Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

On the taxonomic status of the European Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with description of a new species from southern Europe

On the taxonomic status of the European Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata

(Polychaeta: Spionidae), with description of a new species from southern Europe

 

VICTOR SURUGIU

Abstract


In order to clarify taxonomic problems relating to the identity of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) specimens from the Black Sea, the identified material was compared with specimens of Scolelepis cirratulus (Delle Chiaje, 1829) from the Mediterranean, of S. squamata (Abildgaard, in O.F. Müller, 1806) from the North Sea and the Atlantic coast of Spain, and with the syntypes of S. mesnili (Bellan & Lagardère, 1971) from the Atlantic coast of France. The examination of a large number of specimens (both juveniles and adults) reveals that the currently accepted morphological differences distinguishing all species show size-related patterns, suggesting that they all belong to one species. Therefore, this study supports the view that Scolelepis cirratulus and Scolelepis mesnili are junior synonyms of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata. As a result of the re-assessment of the species limits of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata, a new species, Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov., is distinguished and described from the Cantabrian coast of Spain. It inhabits shallow sublittoral fine sands and was earlier misidentified and reported from the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as Scolelepis squamata, Scolelepis mesnili, Scolelepis cantabra (Rioja, 1918), or Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951. The new species is characterized by having a trilobate prostomium with an acuminate medial portion, a short peristomium with well-developed dorso-lateral wings, short palps with two longitudinal bands of elevated lobes, neuropodial postchaetal lamellae notched from chaetigers 14–41, and strongly curved bidentate neuropodial hooded hooks with a slight constriction on the shaft starting from chaetigers 19–49. The morphology, diagnostic characters and ecology of both Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata and Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov. are discussed.

 


Keywords


Annelida, Scolelepis (S.) squamata, Scolelepis (S.) neglecta sp. nov., taxonomy, palp ciliary pattern, ontogenetic variation, chaetal replacement, nuchal organs

Full Text:

PDF (10MB)

References


Bellan, G. & Lagardère, F. (1971) Nerine mesnili, n. sp. Spionidien méconnu des plages sableuses de la Province Lusitaniene. Bulletin de la société Zoologique de France, 96 (4), 571–579.

Blainville, H. de (1828) Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles, dans lequel on traite méthodiquement des différents êtres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-mêmes, d'après l'état actuel de nos connaissances, soit relativement à l'utilité qu'en peuvent retirer la médicine, l'agriculture, le commerce et les arts. Suivi d'une biographie des plus célèbres naturalistes. Volume 57, F.G. Levrault, Strasbourg & Paris, 628 pp.

Blake, J.A. (1996) Family Spionidae Grube, 1850. Including a review of the genera and species from California and a revision of the genus Polydora Bosc, 1802. In: Blake, J.A., Hilbig, B. & Scott, P.H. (Eds.), Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Vol. 6. The Annelida Part 3. Polychaeta: Orbiniidae to Cossuridae. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California, pp. 81–223.

Blake, J.A. & Kudenov, J.D. (1978) The Spionidae (Polychaeta) from southeastern Australia and adjacent areas with a revision of the genera. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, 39, 171–280.

Capaccioni-Azzati, R. (1991) Lumbrineris cingulata (Polychaeta, Lumbrineridae) et Scolelepis mesnili (Polychaeta, Spionidae) en Méditerranée. Vie et Milieu, 41 (1), 55–60.

Çinar, M.E., Dağli, E. & Kurt Şahin, G. (2014) Checklist of Annelida from the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38 (6), 734–764.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/zoo-1405-72

Claparède, E. (1869) Les Annélides Chétopodes du Golfe de Naples. Seconde partie. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d’ Histoire Naturelle de Genève, 20 (1), 1–225, pls. 17–31.

Dauer, D.M. (1983) Functional morphology and feeding behavior of Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae). Marine Biology, 77, 279–285.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00395817

Dauer, D.M. (1985) A new species of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from Lizard Island, Australia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 98, 678–681.

Dauer, D.M. (1987) Systematic significance of the morphology of spionid polychaete palps. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington, 7, 41–45.

Dauer, D.M. (2000) Functional morphology and feeding behavior of Spio setosa (Polychaeta: Spionidae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 67 (1), 269–275.

Delgado-Blas, V.H. (2006) Partial revision of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Grand Caribbean region, with the description of two new species and a key to species recorded in the area. Contributions to Zoology, 75 (1–2), 75–97.

Delle Chiaje, S. (1822) Memorie sulla storia e notomia degli animali senza vertebre del Regno di Napoli. Figure. Vol. 1, Napoli, 227 pp., 109 pls.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10021

Delle Chiaje, S. (1829) Memorie sulla storia e notomia degli animali senza vertebre del Regno di Napoli. Vol. 4, Stamperia della Societa Tipografica, Napoli, 214 pp.

