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Genera, subgenera, species and subspecies of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) described, named, renamed or given new rank by Paul Schulze (1887–1949) and their current status

A. A. GUGLIELMONE, T. N. PETNEY, M. MASTROPAOLO, R. G. ROBBINS

Abstract


The names for 19 genera, 17 subgenera, 150 species and 150 subspecies of Ixodidae described by Paul Schulze, names changed by him after the revision of certain taxa, new ranks for names originally described by other authors, a few lapsus calamorum and some incorrect names ascribed to Schulze by other workers are discussed. Two genera (Cosmiomma and Nosomma) are valid, but most of Schulze’s subgenera are difficult to assess because of the current disarray that prevails at this classificatory level in the Ixodidae. Thirty-six of 150 species names discussed by Schulze are considered valid herein (3 species of Amblyomma, 1 Bothriocroton, 1 Cosmiomma, 6 Dermacentor, 4 Haemaphysalis, 5 Hyalomma, 13 Ixodes, 1 Nosomma and 2 Rhipicephalus), while 28 are valid species epithets that are currently assigned to different genera (e.g., Acarus undatus was formerly classified in the genus Aponomma but is currently known as Bothriocroton undatum). Twenty-nine of these valid species names were authored by Schulze or Schulze & Schlottke. The remaining species names are mostly synonyms or names that are incertae sedis, nomen nudum or lapsus calamorum. The 150 subspecific names are treated as synonyms of valid species or as nomina nuda, nomina dubia, incertae sedis or lapsus calamorum. Many names used by Schulze have been synonymized based on sound systematic research, but the justification for synonymizing other names is occasionally weak. It will be important to take these names into account if, as has already happened, future molecular and morphological studies result in the reinstatement of Schulze names currently considered synonyms. This situation has particular relevance for Amblyomma geoemydae, the Amblyomma marmoreum species complex, Amblyomma testudinarium, Oriental species of Dermacentor, Hyalomma in general, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes trianguliceps and Ixodes uriae. In conclusion, the prolific contributions of Paul Schulze have their weak points —the many species and subspecies of Hyalomma described by him are unjustified as is the alleged worldwide distribution of the former genus Aponomma—but his perception of the complexity of the genus Dermacentor (under Indocentor) in the Oriental and Australasian Zoogeographic Regions, as well as his understanding of tick biodiversity in these regions constitute seminal scientific achievements.

 


Keywords


Acari, Ixodidae

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References


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https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02122088

Schulze, P. (1936c) Neue und wenig bekannte Amblyommen und Aponommen aus Afrika, Südamerika, Indien, Borneo und Australien. (Ixodidae). Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 8, 619–637.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02120431

Schulze, P. (1936d) Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Hyalomma und die morphologische Bedeutung der Analbeschilderung der Ixodiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 114, 187–192.

Schulze, P. (1936e) Die Untergattung Hyalommina und die erste Art aus dem tropischen Afrika (Ixod.). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 116, 258–264.

Schulze, P. (1937a) Die erste Zecke von einer Salangane, Ixodes collocaliae n. sp., von Neupommern. Ornitologische Monatsberichte, 45 (3), 77–80.

Schulze, P. (1937b) Trilobita, Xiphosura, Acarina. Eine morphologische Untersuchung über Plangleichheit zwischen Trilobiten und Spinnentieren. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 32, 181–226.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00403074

Schulze, P. (1937c) Die kleinhöhlenbewohnenden Zecken der Artengruppe um Ixodes autumnalis Leach 1815. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 9, 351–372.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02119889

Schulze, P. (1937d) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Zeckengattung Amblyomma. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 9, 690–694.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02122157

Schulze, P. (1937e) Anocentor columbianus n. g. n. sp. (Ixod.). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 120, 24–27.

Schulze, P. (1938a) Durch Raummangel bedingte Hemmungserscheinungen an einzelnen Körperteilen in der Ruhenymphe der Ixodiden und das Auftreten entsprechender Bildungen als Art- und Gattungsmerkmal. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 33, 445–495.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00407566

Schulze, P. (1938b) Über rein glabellare Karapaxbildungen bei Milben und über die Umgestaltung des Vorderkörpers der Ixodoidea als Folge der Gnathosomaentstehung. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 34, 135–149.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00408215

Schulze, P. (1939a) Die Arthropodenfauna von Madeira nach den Ergebnissen der Reise von Prof. Dr. O. Lundbland, Juli – August 1935. XV. Ixodoidea. Arkiv för Zoologi, 31A (9), 1–3.

