information for authors

Aim and scope

Phytotaxa is a peer-reviewed, international journal for rapid publication of high quality papers on any aspect of systematic and taxonomic botany, with a preference for large taxonomic works such as monographs, floras, revisions and evolutionary studies and descriptions of new taxa. Phytotaxa covers all groups covered by the International Code for Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN (fungi, lichens, algae, diatoms, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and vascular plants), both living and fossil. Phytotaxa was founded in 2009 as botanical sister journal to Zootaxa. It has a large editorial board, who are running this journal on a voluntary basis, and it is published by Magnolia Press (Auckland , New Zealand). It is also indexed by SCIE, JCR and Biosis.

All types of taxonomic, floristic and phytogeographic papers are considered, including theoretical papers and methodology, systematics and phylogeny, monographs, revisions and reviews, catalogues, biographies and bibliographies, history of botanical explorations, identification guides, floras, analyses of characters, phylogenetic studies and phytogeography, descriptions of taxa, typification and nomenclatural papers. Monographs and other long manuscripts (of 60 printed pages or more) can be published as books, which will receive an ISBN number as well as being part of the Phytotaxa series. 

Checklists and vegetation surveys are only included when the data provided in the checklist or survey are analysed and discussed. Data in checklists should be interpreted to make the study relevant for the international botanical community. Range extensions of single species are generally not considered for publication, although exceptions may be possible. Please contact the chief editor before submitting such articles. 

Open Access publishing is strongly encouraged for authors who have funding to do so. For those without grants/funds, accepted manuscripts will be published, but access will be secured for subscribers onlyAll manuscripts will be subjected to peer review by two or more anonymous reviewers before acceptancePhytotaxa aims to publish each paper within two months after the acceptance by the editors. To make this possible, authors are advised to follow the following guidelines carefully and to consult the most recent issues of PhytotaxaTherefore, when preparing your manuscript, please follow this guide carefully. During our first years, its format has varied somewhat, but we are now aiming for more uniformity.

All open access papers are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

The most recent version of the ICBN should be applied (until 2011, this is the Vienna Code, 2006, after which the Melbourne Code will take precedence). Author(s) of taxon names (from the rank of genus or below) must be provided when the scientific name of any plant species is first mentioned with the year of publication. These are cited as a full reference and should be included in the reference list.

Type of Manuscripts

Based on their length, three categories of papers are considered:

1) Research article

Research articles are significant papers of four or more printed pages reporting original research. Papers between 4 and 59 printed pages are published in multi-paper issues of ca. 60 pages. Monographs (60 or more pages) are individually issued and bound and will receive ISBN numbers as well as being part of the Phytotaxa series.

Phytotaxa encourages large comprehensive taxonomic works. There is no upper limit on the length of manuscripts, although authors are advised to break monographs of over 1000 pages into multi-volume contributions simply because books over 1000 pages are difficult to bind and too heavy to carry.

Short papers on species of economic, environmental or phylogenetic importance may be accepted at the discretion of editors, who will generally encourage and advise authors to add value to the paper by providing more information (e.g. key to species of the genus, biological information, ecology, etc.). Papers of 4 or 5 pages accepted for publication may be shortened for publication in the Correspondence section.

2) Correspondence

Manuscripts of one to four pages are welcome. We can publish these fairly rapidly because they are useful to fill blank pages in multi-paper issues. Phytotaxa publishes the following six types of correspondence:

  • 1. Opinions and views on current issues of interests to systematic botanists.
  • 2. Commentaries on or additions/corrections to papers previously published inPhytotaxa or elsewhere.
  • 3. Obituaries of botanists.
  • 4. Taxonomic/nomenclatural notes.
  • 5. Book reviews meant to introduce readers to new or noteworthy taxonomic works (interested authors/publishers are advised to contact the editor before submitting books for review; editors then prepare the book review or invite colleagues to write the review; unsolicited reviews are not usually published).
  • 6Short papers converted from manuscripts submitted as research articles but too short to qualify as such.

These short contributions should generally have no more than 20 references (exceptions may be considered), and the total length should not exceed four printed pages.Neither an abstract nor a list of key words is needed; major headings (Introduction, Material and Methods, etc.) should not be used, except for new taxon headings and References. A typical correspondence should consist of (1) a short and concise title, (2) author name, affiliation, address and e-mail address, (3) a series of paragraphs being the main text, and (4) a list of references (if any). The first or last paragraph may be a short summary.

