Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Monograph
Published: 2020-10-09

Taxonomic Revision of the Spider Genus Actinopus Perty, 1833 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae)

Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Coordenação de Zoologia, Laboratório de Aracnologia, Av. Perimetral, 1901, Terra Firme, Cep: 66077-830, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Facultad de Ciencias, Sección Entomología, Iguá 4225, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay
Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Coordenação de Zoologia, Laboratório de Aracnologia, Av. Perimetral, 1901, Terra Firme, Cep: 66077-830, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Neotropical geographic distribution taxonomy new species morphology

Abstract

Actinopus Perty, 1833 is characterized and redescribed, including 80 species occurring from Panama to Argentina. Eighteen previously known species are redescribed: A. rufipes (Lucas, 1834); A. longipalpis C. L. Koch, 1842; A. nattereri (Doleschall, 1871); A. crassipes (Keyserling, 1891); A. robustus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892); A. wallacei F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1896; A. princeps Chamberlin, 1917; A. xenus Chamberlin, 1917; A. fractus Mello-Leitão, 1920; A. paranensis Mello-Leitão, 1920; A. pusillus Mello-Leitão, 1920; A. dubiomaculatus Mello-Leitão, 1923; A. trinotatus Mello-Leitão, 1938; A. cucutaensis Mello-Leitão, 1941; A. echinus Mello-Leitão, 1949; A. clavero Ríos-Tamayo & Goloboff, 2018; A. gerschiapelliarum Ríos-Tamayo & Goloboff, 2018; and A. palmar Ríos-Tamayo & Goloboff, 2018. Additionally, A. tarsalis Perty, 1833, the type species, A. insignis (Holmberg, 1881) and other 18 species recently described species from Argentina and Bolivia, are re-evaluated. Forty-two new species are described: Actinopus castelo sp. nov., A. apalai sp. nov., A. mairinquensis sp. nov., A. obidos sp. nov., A. buritiensis sp. nov., A. pinhao sp. nov., A. ducke sp. nov., A. hirsutus sp. nov., A. jaboticatubas sp. nov., A. confusus sp. nov., A. pampulha sp. nov., A. candango sp. nov., A. paraitinga sp. nov., A. cornelli sp. nov., A. vilhena sp. nov., A. harveyi sp. nov., A. itapitocai sp. nov., A. ipioca sp. nov., A. itaqui sp. nov., A. xingu sp. nov., A. mesa sp. nov., A. caxiuana sp. nov., A. utinga sp. nov., A. emas sp. nov., A. bocaina sp. nov., A. osbournei sp. nov., A. dioi sp. nov., A. tutu sp. nov., A. azaghal sp. nov., A. itacolomi sp. nov., A. parafundulus sp. nov., A. urucui sp. nov., A. reznori sp. nov., A. anselmoi sp. nov., A. guajara sp. nov., A. apiacas sp. nov., A. jamari sp. nov. from Brazil; A. laventana sp. nov. from Argentina and Uruguay; A. lomalinda sp. nov. from British Guiana and Colombia; A. concinnus sp. nov. from Venezuela and Brazil; A. pindapoy sp. nov. from Argentina; A. panguana sp. nov. from Peru. The females of A. dubiomaculatus and A. cucutaensis and the males of A. nattereri are described for the first time. New records are presented for A. clavero; A.crassipes; A. dubiomaculatus; A. fractus; A. gerschiapelliarum; A. nattereri; A. palmar; A. paranensis; A. princeps, A. pusillus, A. robustus and A. wallacei. Ten old species names are herein considered species inquirendae: A. caraiba (Simon, 1889); A. harti Pocock, 1895; A. liodon (Ausserer, 1875); A. nigripes (Lucas, 1834); A. pertyi Lucas, 1843; A. piceus (Ausserer, 1871); A. rojasi (Simon, 1889); A. rufibarbis Mello-Leitão, 1930; A. scalops (Simon, 1889) and A. valencianus (Simon, 1889). Most species presently recognized were included in 11 informal groups based mainly on male palpal characters. A key for these groups plus three species, not included in any group, but known from males, is presented.

References

  1. Ausserer, A. (1871) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Arachniden-Familie der Territelariae Thorell (Mygalidae Autor). Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins Wien, 21, 117–224.

    Ausserer, A. (1875) Zweiter Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Arachniden-Familie der Territelariae Thorell (Mygalidae Autor). Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins Wien, 25, 125–206.

    Bertani, R. (2000) Male Palpal Bulbs and Homologous Features in Theraphosinae (Araneae, Theraphosidae). Journal of Arachnology, 13, 71–78.

    https://doi.org/10.1636/0161-8202(2000)028[0029:MPBAHF]2.0.CO;2 Bonnet, P. (1995) Bibliographia Araneorum. Toulouse, 2 (1), 1–918.

    Bücherl, W. (1957) Sôbre a importância dos bulbos copuladores e das apófises tibiais dos machos na sistemática das aranhas caranguejeiras (Orthognatha). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 29, 377–416.

    Bücherl, W., Timotheo, A.DaC. & Lucas, S. (1971) Revisão de alguns tipos de aranhas caranguejeiras (Orthognatha) estabelecidos por Cândido de Mello-Leitão e depositados no Museu Nacional do Rio. Memórias do Instituto Butantan, 35, 117138.

    Chamberlin, R.V. (1917) New spiders of the family Aviculariidae. Bulletim of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Harvard, 61, 2575.

    Fallingrain Genomics. (2006) Global Gazetteer Version 2.1. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. Available from: http://www.fallingrain.com/world/ (accessed January 2009)

    Griswold, C.E. & Ledford, J. (2001) A monograph of the migid trap door spiders of Madagascar and review of the world genera (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Migidae). Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 151, 1120.

    Holmberg, E.L. (1881) Arácnidos. In: Informe oficial de la Comisión científica agregada al Estado Mayor General de la Expedición al Rio Negro (Patagonia)... bajo los órdenes del General D. Julio A. Roca. Entrega I. Buenos Aires, Zoología: 117–168.

    Joqué, R. & Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S. (2007) Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium, 336 pp.

    Keyserling, E. (1891) Die Spinnen Amerikas. Brasilianische Spinnen 3. Nürnberg, 278 pp.

    Koch, C.L. (1842) Die Arachniden. Band 9; Band 10. Zeh’schen Buchhandlung, Nürnberg, 108 pp; 36 pp.

    Levi, H.W. (1965) Techniques for the study of spider genitalia. Psyche, 72, 152–158.

    https://doi.org/10.1155/1965/94978

    Lucas, H. (1834) Mémoire sur un nouveau genre d’Araneide de l’Ordre des Pulmonaires. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 3, 359–365.

    Lucas, H. (1835) Genre Pachyloscelis Lucas. Magazine de Zoologie, 6 (8), 1–6.

    Lucas, H. (1837) Observations sur les araneides du genre Pachyloscelis, et synonymie de ce genre. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6, 369–392.

    Lucas, H. (1843) Note sur une nouvelle espece d’araneide appartenant au genre Actinopus de M. Perty. Revue Zoologique, 318.

    Lucas, H. (1845) Sur une nouvelle espece d’araneide appartenant au genre Actinopus de M. Perty. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 3 (2), 57–60.

    Lucas, S. & Bürchel, W. (1965) Importância dos órgãos sexuais na sistemática de aranhas I. Variação interpopulacional dos receptáculos seminais em Actinopus crassipes (Keyserling, 1891), Actinopodidae Sul-Americanas. Memórias do Instituto Butantan, 32, 89–94.

    Lucas, S., Cirelli, A., Knysak, I. & Zveibil, L. (1978) Aracnídeos coletados no Piauí durante a realização do Projeto Rondon XXII. Memórias do Instituto Butantan, 42, 127–138.

    Lucas, S., Cirelli, A., Knysak, I. & Zveibil, L. (1979) Aracnídeos coletados no Piauí durante a realização do Projeto Rondon XXII. Memórias do Instituto Butantan, 43, 127–138.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1920) Tetrapneumones trionychias novas do Brasil. Revista de Sciencias, 4 (2), 58–60.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1923) Theraphosideas do Brasil. Revista do Museu Paulista, 13, 1–438.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1930) Aranhas do Cuminá. Archivos do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro, 32, 51–75.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1931) Arachnidos do Rio Grande do Sul. Boletim Biologico (Nova Série) São Paulo, 17, 10–14.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1938) Um gênero e sete espécies novas de aranhas. Memórias do Instituto Butantan, 11, 311–317.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1941) Notas sobre a sistematica das aranhas com descrição de algumas novas especies Sul Americanas. Annaes da Academia Brasileira de Sciencias Rio de Janeiro, 13, 103–127.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1943) Catálogo das aranhas do Rio Grande do Sul. Arquivos do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro, 37, 147–245.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F.de (1949) Aranhas da Foz do Kuluene. Boletim do Museu Nacional (Nova Série), 92, 1–19.

    Miglio, L.T., Lucas, S.M. & Bonaldo, A.B. (2012) On the identity of the type species Actinopus tarsalis (Araneae: Actinopodidae). Zoologia, 29 (4), 275–379.

    https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702012000400009

    Miranda, E.E. & Coutinho, A.C. (2004) Brasil Visto do Espaço. Campinas: Embrapa Monitoramento por Satélite, Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Available from: http://www.cdbrasil.cnpm.embrapa.br (accessed January 2009)

    Papavero, N. (1971) Essays on the history of Neotropical Dipterology, with special reference to collectors (1750–1905). São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, vol. 1, VII+216p.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.101715

    Pérez-Miles, F., Guadanucci, J. P. L., Jurgilas, J. P., Becco, R. & Perafán, C. (2017) Morphology and evolution of scopula, pseudoscopula and claw tufts in Mygalomorphae (Araneae). Zoomorphology, 136(4):435–459.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-017-0364-9

    Perty, M. (1833) Arachnides Brasilienses. In: de Spix, J.B. & Martius, F.P. (Eds.), Delectus animalium articulatorum quae in itinere per Braziliam ann. 1817 et 1820 colligerunt. Monachii, pp. 191–209.