Dörjes, J. (1971) Der Golf von Gaeta (Tyrrhenisches Meer). IV. Das Makrobenthos und seine küstenparallele Zonierung. Senckenbergiana maritima, 3, 203–246.

Eibye-Jacobsen, D. (1997) A new species of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae), highly abundant on the sand beaches of western Phuket Island, Thailand. Bulletin of Marine Science, 60 (2), 240–251.

Fauvel, P. (1927) Polychètes sédentaires. Addenda aux Errantes, Archiannélides, Myzostomaires. Faune de France 16, Paul Lechevalier, Paris, 494 pp.

Foster, N.M. (1971) Spionidae (Polychaeta) of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands, 36, 1–183.

Gillet, P. (1988) Structure des peuplements intertidaux d'Annélides Polychètes de l’estuaire du Bou Regreg (Maroc). Bulletin d'Ecologie, 19 (1), 33–42.

Grube, A.E. (1850) Die Familien der Anneliden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 16 (1), 249–364.

Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1981) Zur Kenntnis des Eulitorals der australischen Küsten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Polychaeten und Ostracoden. Teil 6: Die Polychaeten der tropisch-subtropischen Westküste Australiens (zwischen Exmouth im Norden und Cervantes im Süden). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburger Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 78, 19–96.

Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1996) Die Tierwelt Deutschlands. Vol. 58. Annelida, Borstenwürmer, Polychaeta. 2nd ed. Neubearbeitete Auflage, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, 648 pp.

Hutchings, P.A., Frouin, P. & Hily, C. (1998) Two new species of Spionidae (Polychaeta) from Tahiti, French Polynesia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 111 (4), 799–806.

Imajima, M. (1992) Spionidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Japan, 8. The genus Scolelepis. Bulletin of the National Science Museum Tokyo (Japan). Series A. Zoology, 18, 1–34.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, i–xxix + 1–306.

Joyner, A. (1962) Reproduction and larval life of Nerine cirratulus (Delle Chiaje) Family Spionidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 138 (4), 655–666.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1962.tb05338.x

Junoy, J. & Viéitez, J.M. (1990) Macrozoobenthic community structure in the Ría de Foz, an intertidal estuary (Galicia, Northwestern Spain). Marine Biology, 107, 329–339.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01319833

Kisseleva, M.I. (2004) Polychaetes (Polychaeta) of the Azov and Black Seas. Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Science Press, Apatity, 409 pp. [in Russian]

Kurt Şahin, G. & Çinar, M.E. (2012) A check-list of polychaete species (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Black Sea. Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 18 (1), 10–48. Avaliable from: http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/jbme/article/view/5000144348 (Accessed 2 Sept. 2016)

Lardicci, C. (1990) Censimento dei Policheti dei Mari Italiani: Spionidae Grube, 1850. Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie B, 96, 121–152.

Light, W.J. (1977) Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from San Francisco Bay, California: A revised list of nomenclatural changes, new records, and comments on related species from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 90 (1), 66–88.

Light, W.J. (1978) Invertebrates of the San Francisco Bay Estuary System. Family Spionidae (Polychaeta: Annelida). The Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, California, 211 pp.

MacCord, F.S. & Amaral, A.C.Z. (2005) Morphometric analysis of two species of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae). Journal of Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85, 829–834.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002531540501177X

Maciolek. N.J. (1987) New species and records of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the east coast of North America. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 7, 16–40.

Marinov, T. (1977) Fauna na Bŭlgaria. Mnogochetinesti chervey (Polychaeta). Vol. 6, Bŭlgarskata Akademia na Naukite, Sofia, 258 pp. [in Bulgarian]

McIntosh, W.C. (1915) A monograph of the British Annelids. Volume III. Part I. Text. Polychaeta, Opheliidae to Ammocharidae. Ray Society, London, 368 pp., Pls. 88–106.

Meißner, K. & Götting, M. (2015) Spionidae (Annelida: ‘Polychaeta’: Canalipalpata) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio, and Spiophanes. Zootaxa, 4019 (1), 378–413.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4019.1.15

Meißner, K., Bick, A. & Bastrop, R. (2011) On the identity of Spio filicornis (O.F. Müller, 1776)—with the designation of a neotype, and the description of two new species from the North East Atlantic Ocean based on morphological and genetic studies. Zootaxa, 2815, 1–27.

Mesnil, F. (1896) Études de morphologie externe chez les Annélides. I. Les Spionidiens des côtes de la Manche. Bulletin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique, 29, 110–292, pls. 7–15.

