A Cheilolejeunea species with peculiar leaf shape is described from Madagascar, as new to science, which belongs to Sect. Cyrtolejeunea. This encouraged the author to reinvestigate other African members of this section, and to transfer the former described Neurolejeunea breutelii var. africana into the genus of Cheilolejeunea sect. Cyrtolejeunea under the name of Cheilolejeunea shevockii and to re-establish the identity of Cheilolejeunea ulugurica. As a consequence, three species of the ten members of Sect. Cyrtolejeunea occur in Africa, while the genus Neurolejeunea remains restricted only to the Neotropics.