Commentaries on published papers are intended for scholarly exchange of different views or interpretations of published data and should not contain personal attack; note that authors of the papers concerned may be invited to reply to comments on their papers.

3) Monographs, floras and other articles of more than 60 printed pages

Appear in book-form with their own ISBN number. They may be different from the standard formatting when the author provides reasonable arguments for doing so. Please consult the editor in such cases.

Special issues

Special issues with collected papers on a selected topic in the scope of the journal are also published. Potential guest editors should send a proposal to the chief editor for approval and instructions. Although guest editors for special issues are responsible for organizing the peer review of papers in these issues, they must follow the style of Phytotaxa (as laid out in this author guide) and peer review procedures. If any papers by the guest editors are to be included in the special issue, these papers must be handled by editors/colleagues other than the editor(s) involved. Special issues must be 60 or more pages. Funding may be required to offset part of the production costs. Author payment for Open Access is strongly encouraged. Reprints can be ordered for the entire issue or for individual papers.

Preparation of manuscripts


Please read the guidelines below and additionally consult a recent article published inPhytotaxa and follow the style therein.

Language. The article has to be written in British or American English throughout the manuscript. Authors whose native language is not English are encouraged to ask colleagues familiar with the field of research and fluent in English (preferably a native speaker) to correct the language in the manuscript before submission. An article may be returned to the author without review if the language is not of an acceptable standard.

The author is also responsible for the correct usage of other languages, be it a Latin diagnosis or an abstract in a foreign language. The grammar of texts in foreign languages needs to be checked by the author before submission, and again after review if the English from which it is translated (e.g. an abstract) has changed. Latin scholars who are consulted for the correcting of diagnoses should be acknowledged.

Metric measures should be used. Please use the common font Times New Roman, 12 pt and as little formatting as possible (apply only bold and italics where necessary and indent paragraphs except the first). Special symbols can be used but need to be carefully checked by the author at proof stage, because they may be altered due to incompatibility of files.

Hyphens ‘-’ are used to link words such as personal names, topographical names, some prefixes and compound adjectives that could otherwise be confused (examples: well-established, 5-sided, Kingston-upon-Thames, Kingdon-Ward, co-operation, etc.).

En-dash or en-rule ‘–’ (a dash the length of the letter ‘n’') should be used for ranges or spans. In the context of Phytotaxa it is mainly used for ranges of numbers, most frequently size ranges, elevational ranges, dates and page numbers (e.g. 500–1000 m, 1–3 May, 1976–1977, figs 5–7). Remember also to apply them in the reference section for ranges of volumes, years and pages. The en-dash is also used in name associations ( e.g. a Federal–State agreement) and in phenology (e.g. flowering May–September).

Em-dash or em-rule ‘—’ (the length of the letter ‘m’) is used infrequently; they are used for breaks in the text or subject. In contrast to parentheses an em-dash can be used alone; e.g. “What could these results mean—that John discovered the meaning of life?” Em-dashes are also used after a subheading, for instance:

“Type:—BRAZIL . Paraná: Ponta Grossa, Furnas Gêmeas, remnant Araucaria forest below large sandstone cliff, 25.145°S, 049.958°W, 950–1000 m, 16 February 2008,Christenhusz et al. 4790 (holotype SP!, isotypes K!, MBM, NY!, P!, TI, TUR!, UC!, UPCB).”

Exclamation mark ‘!’ is used to indicate after the herbarium acronym to indicate that this voucher specimen has been seen by the author (see above).

Multiplication or times sign ‘×’. The multiplication sign × is not to be confused with the letter x. It should always be used in hybrid taxa (e.g. Equisetum × schaffneri) and in measurements of length and width (of leaves or petals, for example), for example: “leaves 1.0–4.2 × 0.4–0.8 cm”.

Dashes and hyphens should not be spaced. Please feel free to copy these symbols from this author guide and paste them into your manuscript. Using the correct symbols will speed up the editing process. Editors may return the manuscript to the author if dashes, hyphens and multiplication signs are not correctly used.