Müller, O.F., Abildgaard, P.C., Vahl, M., Holten, J.S. & Rathke, J. (1806) Zoologiae Danica seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae rariorum ac minus notorum. Descriptiones et historia. Volume IV. Volume Atlas. N. Christensen: Havniae [Copenhagen], 1–2, 46 pp., pls. 121–160.

Oug, E., Bakken, T. & Kongsrud, J.A. (2014) Original specimens and type localities of early described polychaete species (Annelida) from Norway, with particular attention to species described by O.F. Müller and M. Sars. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 71, 217–236.

Parapar, J. (1991) Anélidos Poliquetos bentónicos de la ría de Ferrol (Galicia). PhD-thesis, University of Santiago de Compostela, 1104 pp.

Pettibone, M.H. (1963) Revision of some genera of polychaete worms of the family Spionidae, including the description of a new species of Scolelepis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 76, 89–104.

Pérez-Domingo, S., Castellanos, C. & Junoy, J. (2008) The sandy beach macrofauna of Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia). Marine Ecology, 29 (Suppl. 1), 51–59.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.2007.00201.x

Quatrefages, A. de (1865) Histoire naturelle de annelés marins et d’eau douce. Annélides et Géphyriens. Vol. I, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 588 pp.

Radashevsky, V.I. (2012) Spionidae (Annelida) from shallow waters around the British Islands: an identification guide for the NMBAQC Scheme with an overview of spionid morphology and biology. Zootaxa, 3152, 1–35.

Radashevsky, V.I. & Fauchald, K. (2000) Chaetal arrangement and homology in spionids (Polychaeta: Spionidae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 67, 13–23.

Radashevsky, V.I., Malyar, V.V., Pankova, V.V. & Nuzhdin, S.V. (2016) Molecular analysis of six Rhynchospio Hartman, 1936 species (Annelida: Spionidae) with comments on the evolution of brooding within the group. Zootaxa, 4127 (3), 579–590.

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4127.3.10

Read, G. (2016) Scolelepis Blainville, 1828. In: Read, G. & Fauchald, K. (Eds.), World Polychaeta database. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/polychaeta/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129623 (Last accessed on 14 March 2016)

Richards, S.L. (1970) Spawning and reproductive morphology of Scolelepis squamata (Spionidae: Polychaeta). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 48, 1369–1379.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z70-234

Rioja, E. (1918) Adiciones a la fauna de anélidos del Cantábrico. Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Madrid, 17, 54–79.

Rocha, M.B. & Paiva, P.C. de (2012) Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Brazilian coast with a diagnosis of the genus. Zoologia, 29 (4), 385–393.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702012000400011

Sato-Okoshi, W. & Abe, H. (2013) Morphology and molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of oyster shell borers, Polydora species (Polychaeta: Spionidae), from Japan and Australia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 93 (5), 1279–1286.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002531541200152X

Saint-Joseph, A. de (1898) Les Annélides Polychètes des côtes de France (Manche et Océan). Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, 8 (5), 209–464.

Sikorski, A.V. (2001) Spionidae Grube, 1850. In: Jirkov, I.A. (Ed.), Polychaeta of the Arctic Ocean. Yanus—K Press, Moscow, pp. 271–332.

Sikorski, A.V. & Pavlova, L.V. (2015) New species of Scolelepis (Polychaeta, Spionidae) from the Norwegian coast and Barents Sea with a brief review of the genus. Fauna norvegica, 35, 9–19.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/fn.v35i0.1666

Söderström, A. (1920) Studien über die Polychaetenfamilie Spionidae. Inaugural-Dissertation. Almquist & Wicksells, Uppsala, 286 pp.

Surugiu, V. (2005) Inventory of inshore polychaetes from the Romanian coast (Black Sea). Mediterranean Marine Science, 6, 51–73.

http://dx.doi.org/10.12681/mms.193

Viéitez, J.M. (1976) Ecología de Poliquetos y moluscos de la playa de Meira (Ría de Vigo). I. Estudio de las comunidades. Investigación Pesquera, 40 (1), 223–248.

Viéitez, J.M. (1981) Estudio de las comunidades bentónicas de dos playas de las rías de Pontevedra y Vigo (Galicia, España). Boletín. Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 6 (331), 242–258.

Williams, J.D. (2007) New records and description of four new species of spionids (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Philippines: the genera Dispio, Malacoceros, Polydora, and Scolelepis, with notes on the palp ciliation patterns of the genus Scolelepis. Zootaxa, 1459, 1–35.

Zhou, J., Weiwei, J. & Xinzheng, L. (2009) A new species of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from sandy beaches in China, with a review of Chinese Scolelepis species. Zootaxa, 2236, 37–49.

Zhou, J. (2014) A new species of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from Chinese seas. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 62, 490–495.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4161.2.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand