Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Polypedates smaragdinus Blyth, 1852—a senior subjective synonym of Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1858



After more than 160 years, the onomatophores (name-bearing types) of Polypedates smaragdinus Blyth, 1852 were located in the collection of the ZSI (Kolkata, India). This allowed to study the specimens, to identify them and to propose an allocation of this nomen to the taxon Rhacophorus maximus. To stabilize nomenclatural and taxonomic issues, a lectophoront (lectotype) is designated for Polypedates smaragdinus Blyth, 1852 and described. A formal synonymy list is given. The species currently known as Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1864 should now bear the nomen Rhacophorus smaragdinus (Blyth, 1852).



Amphibia, India, Polypedates smaragdinus

Full Text:

PDF (499KB)


AmphibiaWeb (2017) AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Available from: (accessed 30 May 2017)

Anderson, J. (1871) On some Indian Reptiles. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1871, 149–211.

Anderson, J. (1871) A list of the reptilian accession to the Indian Museum, Calcutta, from 1865 to 1870, with a description of some new species. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 40, 12–39.

Anonymous (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, 306 pp.

Ao, J.M., Bordoloi, S. & Ohler, A. (2003) Amphibian fauna of Nagaland with nineteen new records from the state including five new records for India. Zoos’ Print Journal, 18, 1117–1125.

Bain, R.H., Lathrop, A., Murphy, R.W., Orlov, N.L. & Cuc, H.T. (2003) Cryptic species of a cascade frog from Southeas Asia: taxonomic revisions and descriptions of six new species. American Museum Novitates, 3417, 1–60. Available from: (Accessed 23 Jan 2018)

Biju, S.D., Kamei, R.G., Mahony, S., Thomas, A. & Garg, S. (2013) Taxonomic review of the tree frog genus Rhacophorus from the Western Ghats, India (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of ontogenetic colour changes and reproductive behaviour. Zootaxa, 3636 (2), 257–289.

Blyth, E. (1852) Report of Curator, Zoological Department. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 21, 341–358.

Bordoloi, S., Bortamuli, T. & Ohler, A. (2007) Systematics of the genus Rhacophorus (Amphibia, Anura): identity of red-webbed forms and description of a new species from Assam. Zootaxa, 1653, 1–20.

Boulenger, G.A. (1920) A monograph of the South Asian, Papuan, Melanesian and Australian frogs of the genus Rana. Records of the Indian Museum, 20, 1–226.

Boulenger, G.A. (1882) Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia S. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum. Taylor & Francis, London, viii + 127 pp.

Bourret, R. (1942) Les batraciens de l’Indochine. Institut Océanographique de l’Indochine, Hanoi, 547 pp.

Chan’ard, T. (2003) A photographic guide to the amphibians in Thailand. Darnsutha Press Co., Ltd., Bangkok, 176 pp.

Chanda, S.K., Das, I. & Dubois, A. (2000) Catalogue of amphibian types in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India. Hamadryad, 25, 100–128.

Deuti, K., Grosjean, S., Nicolas, V., Vasudevan, K. & Ohler, A. (2017) Nomenclatural puzzle in early Xenophrys nomina (Megophryidae, Amphibia) solved with description of two new species from India (Darjeeling hills and Sikkim). Alytes, 34, 20–48

Dubois, A. (2005) Proposed Rules for the incorporation of nomina of higher-ranked zoological taxa in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 1. Some general questions, concepts and terms of biological nomenclature. Zoosystema, 27, 365–426.

Dubois, A. & Ohler, A. (1996) Early scientific names of Amphibia Anura 1. Introduction. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle Section A Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales 18, 297–320.

Duméril, A.M.C.A. & Bibron, G. (1851) Erpétologie générale ou Historie naturelle complète des Reptiles. Tome huitième. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iii + 792 pp.

Fei, L., Hu, S., Ye, C. & Huang, Y. (2008) Fauna Sinica. Amphibia. Vol. 2. Anura. Science Press, Beijing, 957 pp.

Frost, D.R. (1985) Amphibian species of the world. The Association of Systematics Collections and. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 732 pp.

Frost, D.R. (2016) Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference. Version 6. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Electronic Database accessible. Available from: (accessed 2 February 2016)

Grosjean, S., Ohler, A., Chuaynkern, Y., Cruaud, C. & Hassanin, A. (2015) Improving biodiversity assessment of anuran amphibians using DNA barcoding of tadpoles. Case studies from Southeast Asia. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 338, 351–361.

Günther, A. (1875) Third report on collections of Indian Reptiles obtained by the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1875, 567–577, 4 pls.

Günther, A. (1858) Neue Batrachier in der Sammlung des Britischen Museums. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 24, 319–328.

Inthara, C. (2009) Phylogenetic relationships among tree frogs of the genera Polypedates and Rhacophorus: an analysis of morphological data. Thesis, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 318 pp.

Jerdon, T.C. (1870) Notes on Indian herpetology. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1870, 66–85.

Li, P., Zhao, E. & Dong, B. (2010) Amphibians and Reptiles of Tibet. Science Press, Beijing, 251 pp.

Luu, V.Q., Calame, T., Nguyen, T.Q., Ohler, A., Bonkowski, M. & Ziegler, T. (2014) First records of Gracixalus supercornutus (Orlov, Ho and Nguyen, 2004) and Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1858 from Laos. Herpetology Notes, 7, 419–423.

McCann, C. (1932) Notes on Indian batrachians. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 36, 152–180.

Ohler, A. & Deuti, K. (2013) Pyxicephalus khasianus Anderson, 1871 and Rana laticeps Boulenger, 1882 (Dicroglossidae, Anura, Amphibia) are synonyms. Zoosystema, 35, 415–424.

Ohler, A. & Dubois, A. (2016) The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura). PeerJ, 4, e1553.

Owen, J. (1844) The Naga tribes, in communication with Assam. W. H. Carey and Co, Calcutta, 164 pp.

Sarkar, A.K., Biswas, M.L. & Ray, S. (1992) Amphibia. State Fauna Series 3: Fauna of West Bengal, Part 2, 67–100.

Sarkar, A.K. & Sanyal, D.P. (1985) Amphibia. Records of the zoological Survey of India, 82, 285–286.

Schleich, H.H. &Kästle, W. (Eds.) (2002) Amphibians and reptiles of Nepal: Biology, systematics, field guide. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell (Lichtenstein), 1201 pp.

Sclater, W.L. (1892) List of the Batrachia in the Indian Museum. Taylor & Francis, London, 43 pp.

Taylor, E.H. (1962) The amphibian fauna of Thailand. Kansas University Science Bulletin, 43, 265–600.

Theobald, W. (1868) Catalogue of reptiles in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 37 (Supplement), i–vi + 7–88 + i–iii, 4 pls.

Yang, D. (1991) The Amphibia fauna of Yunnan. China Forestry Publishing House, Kunming, 260 pp.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand