53 (2): 191–200.

    Stone, D.E. (1972) New world Juglandaceae, III. A new perspective of the tropical members with winged fruits. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 59: 297–322.

    Stone, D.E. (2010) Review of New World Alfaroa and old World Alfaropsis (Juglandaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 20 (2): 215–224.

    Tanai, T. (1992) Juglandaceae from the Paleogene of Hokkaido, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Series C 18 (1): 13–41.

    Tanai, T. & Uemura, K. (1983) Engelhardia Fruits from the Tertiary of Japan. Journal of Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series IV 20 (2–3): 249–260.

    Wang, Q., Song, Z.Q., Chen, Y.F., Shen, S. & Li, Z.Y. (2014) Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeograghic implications. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 88.

    Wang, W.M., Chen, G.J., Chen, Y.F. & Kuang, G.D. (2003) Tertiary Palynostratigraphy of the Ningming Basin, Guangxi. Journal of Stratigraphy 27 (4): 324–327.

    Wu, T.L. (1994) A Checklist of Flowering Plants of Islands and Reefs of Hainan and Guangdong Province. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 147–150.

    Xie, S.P., Sun, B.N., Dilcher, D.L., Yan, D.F., Wu, J.Y. & Lin, Z.C. (2010) Numerical Taxonomy of Palaeocarya (Juglandaceae) from the Mangbang Formation of West Yunnan, China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 162 (2): 193–202.

    Zachos, J.C., Stott, L.D. & Lohmam, K.C. (1994) Evolution of Early Cenozoic marine temperatures. Paleoceanography 9: 353–387.

    Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thoma, E. & Billups, K. (2001) Trends, Rhythms and Aberrations in Global Climate 65 Ma to Present. Science 292 (5517): 686–693.

    Zhang, H.D., Huang, Y.H., Miao, R.H., Ye, C.X., Liao, W.B. & Jin, J.H. (2004) Systematics of Spermatophyta. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 108–109.