    Petrunkevitch, A. (1925) Arachnida from Panama. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 27, 51–248.

    Platnick, N.I. (1997) Advances in Spider Taxonomy 1992–1995, With Redescriptions 1940–1980. The New York Entomological Society, New York, 976 pp.

    Pickard-Cambridge, O.P. (1892) Arachnida-Araneida 1. In: Godman, D & Salvin, O. (Eds.), Biologia Centrali-Americana, Porter, R.H., London, pp. 89–104.

    Pickard-Cambridge, F.O.P. (1896) On the Theraphosidae of the lower Amazons: being an account of the new genera and species of this group of spiders discovered during the expedition of the steamship “Faraday” up the river Amazons. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 716–766.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1896.tb03076.x

    Pickard-Cambridge, F.O.P. (1897) Arachnida-Araneida and Opiliones 2. In: Godman, D. & Salvin, O. (Eds.), Biologia Centrali-Americana, Porter, R.H., London, pp. 1–40.

    Pickard-Cambridge, F.O.P. (1898) On new species of spiders from Trinidad, West Indies. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 890–900.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1898.tb03191.x

    Pocock, R.I. (1895) Descriptions of new genera and species of trap-door spiders belonging to the group Trionychi. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 16 (6), 187197.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939508680252

    Quintero-Arias, D. (2005) Preliminary biodiversity assessment and notes on the biology of the arachnids (Arachnida: Scorpiones, Amplypygi and Araneae) of Bahía Honda region (Veraguas, Panama). In: Castroviejo, S. & Ibáñez A. (Eds.), Studies on the Biodiversity of the Bahía Honda Region (Veraguas, Panama). Cosejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, pp. 363491.

    Raven, R.J. (1985) The spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): Cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 182, 1–180.

    Ríos, D.T. (2014) A new species of the genus Actinopus (Mygalomorphae: Actinopodidae) from Argentina. Acta Arachnologica, 63(2): 73-77.

    https://doi.org/10.2476/asjaa.63.73

    Ríos-Tamayo, D. (2016) A new species of Actinopus (Mygalomorphae: Actinopodidae) from Bolivia. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Nueva Serie, 18 (2), 185–189.

    https://doi.org/10.22179/REVMACN.18.444

    Ríos-Tamayo, D. & Goloboff, P.A. (2018) Taxonomic revision and morphology of the trapdoor spider genus Actinopus (Mygalomorphae: Actinopodidae) in Argentina. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 419, 1–83.

    https://doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090-419.1.1

    Schiapelli, R.D. & Gerschman de Pikelin, B.S. (1945) Parte descriptiva. Arañas sudamericanas colleccionadas por el Doctor J. Vellard. I. Theraphosidae nuevas o poco conocidas. Acta Zoologica Lilloana, 3, 165–213.

    Schiapelli, R.D. & Gerschman de Pikelin, B.S. (1962) Importancia de las espermatecas en la sistemática de las arañas del suborden Mygalomorphae (Araneae). Physis, 23, 69–75.

    Silva-Moreira, T. da (2010) On the collection of Thomisidae (Arachnida, Aranae) of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ), Brazil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro, 67, 61–72.

    https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032009000400007

    Simon, E. (1892) Histoire naturelle des araignées. Roret, Paris, 256 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.51973

    Simon, E. 1889. Arachnides. In Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (décembre 1887–avril 1888). 4e Mémoire. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6 (9), 169–220.

    Strand, E. (1916) Systematische-faunistiche Studien über paläarktische, afrikanische und amerikanische Spinnen des Senckenbergischen Museums. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 81 (A9), 1–153.

    Walckenaer, C.A. (1937) Histoire naturelle des insectes. Aptères. Roret, Paris, v.1, 682 pp.

    Walckenaer, C.A. (1842) Histoire naturelle des Insects. Aptères. Roret, Paris, v.2, 549 pp.

    Walckenaer, C.A. (1847) Dernier Supplément. In: Walckenaer, C.A. & Gervais, P. (Eds.), Histoire naturelles des Insects. Aptères. Roret, Paris, pp. 365–564.

    Warrel, D.A., Theakston, R.D.G. & Wüster, W. (2010) Destruction of the collection of reptiles and arthropods at Butantan Institute: a view from the United Kingdom. The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 16, 534–536.

    https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992010000400003

    World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Available from: http://wsc.nmbe.ch (accessed on 22 July 2020)