Italicisation. Generic names and all ranks below are italicised. Book and journal titles are also in italics, as well as diagnoses in Latin and Latin abbreviations (such as sp. nov., comb. nov., nom. illeg., et al.). “subsp.”, “ser.”, “var.”, “cv.” and “f.” (for forma or filius) are not italicised, nor are names above the rank of genus. The abbreviation “ssp.” should be avoided and replaced by “subsp.” (for subspecies) to prevent confusion with the abbreviation spp. (= species in plural). As a general rule abbreviations are discouraged.

Abbreviations of certain words are standardised: ca. = circa, m = meter, cm = centimeter, dbh = diameter at breast height, elev. = elevation (altitude is not used for heights of land surfaces above sea level; altitude is used for heights above the earth surface, e.g. of an airplane), sp. nov. = new species, comb. nov. = new combination, gen. nov. = new genus, subsp. = subspecies, sect. = section, pers. comm. = personal communication, etc. Herbarium acronyms follow Index Herbariorum

Citation of author names

Author abbreviations are seldom used (generally only for basionym authors and new taxa proposed in the manuscript); they are generally cited fully in the references. This means that the name is not abbreviated but the surname is written in full, followed in brackets by the year of publication, a colon, and the page number of the page where the name was published. This is treated as a normal citation, and thus the full article in which the species was published has to be cited in the references. (Include full title of the article, full journal title and full page range.) This is obligatory for all taxonomic articles and articles in which fewer than 30 taxa are mentioned. In articles that deal with a larger number of species (such as ecological or phylogenetic studies or checklists) this is not encouraged because it is impractical. If uncertain, please contact an editor about this matter.

Author abbreviations (strictly following IPNI) are only used in larger monographs and checklists, but even in these articles names in introductions and running text are properly cited in the references. Taxon author names should be cited only once, when the taxon/species first appears in the textPhytotaxa aims to have all taxonomic sources cited included in the reference section. Citation of species authors is as follows: 

  • Hymenophyllopsis asplenioides A.C.Sm. in Gleason (1931: 302). Smith is abbreviated here because it is published in Gleason, which is the proper article to cite.
  • Cyathea asplenioides (A.C.Sm.) Christenhusz (2009: 39). Smith is abbreviated here because the basionym is already given above.
  • Cyathea gibbosa (Klotzsch 1844: 542) Domin (1929: 262). Both the basionym and new combination are cited because the basionym is not given above.

In the references:

Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2009) New combinations and an overview of Cyathea subg.Hymenophyllopsis (Cyatheaceae). Phytotaxa 1: 37–42.

Domin, C. (1929) Pteridophyta. České Akademie, Prague. 276 pp.

Gleason, H.A. (1931) Botanical results of the Tyler-Duida expedition. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 58: 227–344.

Klotzsch, J.F. (1844) Beiträge zu einer Flora der Äquinoctial-Gegenden der neuen Welt, Filices.  Linnaea 18: 525–556.

Deposition of voucher specimens and GenBank numbers

Authors of new taxa are required to deposit type specimens in national or international public museums or collections, preferably ones listed in the Index Herbariorum that are provided with a corresponding acronym.

Authors are also advised to request registration numbers of deposited sequences in GenBank in advance of the submission of papers to avoid unnecessary delay of publication. Descriptions of species can also be linked to other sources such as theEncyclopedia of Life. For fungi MycoBank numbers need to be provided.

Some countries (e.g. Australia, Brazil, Peru) require that primary type specimens (holotypes) be deposited in collections in the country of origin; authors are advised to take this into consideration.

Geography and elevation

Please apply the word ‘elevation’ when dealing with geological features. ‘Altitude’ is here defined as the distance above the surface of the Earth, whereas ‘elevation’ applies to the height of an earth surface above sea level.

For country names (always capitalised in specimen citations) and provinces (followed by a colon), the standard spellings in English followed by the UN apply (e.g. Kyrgyzstannot Kirghizia , Madagascar not Malagasy Republic etc.). For a standard list of countries and areas see: Exceptions may be discussed with the editor.


The title should be concise and informative and should cover the content of the article. No author names of taxa are given in the title. Family names should always be included. The higher taxa containing the taxa dealt with in the paper (when appropriate) should be indicated in parentheses, example: A taxonomic revision of the genus Aa (Cranichidae, Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae).

Names and affiliations of article author(s)

Names of all authors must be given below the title and should be typed in upper case (e.g. ADAM J. SMITH, BRIAN SMITH & CAROL SMITH). Inclusion of all major contributors to the work should be considered.

Below the names, the address(es) of professional affiliation for each author should be given in italics each starting on a separate line. E-mail address(es) should be provided if available. Affiliation addresses are linked to the author names by numbers in superscript and are provided in corresponding order.


The abstract should cover concisely contents of the paper and should be phrased such that additional key words are not necessary. Any new names or new nomenclatural acts proposed in the article should be mentioned. No taxon author names are to be included in the abstract. Introductory information should not be included in the abstract, neither should be the citation of references.

Abstracts in other languages using the Latin alphabet may also be included in addition to English and should be a direct translation of the English abstract. The spelling and grammar of these abstracts in other languages is the responsibility of the author. An abstract in another language should be corrected if there are any changes in the English abstract during the editorial process.

Key words

Key words may be given when the abstract does not already cover these. The key words may not include words that are already in the title, and they should be given in alphabetical sequence.

Abstracts and key words are not included in short Communications.


The introduction should place the study in context, and it should provide recent or historical background relevant to the study. This information should not be included in the abstract. Author names of a taxon should be cited only once, when the taxon/species first appears in the text.

Material & Methods

Materials and methodology used in empirical studies should be concisely provided. Herbaria consulted can be listed here, if not done so in the Acknowledgements. Field work should be highlighted. Floras and other taxonomic works consulted to identify the plant material involved in a study should be cited.


The results section should only present the results of the study. Do not mix results and discussion. Combined Results/Discussion sections are discouraged. Citations of other literature are not normally permitted in the Results section.


Discuss your results and place these in the context of the introduction.


The conclusion should state what the scientific contribution of your study is (ask yourself the question: ‘What can we learn from this study and how do the results help us to understand the questions asked in the introduction and discussion?’). It is helpful for other researchers to point out further studies that may be needed in the future.  


A taxonomy section should start with each taxon in bold italics. Abbreviations of authors of new species should be given (following IPNI, not bold), and these should be followed by the correct designation (in italics, not bold, e.g. comb. nov., nom. nov., spec. nov., stat. nov., etc.). When species are not newly described, the author names should be followed by the year and page of publication (and the full article should be included in the references).

All new taxa need to be accompanied by short diagnoses in English or Latin that describe the new taxa. If you prefer Latin, please make sure the language is used correctly. The editors will generally not correct your Latin diagnoses. A specimen needs to be designated as its type (following the ICBN), and the holotype must have been studied by the author of the species. It is encouraged that, when possible, the holotype is deposited in the country of origin, and that two or isotypes are deposited in major herbaria where the specimens will be available for public study.

Taxonomic descriptions should be organised describing the plants from below to above and from outside towards the inner parts. Of course, this is different for each taxon and can thus follow a variable. Subsections of descriptions can be highlighted using italics. Additional data (e.g. distribution, ecology, etymology, etc.) may follow. Often these are subheaded by ‘:—‘ (m-dash).

Specimens are cited as follows:

COUNTRY. Province: Locality, elevation, coordinates, date (day month (in full) year), Collector number (herbarium acronym in upper case). All specimens studied should be cited. Lectotypes, neotypes and epitypes should always be followed by the reference where they are designated, for example:

Lectotype (designated by Smith 2000/designated here):—FINLAND . Uusimaa: Helsinki,Kaisaniemi Park, 27 April 1976, Virtanen 22 (H!).


Identification keys should be dichotomous, and the leads should (preferably) be opposite to each other in meaning so that the species can be easily distinguished. Please do not format the key; provide it in the following simple layout:

1. Bracts longer than pedicels; filaments with 1 acute lobe at apex on either side of anther … Ornithogalum nutans

- Bracts shorter than pedicels; filaments without apical lobes on anther ... 2.

2. Inflorescence corymbose; tepals longer than 14 mm ... Ornithogalum angustifolium

- Inflorescence racemose; tepals shorter than 14 mm ... Ornithogalum pyrenaicum


The format for the Acknowledgements is variable, and anyone can be thanked for their contribution. Please consider co-authorship for people that contributed to the study in a major way, especially contributors of specimens or laboratory work.