Schulze, P. (1939b) Über schwedische, rumänische und nordamerikanische Formen von Ixodes ricinus (L.) und über Haemaphysalis punctata Can. et. Fan. F. autumnalis P. Sch. Arkiv för Zoologi, 31A (18), 1–8.

Schulze, P. (1939c) Zur Zeckenfauna Burmas. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 10, 722–728.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02122034

Schulze, P. (1939d) Eine neue Art der neuguineisch-australischen Zeckengattung Endopalpiger aus Deutschland. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 130, 35–39.

Schulze, P. (1941a) Das Geruchsorgan der Zecken. Untersuchungen über die Abwandlungen eines Sinnesorgans und seine Stammesgeschichtliche Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 37, 491–564.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00408327

Schulze, P. (1941b) Über Krötenzecken aus Cuba. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 12, 133–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02121237

Schulze, P. (1941c) Ein neues Amblyomma und ein neues Aponomma mit Augenrudimenten aus Haiti. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 133, 225–229.

Schulze, P. (1941d) Neues über brasilianische Amblyommen. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 134, 93–104.

Schulze, P. (1941e) Über das Zeichnungsmuster von Aponomma und über einige bemerkenswerte geographische Rassen von Aponomma und Amblyomma aus Beludschistan, Australien und Argentinien. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 134, 179–187.

Schulze, P. (1942a) Die morphologische Bedeutung des Afters und seiner Umgebung bei den Zecken. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 38, 630–658.

https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02309884

Schulze, P. (1942b) Die Gestaltung der Mitteldarmes bei den Zecken und die Einrichtungen für die Körperdehnung bei der Blutaufnahme (nebst Beiträgen zur Lebensgeschichte der Ixodoidea). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 39, 320–368.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00684469

Schulze, P. (1943a) Dermacentor (Conocentor) everestianus Hirst, eine bemerkenswerte Zecke aus Tibet. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 141, 115–123.

Schulze, P. (1943b) Über zwei bemerkenswerte afrikanische Schwesterarten von Ixodes: I. rasus Neum. und vanidicus n. sp. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 142, 121–141.

Schulze, P. (1943c) Die Zecke Endopalpiger heroldi P. Sch. als wahrscheinliches Tertiärrelikt in Deutschland. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 143, 253–259.

Schulze, P. (1944a) Ein neuer Balkanixodes nebst Bemerkungen über die Perspicilla der Ixodiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 144, 148–156.

Schulze, P. (1944b) Die Lage der weiblichen Geschlechtsöffnung bei den Vogelzecken, die Bedeutung der Vögel als Schildzeckenwirte und die Beziehungen der Ixodidea zu den Piroplasmen, nebst Beschreibung des ersten Ixodes von der Hausschwalbe. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 144, 209–215.

Schulze, P. (1950a) Amblyomma diemeniae, eine neue Schlangenzecke aus Australien nebst Bemerkungen über abweichende Clavabildungen in der Gattung Amblyomma. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 14, 432–441.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00260025

Schulze, P. (1950b) Über Missbildungen der Schildzecken im Allgemeinen sowie über Missbildungen von Hyalomma steineri enigkianum n. ssp. im Besonderen. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 14, 545–573.
https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00260465

Schulze, P. & Schlottke, E. (1927) Eine neue Haemaphysalisart aus Angora (Ixod.). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 74, 157–159.

Schulze, P. & Schlottke, E. (1929a) Bestimmungstabellen für das Zeckengenus Hyalomma Koch s. str. Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Rostock (19271928), 2, 32–46.

Schulze, P. & Schlottke, E. (1929b) Kleinhöhlenbewohnende deutsche Zecken mit Beschreibung dreier neuer Baumhöhlenbrüter und einer Bestimmungstabelle der deutschen Ixodes. Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Rostock (19271929), 2, 95–112.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4325.1.1

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