All literature cited in the text (including full articles of taxon authors) should be included. Please check this carefully before submission because errors are common. Referencesshould be cited in the text as Smith (1999), Smith & Jones (2000) or Smith et al. (2001), the latter when there are three or more authors, or alternatively in a parenthesis (Adams 2000, Smith & Jones 2000, Jones 2001, Smith et al. 2001). The citation of floras, revisions and monographs used to identify the collections on which the study is based is strongly encouraged.

Please include DOI for papers that have these. This facilitates linking to papers that have online versions. 

Journal article: Author, A. & Author, B.C. (YEAR) Title of the paper. Title of the journal in full in italics volume: x–y. For example:

Christenhusz, M.J.M., Zhang, X.-C. & Schneider, H. (2011) Linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7–54.

Book chapter: Author, A. & Author, B.C. (YEAR) Title of the chapter. In: Author, A., Author, B.C. & Author, D. (Eds.) Title of book in italics. Publisher name, City, pp. x–y. For example:

Schneider, H., Kreier, H.-P., Janssen, T., Otto, E., Muth, H. & Heinrichs, J. (2010) Key innovations versus key opportunities: identifying causes of rapid radiations in derived ferns. In: Glaubrecht, M. (Ed.) Evolution in action. Springer, Berlin, pp. 61–76.

Book: Author, A. & Author, B.C. (YEAR) Title of book in italics. Publisher name, location, xyz pp. For example:

Copeland, E.B. (1947) Genera filicum. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Massachusetts, 247 pp.

Internet source: Author, A. (YEAR) Title of website, database or other resources, Publisher name and location (if indicated), number of pages (if known). Available from: (Date of access). For example:

IUCN (2010) The IUCN red list of threatened species, version 2010.4. IUCN Red List Unit, Cambridge U.K. Available from: (accessed: 19 May 2011 ).

Dissertations resulting from graduate studies and non-serial proceedings of conferences/symposia are to be treated as books and cited as such. Articles not cited in the manuscript should not be included in the References section.

Figures and Tables

Legends of figures and tables should be listed after the list of references within the same file of the manuscript. Legends for tables and figures should start with TABLE or FIGUREfollowed by its number and a full stop. Illustrators and photographers should be mentioned in the figure legend, and if the illustrator is not one of the authors he/she should also be acknowledged. All figures and tables need to be referred to in the text.


FIGURE 1. Distribution map of Psilotum nudum in the Caribbean region.

When preparing illustrations, authors should bear in mind that the journal has a matter size of 25 cm by 17 cm and is printed on A4 paper. For species illustrations, line drawings are preferred, although good quality black and white or colour photographs are also acceptable. See a guide here for detailed information on preparing plates for publication; this guide was prepared by Dr Daniel Geiger for Zootaxa, but it applies equally to Phytotaxa.

Line drawings must be scanned at 600 to 1200 dpi as line art (bitmap, =1 bit); they must NOT be scanned as 8 bit or full colour images. Pictures and line drawings should be saved as TIFF files. In some cases PDF or DOC files are acceptable. JPG is not an accepted format. Do not scan line drawings as JPG files because this creates blurry or pixellated images. Sufficient resolution should be provided, but it is up to the author to do so. Low resolution figures can only be printed at a small size.

Tables, if any, should be provided at the end of the manuscript. Please use the table function in your word processor to build tables such that the cells, rows and columns remain aligned when font size and width of the table are changed. Please do not use the tab key or space bar to type tables. 


All manuscripts should be sent by online submission facility
* Older versions of IE (Internet Explorer 9.0 or earlier) may not be compatible with the new online submission system. A latest  version of IE or similar browser (ie. Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and etc.) is more preferable. 

More author information for submission system, please click here

Please follow the above guidelines in detail and check if your manuscript has been prepared according to the style and format of the journal.  When you submit your manuscript, it will be more expedient for the review process if you provide the names of three or more potential reviewers with their email addresses.

For legal purposes it should be noted that upon submitting an article the authors agree to the following:

1) All authors agree to its submission and the corresponding author has been authorised by co-authors

2) This article has not been published before and is not concurrently being considered for publication elsewhere (including another editor of Phytotaxa)

3) This article does not violate any copyright or other personal proprietary right of any person or entity, and it contains no abusive, defamatory, obscene or fraudulent or any other statements that are unlawful in any way.

If the manuscript submitted does not follow this guideline, it will not be processed.

For manuscripts with numerous illustrations, which might be saved as separate TIFF or JPG files, it will be easier and more efficient for the purpose of review and for the subject editors and reviewers to have the figures converted into one larger PDF (Portable Document Format) file, instead of requiring the subject editor to save many files, cutting and copying these into a string of messages/files to the reviewers. You should retain the original figures in a higher resolution format for the final production of the accepted paper. For the text, PDF file along with original DOC files are preferred. The advantage of submitting an RTF file for the text part of the manuscript is that the reviewers can amend the manuscript electronically. If you cannot prepare PDF files, then submit text in RTF and the figures in TIF (line drawing scanned at 600 dpi and half tone at 300 dpi; please use LZW compression, if you can, to reduce the size of e-files for easy transmission); if halftone TIFF files are too big (exceeding 2 MB), then submit them in jpeg. See here for detailed information on preparing plates for publication.

Authors of accepted papers will be asked to submit an electronic version of the manuscript so that the publisher does not need to re-key or scan the manuscript. At this stage, the text part of the manuscript must be submitted as DOC (MS Word) files and figures as TIF files.

In submitting the final version of revised manuscript to editors, authors are asked to provide the following information to aid typesetting and indexing of the manuscript:

1) Corresponding author name and e-mail

2) Author last name and running title (<60 characters; to be used in footer)

3) Number of plates and cited references

4) Higher level taxon (i.e. taxon section in Phytotaxa website in which the article should be filed) and number of new taxa described in the paper

Authors need to complete and return an Assignment of Copyright form when a paper is accepted for publication. Authors from institutions that do not allow transfer of copyrights to publishers (e.g. government institutions such as USDA, CSIRO) should attach a copyright waiver or similar document.

Review process

When a manuscript is received by the Editor, he/she will have it reviewed by at least two peers qualified to evaluate the manuscript. The editor normally asks the reviewers to complete the review within one month. However, the reviewing process may take longer, depending on the length of the manuscript and reviewers' responses.

Journal Production and Publication

Once the manuscript is accepted by your subject editor, final files, produced according to the requirements above, will be forwarded by your subject editor to the managing editor, who will liaise with the copy editor, author and printer to ensure that the article is published without unnecessary delay. Normally the proof will be sent to the author for checking one to three weeks after the final files are accepted. The paper will usually be published within two weeks (for larger papers it may take longer) once the corrections to the proof are received.

Page charge and colour plates. There is no mandatory page charge for publishing in Phytotaxa. Publication of colour figures/photographs in online editions are also free of charge (print version in black and white). If colour plates in the print edition are desired, authors will be asked to contribute the full cost. Current rates: 300 USD for the first colour page and 200 USD for each additional colour page.

Open access. Phytotaxa endorses open access publication of taxonomic information. Authors who have funds to publish are strongly encouraged to pay a fee of 20 US$ per printed page to give free online access of their papers to all readers at the Phytotaxa site or their own site. Open access papers are read by many more people and can be expected to have higher citation rates.

Reprints. Each author will be given a free e-reprint (PDF) for personal use (printing a copy for own use or exchange with other researchers, but not for deposition in a library or on a website/ftp-site for public access).

Printed copies of each paper/monograph in the form of the regular reprint can also be produced by the Publisher for purchase by authors, with a discount based on the number of copies ordered; quotes for price will be provided when proofs are returned.


Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [APG III] (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III.Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105–121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x (see also

Christenhusz, M.J.M., Zhang, X.-C. & Schneider, H. (2011a) Linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7–54.

Christenhusz, M.J.M., Reveal, J.L., Farjon, A., Gardner , M.F., Mill, R.R. & Chase, M.W. (2011b) A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa19: 55–70.

Important links

▪         Botanicus:

▪         Gallica:

▪         Biodiversity heritage library:

▪         Genbank:

▪         Index fungorum:

▪         MycoBank:

▪         Index herbariorum:

▪         International code of botanical nomenclature ( Vienna code):

▪         International plant name index:

▪         Tropicos:

▪        World checklist of selected plant families:

▪         Jstor Plants science:

▪        The Plant List,

▪        International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code):